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^P EotJoIfo ianciani. 

DISCOVERIES. With 36 full-page Plates (includ- 
ing several Heliotypes) and 64 Text Illustrations, 
Maps, and Plans. 8vo, ^6.00. 

dolfo Lanciani. With Map, Plans, etc. 4to, paper, 
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trated with full-page Plates and Text Illustrations. 
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Boston and New York. 







Scale I: mO(W 
. lllitiide,s in me^erS 

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D. C. L. Oxford, LL. D. Harvard. 




... Si quid novlsti rectius istis, 
candidus imperil : si non, his utere mecum. 
Horace, Epistles, i. 6. 67. 



(Hbe Wtcrsibc l^rcss, CambtiDfle 




In writing the present volume the author does not intend to 
publish a complete manual of Roman Topography, but only a 
companion-book for students and travelers who visit the existing 
remains and study the latest excavations of ancient Rome. The 
text, therefore, has been adapted to the requirements of both 
classes of readers. Students wishing to attain a higher degree of 
efficiency in this branch of Roman archeology will find copious 
references to the standard publications on each subject or part of 
a subject ; while the description of ruins and excavations will not 
be found too technical or one-sided for the ordinary reader. 
Special attention has been paid to tracing back to their place of 
origin the spoils of each monument, now dispersed in the museums 
of Rome, Italy, and the rest of Europe. The reader, being in- 
formed what these spoils are, when they were carried away, and 
where they are to be found at present, will be able to form a more 
correct idea of the former aspect of Roman monuments than 
would otherwise be possible. The volume also contains some 
tables, which will be found useful for quick and easy reference 
to the chronology of buildings, to events in the history of the 
city, and to the various aspects of Roman civilization. It may 
be observed, in the last place, that the illustrations of the text 
are mostly original, from drawings and photographs prepared 
expressly for this work. 

The publications of the author to which reference is constantly 
made are : — 

Ancient Rome in the Lif/ht of Recent Discoveries. Boston, 1889, Houghton, 
MifBin, & Co. London, Macmillan. — Pagan and Christian Rome. Boston 
and London, 1893. — Forma Urbis Romce, an archaeological map of the city, in 
forty-six sheets, scale 1 : 1000, published under the auspices of the Royal 
Academy dei Lincei, by Hoepli, Milan. Twenty-four sheets already issued. 


The remains of ancient Rome can be studied in books or on the 
spot from three points of view, — tlie chronological, the topographi- 
cal, and the architectural. The chronological brings the student 
into contact, first, with the remains of the Kingly period, then 
with those of the Republic, of the Empire, of the Byzantine and 
Mediaeval periods. The topographical takes into consideration, 
first, the main lines of the ancient city, and then each of the four- 
teen wards or regions into which Rome was divided by Augustus. 
The architectural groups the monuments in classes, like temples, 
baths, tombs, bridges, etc. 

Each system has its own advantages, and claims representative 
writers. The chronological order helps us to follow the progress 
of Roman architecture, from the rude attempts of Etruscan 
masons to the golden centuries of Agrippa and Apollodorus ; as 
well as the evolution of architectural tyj^es, from the round straw 
hut where the public fire was kept to the marble temple of Hestia, 
roofed with tiles of bronze ; from the Casa Romuli to the Domus 
Aurea of Nero. 

Dyer's History of Rome is founded mainly on this system. 
Compare also chapters iii. and iv. (pp. 24—59) of Richter's Topo- 
(frapJiie, Parker's Chronological Tables, and Lanciani's Vicende 
edilizie di Roma,^ 

The topographical system, which divides the city into regions 
and suburbs, is represented by Nardini and Canina.^ They de- 
scribe first the fundamental lines, — site, geology, climate, hydro- 
graphy, the seven hills, the Kingly and Imperial walls, the Tiber, 
the aqueducts, the military roads radiating from the gates ; and 

1 Thomas H. Dyer, A History of the City of Rome : Its Structures and 
Monuments. London, Longmans, 1865. — Rodolfo Lanciani, Sidle ricende 
edilizie di Roma, reprinted from the Monograjia archeologica e statistica di 
Roma e camparpia. Rome. Tipogr. elzevir. 1878. — John Henry Parker, A 
Chronological Table of Buildings in Rome, with the Chief Contemporary 
Events, and an Alphabetical Index, reprinted from the Ai-chceology of Rome. — 
Otto Richter, Topographic der Stadt Rom. Sep.-Abdr. aus dem Handbuch der 
klassischen Alterthumwissenschaft, Bd. iii. Nordlingen, Beck, 1889, ch. iii., 
"Entwickhingsgeschichte," and ch. iv., " Zerstorungsgeschichte der Stadt." 

2 Famiano Nardini, Roma antica di Famiano Nardini, fourth edition, 
revised by Antonio Nibbj', and illustrated by Antonio de Romanis. Rome, 
de Romanis, 1818 (four vols.). — Luigi Canina, Indicazione topografica di 
Roma antica, fourth edition. Rome, Canina, 1850. 


then the monuments pertaining to the fourteen regions. Their 
accounts are founded mainly on otficial statistics of the fourtli 
century, of which we possess two editions (Redaktionen). The 
first, known by the name of Notitia regionum urbis Romce cum 
hreviariis suis, dates from a. d. 334 ; the second, called Curiosum 
urbis Romce regionum XIV cum breviariis suis, must have been 
issued in or after 357, because it mentions the obelisk raised in 
that year in the Circus Maximus. 

Literature. — Ludwig Preller, Die Regionen der Stadt Rom. Jena, 1846. — 
Theodor Mommsen, Abhandhmgen der sacks. Ges. d. W., ii. 549; iii. 269; 
viii. 694. — Heinrieh Jordan, Topographic d. Stadt Rom in AUerthum., Berlin, 
1871, vol. ii. p. 1. — Ignazio Guidi, 11 testo sirtaco della descrizione di Roma, 
in Bull, com., 1884, p. 218. — Christian Huelsen, // posto degli Arvali nel 
Colosseo, in Bull, com., 1894, p. .312. — Rodolfo Lanciani, Le quattordici 
regioni urbane, in Bull, com., 1890, p. 11.5. 

The two documents give the number and name of each region, 
the names of edifices or streets which marked approximately 
its boundary line, the number of parLslies (vici), of parish magis- 
trates (vico magistri), the number of tenement houses (insulce), 
palaces (dotnus), public warehouses (Jwrrea), baths, fountains, 
bakeries, and the circumference of each regio in feet. For in- 
stance : — 

" Regio V, tlie Esquilise, contains : the fountain of Orpheus, 
the market of Livia, the nymphseum of (Severus) Alexander, the 
(barracks of the) .second cohort of policemen (firemen), the gar- 
dens of Pallans, the (street named from the) Hercules Sullanus, 
the Amphitheatrum Castrense, the campus on the Viminal, the 
(street called) Subager, the (street called) Minerva Medica, the 
(.street named from) Isis the patrician. The Esquilise contain 
15 parishes, 15 street-shrines, 48 parish officials and two liigher 
officials (curatores), 3,8.50 tenement houses, 180 palaces, 22 public 
warehouses, 25 baths, 74 fountains, 15 bakeries. The Esquiliae 
measure 15,600 feet in circumference." 

Comparing these statistics with texts of classics, inscriptions, 
existing remains, accounts of former discoveries, plans and draw- 
ings of the artists of the Renaissance, and other sources of infor- 
mation, we are able to reconstruct, with surprising results, the 
topography of the whole city. 


The system, therefore, is highly commendable, and I follow 
it myself, in my university course of lectures, as the one best 
calculated, from its simplicity and clearness, to make the student 
conversant with this branch of Roman archaeology. 

The third, or architectural, system takes each class of build- 
ings separately, and groups temples, theatres, fora, baths, etc., 
by themselves, irrespective of their position and their relation 
to other buildings. It might be compared with the study of a 
museum, like the Museo Nazionale of Naples, in which statues 
are arranged by subjects, one room containing only Venuses, 
another only Fauns, etc. The system facilitates the comparison 
of types and schools, and the study of the origin, progress, and 
decline of art among the Romans. 

The representative works of this kind are Nibby's Roma nelV 
anno 1838, and Canina's Edifizii di R. A.'^ 

It is impossible to deny that a system which may be use- 
ful for university work, and for a limited number of specialists, 
cannot also suit the student or the traveler who does not visit 
our ruins by regions, but according to the main centres of inter- 
est and of actual excavations. Were we to follow the architectu- 
ral system in the strict sense of the word, we should be compelled 
to study the Forum with no regard to the temples, basilicas, and 
triumphal arches which lined its border or covered its area, 
because they belong to another class of structures. Suppose, 
again, we were bound to proceed in our study strictly by regions : 
we should be compelled to separate the Coliseum from its accessory 
buildings, in which gladiators, athletes, wild beasts, and their 
hunters were quartered, fed, and trained ; from the armories, in 
which gladiatorial and hunting weapons were made, kept, and 
repaired ; from the barracks of the marines of the fleet of Ra- 
venna and Misenum, to whom the manoeuvring of the velaria 
was intrusted ; from the " morgue," whither the spoils of the 
slain in the arena were temporarily removed, — simply because 
the samiarium, spoliarlum, and armamentarium belonged to the 

1 Antonio Nibbj', Roma neW anno mdcccxxxviii. Parte prima antica, vols. 
i., ii. Rome, 1838. — Luigi Canina, Gli tdijizi di R. A. e sua campagna/in 
six folio volumes. Rome, 1847-1854. 


second regio ; the amphitheatre itself, the Caslra Misenatium, the 
Summum Choragium to the third; the Ampliitheatrum Castrense to 
the fifth ; the virarium to the sixth. 

To avoid these difficulties, the compilers of the Beschreihung, 
as well as Becker, Bum, Jordan, Richter, Gilbert, Middleton, and 
others,^ have adopted a mixed system, taking the best from each 
of the three methods described above. They have divided and 
described the city in large sections, more or less connected by 
topographical or historical relationship. Richter, for instance, 
cuts ancient Rome in four parts : " das Zentrura," which embraces 
the Palatine and Capitoline hills, the Velia, the Circus Maximus, 
and the great Fora of the Empire ; " die Stadttheile am Tiber," 
which comprises the Aventine, the market, the Campus ^lartius, 
and the transtiberine quarters ; " der sUdosten Roms," made up 
of the Caelian and of the suburbs on the Appian Way ; and lastly 
" der osten Roms," with the Esquiline, Viminal, Quirinal, and 
Pincian hills. Richter's scheme is plainly arbitrary, and might 
be varied ad libitum without interfering with the spirit or dimin- 
ishing the importance of liis work. The same criticism applies 
to the other manuals of the same type. 

Considering that " facile est inventis addere," and that the 
exi>erience of others must teach us how to find a better solution 
of the problem, I propose to adopt the following scheme : — 

In Book I. the fundamental lines of Roman topography will be 
described, — site, geology, configuration of soil, malaria, climate, 
rivers and springs, aqueducts and drains, walls and roads. 

The Palatine hill, on which the city was founded and the seat 
of the Empire established in progress of time, will be visited 
next (Book II.). 

In Book III. a description of the Sacra Via will be given, from 

its origin near the Coliseum to its end near the Capitolium. The 

1 Platner, Bunsen, Gerhard, Rostell, Urlichs, Beschreihung der Stadt Rom. 
Stuttgart, 1830-1842. — Adolf Becker, Hnndburk der Riimischen Alierthumer. 
Erster Theil. Leipzig, 1843. — Robert Burn, Rome and the Campagnn, Lon- 
don, 1871; 0/rf /?((/» p, 1880. Second edition, 1895. — Heinrich Jordan, Topo- 
graphie der Stadt Rom in Alterthum, voL i., i.2, ii. Berlin, 1871. — Otto 
Gilbert, Geschichte und Topographie der Stadt Rom. 1883-1885. — Otto Rich- 
ter, Topograph ie drr Stadt Rom. Nurdlingen, 1S89. — T. Henry Middleton, 
The Remains of Ancient Rome. Two vols. London, 1892. 


Sacra Via, the Forum (with its extensions), and the Capitoline 
hill contain the oldest relics of Kingly and Republican Rome. 
They are lined or covei'ed by the grandest monuments of the 
Empire ; they have been largely if not completely excavated since 
1870 ; and every inch of ground they cross or cover is connected 
with historical events. Beginning, therefore, from such centres 
of interest as the Palatine and the Sacra Via, we follow the 
chronological and topographical systems. 

The rest of the city will be described in Book IV. by the 
regions of Augustus in the following order : — 

1. The ruins of the Cselian hill and its watershed towards the 
river Almo (Regions I and II). 

2. The ruins of the Oppian (Regio III). 

3. The Viminal, the Cespiau, the Subura, and the Vicus Patri- 
cii (Regio IV). 

4. The Esquiline (Regio V). 

5. The Quirinal and the Pincian, and their watershed towards 
the Tiber (Regions VI and VII). 

6. The Campus Martins (Regio IX). 

7. The markets, the docks, the warehouses, the harbor on the 
left bank of the river. 

8. The Circus Maximus (Regio XI). 

9. The Aventine (Regions XII and XIII). 

10. The Trastevere (Regio XIV). 

Each of these sections has a characteristic of its own. The 
Cselian may be called the region of barracks, the Esquiline the 
region of parks, the Quirinal and Aventine the abode of the aris- 
tocracy. The Coliseum and its dependencies occupied the greater 
portion of the Oppian. The Trastevere was the popular quarter 
par excellence. Their description, therefore, from a topographical 
point of view, is not only rational but lends itself to the grouping 
of edifices built for the same object, and sometimes by the same 
man and at the same time. 

At all events, as it may suit the reader to study the monuments 
in a different order, I have added two indexes, in the first of 
which the existing remains of Ancient Rome are named alpha- 
betically in architectural groups, and in the second according to 


their chronology. The name of each is followed by the number 
of the page or section in which it is described. 

Before closing this brief preface, I must warn students against 
a tendency which is occasionally observable in books and papers 
on the topography of Rome, — that of upsetting and condemning 
all received notions on the subject, in order to substitute fanciful 
theories of a new type. They nuist remember that the study of 
this fascinating subject began with Poggio Bracciolini and Flavio 
Biondo early in the fifteenth century, and that in the course of 
four hundred and fifty years it must have been very closely inves- 
tigated. In the preface to the Indicazione topograjica, pp. 4-25 
(1850), Canina registers 124 standard authorities, whose books 
would make a library of a thousand volumes. Since 18.50 the 
number of such volumes has doubled. See in Enrico Narducci's 
lilhUografia topograjica di Roma a list (imperfect) of those pub- 
lished between 1850 and 1880. The same bibliographer has given 
us a list (also imperfect) of over 400 works on the Tiber alone.^ 
In the fourteenth volume of the Arckivio della Socieia rnmana 
di storia patria, 424 publications on the history and topography 
of the city are catalogued for 1891 alone. How is it possible 
that, in four hundred and fifty years' time, the antiquaries of the 
Italian, (iernuin, and English schools, working harmoniously, 
should not have discovered the truth? This does not exclude 
the possibility that new researches, either on the ground or in 
libraries and archives, may reveal new data and enal)le the 
student to perfect the system of Roman topography in its details, 
but great innovations are hardly to be expected. Yet there 
are people willing to try the experiment, only to waste their 
own time and make us lose ours in considering their attempts. 
Temples of the gods are cast away from their august seats, and 
relegated to places never heard of before ; gates of the city are 
swept away in a whiiiwind till they fly before our eyes like one of 
Dante's visions ; diminutive ruins are magnified into the remains 
of great historical buildings ; designs are produced of monuments 
which have never existed. Let each of us be satisfied with a 
modest share in the work of reconstruction of the great city, 

1 Sarjrjio di bibllograjia del Tevere di Enrico Narducci, Rome, Civelli, 1876. 


remembering that both the Roma sotterranea Cristiana and Rome 
the capital of the Empire have long since found their Columbus. 

The periodicals and books most frequently quoted in this work 
are : — 

(Bull, com.) BulleUino della Commissione archeologica comunale di Roma, 
1872-1895. 23 vols., superbly illustrated. — (Not. Scavi) Notizie der/li Scavi 
di anticMta pubblicate per cura della r. accadeviia dei Lincei, 1876-1895. 20 
vols., illustrated. — (Bull. Inst.) BulleUino dell' Istituto di corrispondenza 
archeoloyica, 1829-1885. 57 vols. — (Ann. Inst.) Annali dell' Istituto di 
corrispondenza archeologica, 1829-1885. 54 vols. — (Mittheil.) Mittheilungen 
des kaiserlich Deutschen archaeol. Instituts, Roemische Abtheilung, 1886-1895. 
10 vols., illustrated. — (.Tahrbuch) Jahrhuch des k. D. archaeol. Instituts, 
1886-1895. 10 vols., illustrated (Denkmaler). — (F. U. R.) Forma Urbis 
Romm, consilio et auctoritate R. Academiw Lyncceorum . . . edidit Rodul- 
phns Lanciani Romamis, in 46 sheets.— (C. I. L.) Corpus Inscriptionum Lati- 
narum, vols, i., vi. 1, 2, 3, 4, xiv., and xv. 1. 


Book I. — General Information 


I. Site — Geology — Configuration of Soil 1 

II. Geologj' 5 

III. Malaria 6 

IV. Climate 8 

V. Hydrography — Rivers, Springs, Ponds, Marshes . . '.) 

VI. Bridges 16 

VII. Traiectus (ferries) 2fi 

VIII. Objects of Value in the Bed of the River 2<) 

IX. CloaciP (drains) 28 

X. The Quarries from which Rome was built .32 

(a) Tufa (lapis ruber) .32 

(b) Pepcrino (lapis Albanus) 34 

(c) Travertino (lapis Tiburtinus) 3.5 

(d) Silex (selce) ,38 

XI. Bricks 38 

XII. ]\Iarbles 42 

XIII. Methods of Construction 43 

XIV. Aqueducts 47 

XV. Muri Urbis (the Walls) 59 

XVI. Murus Romuli (Walls of the Palatine) 59 

XVII. Other Walls of the Kingly Period 60 

XVIII. The Walls of Servius TuUius 60 

XIX. Walls of Aurelian and Probus, a. d. 272 .... 66 

XX. Restoration of the Walls by Honorius 72 

XXI. Gates of Aurelian and Honorius 73 

XXII. Walls of Leo IV., Leopolis, .lohannipolis, Laurentiopolis . 80 

XXIII. The Fortifications of Paul III., Pius IV., and Urban VIII. . 84 

XXIV. Modern Fortifications 86 

XXV. The Fourteen Regions of Augustus 87 

XXVI. The Population of Ancient Rome 91 

XXVII. The Map of Rome engraved on Marble under Severus and 

Caracalla 94 

XXVIII. The Burial of Rome .98 

Book II. — The Ruins and Excavations of the Palatine 

I. Hints to Visitors 106 

II. The Origin of the Palatine City 110 

III. Vigna Nusiner 118 


IV. Templum divi Augusti (Temple of Augustus) . . . 121 

V. Fons Juturnae (the Springs of Juturna) 123 

VI. The Clivus Victoriae 125 

VII. The Church of S. Teodoro 126 

VIII. Murus Romuli 126 

IX. The Altar of Aius Locutius 127 

X. ScalfB Caci (steps of Cacius) 129 

XI. Casa Romuli (the Hut of Romulus) 1-30 

XII. The Old Stone Quarries 131 

XIII. iEdes Magna- Deum Matris (Temple of Cybele) .... 132 

XIV. .(Edes lovis Propugnatoris in Palatio (Temple of Jupiter Pro- 

piignator) 135 

XV. Domus Augustana (House of Augustus) 138 

XVI. Domus Tiberiana (House of Tiberius) 144 

XVII. House of Germanicus 147 

XVIII. Domus Gaiana (House of Caligula) ..... 150 

XIX. The Palace of Domitian 155 

XX. The Gardens of Adonis (Horti Adonsa — Vigna Barberini) . 165 

XXI. MediaBval Church Buildings 168 

(a) Ecclesia S. Caesarii in Palatio 169 

(b) Monasterium quod Palladium dicitur .... 170 

(c) The Turris Chartularia 171 

XXII. The so-called Stadium (Xystus) 172 

XXIII. The Palace of Septimius Severus (fedes Severiaute) . . 178 

XXIV. The Septizonium 181 

XXV. The Water Supply and Reservoirs of the Palace . . .184 

XXVI. The P.edagogium and the Domus Gelotiana .... 185 

Book III. — A Walk through the Sacra Via from the 
Coliseum to the Capitoline Hill 

I. The Sacra Via 188 

II. The Colossus (colossal statue of the Sun) .... 190 

III. Meta Sudans 190 

IV. The Arch of Constantine 191 

V. iEdes Romae et Veneris (Temple of Venus and Rome) . 194 

VI. Baths of Heliogabalus (?). See Ecclesia S. Cresarii in Pa- 
latio, 169 . 198 

VII. Turris Chartularia 198 

VIII. The Temple of .Jupiter Stator 198 

IX. The Arch of Titus 199 

X. Basilica Nova (Basilica of Constantine) .... 201 

XI. The Clivus Sacer 206 

XII. Porticus Margaritaria 207 

XIII. The Hereon Romuli (Temple of Romulus, son of Maxen- 

tius) 209 

XIV. Templum Sacra? Urbis (archives of the Cadastre) . . . 211 
XV. Fornix Fabianus (Arch of Q. Fabius Allobrogicus) . . 215 


XVI. ^Edes divi Pii et diva- Faustin* (Temple of Antoninus and 


XVII. The Kegia 

XVIII. The Temple of Vesta 

XIX. The Shrine 

XX. Atrium Vestaj (House of the Vestals) . 

XXI. Forum Romanum Magnum ..... 

XXII. Area of the Forum 

XXIII. Columna liostrata 

XXIV. The Sculptured Plutei 

XXV. Monumental Columns on the Saera Via . 

XXVI. The Caballus Constantini (Eciuestriau Statue of Constautine) 

XXVII. Unknown Building on the east side, opposite the Temple o 

.Julius . ■ 

XXVIII. Monuments of the Gothic and (iildonie Wars . 

XXIX, The ('niumn of I'hocas 

XXX. Curia Hostilia — Curia .lulia — Senatus . 

XXXI. The Comitium 

XXXII. yEdes divi lulii (Temple of .lulius Ca-sar) 

XXXIII. Triumphal Arch of Augustus 

XXXIV. iEdes Castorum (Temple of Castor and I'oUux) 
XXXV. Vicus Tuscus 

XXXVI. Basilica .lulia 

XXXVII. Vicus Jugarius ........ 

XXXVIII. The Rostra Vetera 

XXXIX. Genius I'opuli Romani — Milliarium Aureum — Umhilic 

XL. The Church of SS. Scrgius and Bacchus 

XLI. The Arch of Tiherius 

XLII. The Arch of Sc|)timius Severus .... 

XLIII. The Career Tullianum ....... 

XLIV. ^'Edes Concordia- (Temple of Concord) . 

XLV. The Clivus Capitolinus 

XLVI. Temple of Vespasian 

XLVII. yEdes Saturni (Temple of Saturn) 

XLVIII. Porticus Deorum Consentium (Portico of the Twelve Gods) 

XLIX. Tabularium .......... 

L. C!apitolium (Temple of .Jupiter Optimus Maximus) 

LI. Forum .Juliuni ......... 

LII. Forum Augustum ........ 

LIII. Forum Transitorium ........ 

LIV. Forum Traiani ......... 





Book IV. — Urbs Sacra Regionum XIV 

I. The Ruins of the Cadian Hill, Regio I, Porta Capena . . 320 

II. Hypog:cum Scipionum ........ 321 

III. The Columbaria (so-called) of Pomponius Ilj-las . . 327 

rV. The Columbaria of the Vigna Codini 328 

V. Regio II, Cadimontium (the Cadian Hill) .... 335 


VI. The Castra Cielimontaiia .... 

(a) The Castra Ecjuitiun Siugularium 

(b) The Castra Peregrinuriim 

(c) Statio Cohortis V Vigilum 
VII. The Pahices of the Cielian 

(a) Domus Lateranuruni (Lateral! Palaee) 

(b) Domus Vectiliana .... 

(c) Domus Tetricorum . . 

(d) Domus Valeriorum 

(e) Domus Philippi .... 

(f) Domus L. Marii Maximi 

(g) Domus of the Symmachi . 
(h) The House of SS. Joliii and Paul 
( I ) The House of Gregory the Great 

VIII. Claudium (Temple of Claudius) 
IX. Macellum (S. Stefauo Rotondo) . 
X. The Ruins of the Oppiau, Regio III, Isis et Serapis 
XI. Domus Aurea (The Golden House of Nero) 
XII. Thermie Titian* (Baths of Titus) 

XIII. ThermiE Triani (Baths of Trajan) 

XIV. Amphitheatrum Flaviuni (Coliseum) 

XV. Buildings connected with the Amphitheatre .... 

The Vivarium 

The Amphitheatrum Castrense 

The Claudium 

The Samiarium 

The Spoliarium 

The Armamentarium 

The Ludi Gladiatorii 

The Summum Choragium 

The Castra Misenatium 

The Curia Athletarum 

XVI. The Viminal, the Cespian, the Subura, andtlieVicus Patricii, 

Regio IV 

XVII. The Subura 

XVIII. The Vicus Patricii 

XIX. Private Dwellings 

XX. The Great Parks on the Eastern Side of the City, Regions V. 

VI, and VII 

XXI. Horti Variani 

XXII. Horti Liciniani 

XXIII. Horti Tauriani 

XXIV. Horti Lamiani et Maiani 

XXV. Horti Maeceuatis 

XXVI. Horti Lolliani 

XXVII. Horti Sallustiani 

XXVIII. Horti Luculliani 

XXIX. Horti Aciliani 

XXX. Public Buildings 





















































LI I. 




















Templiim Solis Aureliaui ....... 428 

Tlierm:e Diocletiana; 432 

L'astra Pra-loria ......... 437 

The Campus Martins and tlu- (Jiixus Flaininius, Regio IX . 440 

Tlie Taieiituni 446 

Campus ^lartius 448 

Circus Flamiuius ......... 450 

Rta1)uia (|uatut>r Factionum VI 454 

TiMiiplum Ilcrculis magni Custodis ad (Jircuni Flaniinium . 4.55 

The Fdriini Holitorium and its Kditii'es 458 

(A) .Edes Spc-i 458 

(u) .Edcs Pietatis 4-58 

(c) ^Edi's lunonis .Sospitif 458 

(d) Tcmplum laiii 458 

The I'oiupfiaii Buildiiif^s 459 

Mausoleum nf Augustus 461 

Horologium or Sohirium (sun-dial) 464 

Ara Paris Augusta- 466 

Opera 8. Porticus Octavia' 466 

The Moiiumenta Agrippa- 470 

Porticus Piilla' or Vipsauia ...... 47(1 

Campus Agriiijiu' . . . ■ . • • .471 
Diribitorium . . . . • .471 

Saipta lulia . . . .471 

Villa Puhlica 472 

Pautlu'uii 473 

Lakonikon 48(i 

Basilica Xcptuiii, Xciitiiiiium, Porticus Arguuautaruni . . 487 

Thcatrum Marcclli 4'.t() 

Thcatruui ct < ivpta Hallii 493 

Odeum . 496 

Stadium 496 

Therma' Xeroiiiame ct Alc.xaiidriaua- ..... 498 

Isium ct Scra](imn ......... .500 

Tcmiilum Matidia' ........ •502 

The Antouinc Buildings .503 

The Commcn'ial (,»nartcrs on the Left Bank of the Tiber . .509 
Forum Ildlitnriuin ......... 511 

Forum Boarium ......... 512 

Temi)luni Fortuna- 514 

Tcmiilum ^latris Matnta-- ....... 515 

Tcmplum Ccrcris Lilieri Libcra'i|uc ...... 516 

The .laiius and the Arch of Sevcrns and (aiacalla . . 518 

Statio Annonic 519 

The Ilorrca Puhlica Populi Romani .522 

Tile Marble Wharf and Sheds .524 

Salina' (the Salt-AVarchouses) .527 

The Lead-Warehouses 528 

The Brick- Warehouses 529 


LXXI. The Monte Testaccio 521) 

LXXII. The Aventine, Eegion^ XII and XIII — Theniui' AutoniniaiKv 5.'32 

LXXIII. Churches and Palaces on the Aventine .... 540 

LXXIV. The Thernite Deciana; 542 

LXXV. The Escubitorium Coh • YII • Vigilum .... 544 

LXXVI. Horti Csesaris 546 

I.XXYII. Horti Get* 548 

LXXVIII. Horti AgrippiniB 548 

LXXIX. Mausoleum Hadriani 551 

Conclusion : The General Aspect of the City 561 


A. Comparison between Years of the Christian and the Roman Eras . 571 

B. Chronological List of Roman Emperors 571 

C. Chronological List of the First Kings of Italy 578 

D. Chronological List of the Popes 578 

E. Al]ihabetical List of Painters, Sculptors, and Architects mentioned in 

this Book 586 

F. lioman Coins ........... 586 

G. Roman Measures of Length . 588 

H. Roman Weights 588 

I. The Roman Calendar 589 

J. A List of Ancient Marbles . 589 


I. The Existing Remains of Ancient Rome described Alphabetically in 

Architectural Groups. 
II. The Existing Remains of Ancient Rome described in Chronological Order. 



1. Map of Hydrofjrapliy ami Chorotrraphy of Ancient Rome. Fmnti.-tpitcf 

2. The Clifts of the ( 'a]>itciliiie Hill above "La Coiisolazione " . . 2 
.J. Section of tlie (jiiirinal Hill -i 

4. Curve of the Flood of December, 187(1 11 

5. Modern Embankment ......... 1.3 

6. Ancient Embankment ......... I'-i 

7. The Mouth of the Tiber at Fiumicino ...... 14 

8. The ^Emilian, Fabrician, ( 'estian Hridj^es, and the Island in the Tiber 17 

9. The .Stern of the Ship of .Esculai)ius lit 

10. iMuindations of Hridf^e (?) above the I'onte Sisto . . . . -21 

11. The Incline to the ^Elian Bridge from the Campus Martins (Left 

Bank) 23 

12. Bronze Head found in the Tiber 25 

13. Statue found in the Tiber 28 

14. The Course of the Cloaca Maxima ....... 2!) 

1-5. The Latrina annexed to the Guest-Hooms of the Villa Adriana . 32 

16. The Quarries of Travertine, Cava del Barco 37 

17. The Opus Incertum 44 

18. The Opus Keticulatum 40 

19. Map of A(|ueducts 47 

20. The Channel of the Aqua Appia under the Aventine ... 48 

21. Ponte Lu])o .50 

22. The Aqueducts at Roma Vecchia .52 

23. The Seven Aqueducts at the Porta Maggiore 55 

24. :\Iap of AValls 59 

25. Section of Walls 61 

21). Section of Agger 62 

27. Forum Boarium 63 

28. The Ditch of the Agger of Servius 65 

29. Walls of Servius on the Aventine 67 

30. The Covered Way of the Walls of Aurelian, Vigna Casali . . 69 

31. The Porta S. Lorenzo 76 

32. Door of the First Century built into the Walls of Aurelian . . 79 

33. The Two Towers at the Entrance to the Harbor of Rome . . 80 

34. Tower of Leo IV. in the Vatican Gardens. Bastions of Pius IV. in 

the Foreground 83 

35. The Fortifications of Laurentiopolis. By M. Ileemskerk . . 85 


36. The French Army entering the Porta S. Pancrazio, Julj- 4, 1849 . 87 

37. Sketch-Map of the Fourteen Eegions of Augustus .... 89 

38. The Fragment of the Marble Plan discovered by Castellani and 

Tocco in 1867 97 

39. The Eeraains of a Private House discovered under the Baths of 

Caracalla by G. B. Guidi, 1867 ....... 101 

40. Sketch-Map of Excavations of Palatine 108 

41. Map of Ancient and Modern Divisions of the Palatine Hill . . 110 

42. Plan of AntemniB . 112 

43. Reservoir at Antemnie 112 

44. Plan of Kingly Palatine 113 

45. A Village of Straw Huts near Gabii (Castiglione) .... 114 

46. Plan of the Terramara di Fontanellato 115 

47. A Fragment of the Marble Plan -with C'livus Victori;e and Vicus 

Tuscus 120 

48. Plan of the Augiistivum 122 

49. General View of West Corner of Palatine Hill .... 128 

50. Hut-urn from Alba Longa .131 

51. Headless Statue of Cybele, found near her Temple on the Palatine 134 

52. The Cybele from Foniiiiv 136 

53. Plan of the Domus Augustana, Ground Floor 139 

54. Plan of the Domus Tiberiana and of the Domus Gaiana . . 145 

55. A Graffito of the Domus Tiberiana 147 

56. The Remains of tlie Palace of Caligula, seen from the Sacra Via . 151 

57. A Corner of the Palace of Caligula according to Rosa's Map . . 152 

58. The Same, designed in Sheet xxix. of the "Forma Urbis " . . 153 

59. A Brick Stamp of John VII 155 

60. Plan of Domitian's Palace 157 

61. The Horti Adonea, a Fragment of the Marble Plan of Rome . . 166 

62. Plan of the Horti Adonea (?), according to Ligorio . . • 167 

63. The Church of S. Cwsarius in Palatio " 169 

64. The Torre Cartnlaria in the Sixteenth Century .... 172 

65. Headless Statue of a Muse discovered in the so-called Stadium . 175 

66. Female Head of Greek Workmanship discovered in the so-called 

Stadium. ........... 177 

67. Substructures of the I'alace of Septimius Severus, as seen fmm the 

Aventine 179 

68. The Remains of the ^des Severiante and of the Septizonium, from 

a Sketch by Du Cerceau 182 

69. The Aqueduct of the Palatine across the Valley of S. Gregorio . 184 

70. Plan of the Domus Gelotiana 185 

71. One of the Walls of the Pajdagogium with Greek and Latin Graffiti 186 

72. Map of the Sacra Via 188 

73. The Arch of Constantine in Botticelli's "Castigodel fuoco celeste," 

Sistine Chapel 193 

74. Plan of the Temple of Venus and Rome 195 

75. Bas-relief of the Temple of Venus and Rome 197 

76. Arch of Titus — Temple of .Tupiter Statnr in tlie Bas-relief of the 

Aterii 199 

77. Plan of Neighborhood of the Arch of Titus 199 


78. The Siinima Sacra Via, witli Arch of Titus and Temple of Jupiter 

Stator 200 

79. Plan of Constantine's Basilica 202 

80. The Basilica of Constantiue at the Time of Paul V. . . . 203 

81. The Arco di Latrone under the Basilica of Constantiue . . 205 

82. Plan of Clivus Sacer 207 

83. Plan of Porticus Margaritaria 208 

84. The Portico of the Heroon Romuli 210 

85. Plan of SS. Cosma e Damiano 211 

86. The Church of SS. Cosma e Damiano in the Middle Ages . . 212 

87. The Church of SS. Cosma e Damiano at the End of the Sixteenth 

Century 213 

88. The Frieze of the Temple of Faustina 217 

89. Graffiti on the Carystian Columns of tlie Temple of Faustina . 218 

90. The Regia, as designed by Pirro Ligorio 220 

91. Temples of Vesta and Castores (Auer's Reconstruction) . . 223 

92. Plan of Atrium and Temple of Vesta 225 

93. Map of Forum and of Basilica .lulia 251 

94. The Margo of the Forum ......... 253 

95. The Fragments of the Marlde I'iutei, discovered in Sejjtember, 

1872 255 

90. One of the Marble Plutei, after Restoration 256 

97. The Rostra as represented in a Bas-relief of the Arch of Constantine 257 

98. The Column of Phoeas — thi' IMarlih; IMutei in the Foreground . 261 

99. Plan of the Senate House, rebuilt bv Diocletian .... 263 


100. The Marble Incrustations of the Senate Hal! . . . . 

101. Details of Cornice of the Senate Hall 

102. The Rostra .Julia and tiie Temple of Ctvsar 

103. Fragment of the Afarljle Plan with Temple of Castores 

104. The Substructure of the Temple of Castores .... 

105. The Southwest Corner of the Basilica Julia .... 

106. General View of the Basilica -Julia ...... 

107. The Church of SS. Sergius and Bacchus, sketclied by Heemskerk 

108. Pedestals of Columns, Arcli of Severus ..... 283 

109. A Fruiterer's Siiop under the Arcli of Severus .... 284 

110. The Clivus Capitolinus, now concealed by the Modern (1880) 

Causeway 289 

111. The Frieze'of the Temple of Vespasian 290 

112. The Porticus Consentium 293 

113. Old Gate of Tabularium blocked by Teuii)le of Vespasian . . 295 

114. Remains of the Platform of the Cuiiitolium in the Garden of the 

Caffarelli Palace 298 

115. The Venus Genetrix l)y Arkesilaos — a Frngnieiit in the Museo delle 

Terme 301 

lie. Plan of the Forum Augustum ....... 303 

117. The South Hemicycle of the Forum Augustum, excavated in 1888 305 

118. Tlie Forum Transitorium : a Sketch by ISoscoio .... 309 

119. Forum Traiani 311 

120. Frieze from the Basilica ripia (Lateran iluseum) .... 314 

121. Frieze from the Basilica Ulpia (Lateran Museum) . . . 315 


122. Heads of Animals discovered in the Forum of Trajan . . . 319 

123. Map of Regions I. (Porta Capena) and II. (Ctelimontium) . . 320 

124. Sarcophagus of Scipio Barbatus in the Vatican .... 322 

125. Plan of the Tomb of the Scipios, according to Piranesi . . 324 

126. Tomb of tiie Scipios (Present State) 325 

127. Portrait Bust of Scipio the Ekler (Capitoline Museum) . . 327 

128. The Columbarium discovered in the Vigna Codini, May, 1852 . 332 

129. One of the Courts of the Palace of the Laterans, discovered in 

1877 341 

130. Campus Lateranensis, about 1534 343 

131. Plan of the House of SS. John and Paul, and of the Cliurcli built 

above it 348 

132. A View of the Church and Monaster^' of S. Circgorio in the First 

Half of the Sixteenth Century . ' 3.50 

133. The Substructures of the Claudlum, West Side .... 352 

134. S. Stefano Rotondo, Inner View 354 

135. Plan of S. Stefano Rotondo 356 

136. Map of Region III. — Isis et Serapis 357 

137. Nymphanim discovered near the Via della Polveriera . . . 360 

138. Plan of the Golden House and of the Baths of Titus and Trajan . 3G0 

139. A View of the South Wing of the Domus Aurea .... 361 

140. Plan of Western Section of the Flavian Amphitheatre . . . 368 

141. The Shell of the Coliseum after the Collapse of the Western 

Arcades 374 

142. The Insignia of the Compagnia del Salvatore on the Coliseum . 375 

143. Stone Cippi surrounding the Coliseum 378 

144. Step-seat of the Coliseum, Avith the Name of a Fabius Insteius . 381 

145. Wooden Floor discovered in 1874 in the Substructures of the Ai-ena 

of the Coliseum 382 

146. I'alladio's Diagrams of the Anii>liitheatrum Castrense . . . 384 

147. Plan of the Ludus ^Magnus 386 

148. Remains of Public Baths near S. Pudenziana 390 

149. Ruins discovered in 1684 on the Line of the Via Graziosa . . 392 

150. Map of the Parks and Gardens of Ancient Rome .... 394 

151. Ligorio's Perspective View of the Horti Variani .... 396 

152. The Horti Variani, Vigna Conti, by S. Croce in Gerusalemme . 399 

153. Statue of a Roman Magistrate of the Fourth Century giving the 

Signal for a Chariot Race 402 

154. Columbaria discovered in 1872 on the Site of the Horti Liciiiiani . 403 

155. Statue of Shepherdess discovered in the Horti Vettiani . . 405 

156. Bust of Commodus from the Horti Lamiani 408 

157. Statuette of a Girl from the Horti Lamiani .... 409 

158. The Conservatory of the Gardens of Ma?cenas .... 411 

159. The Fountain Of Pontios the Athenian, discovered in the Gardens 

of Mipcenas 412 

160. Part of the Marble Throne of the Venus Sallustiana, now in the 

Ludovisi Museum 414 

161. A Group of Pines in the Villa Ludovisi, cut ddwn in 1887 . . 416 

162. Cliffs on the South Side of the Vallis Sallustiana, l)efore the Con- 

struction of the New Quarters 418 


163. The "Parnaso" or Xympli;rum of the Villa Aldobrandini at 

Frascati 422 

164. The Substructures of the Gardens of the Acilii Glabrioues on the 

Pineian. A Sketch by Yaladier 42-3 

165. Map of Region VI. — Alta Semita 428 

166. The Ruins of the Temple of the Sun in the Sixteenth Century . 429 

167. The Dioscuri of the (iuirinal, as they appeared in 1.546 . . 431 

168. The Tepidarium of the Baths of Diocletian, before its Transfor- 

mation into the Church of S. ^I. degli Angeli .... 434 

169. Group of Cypresses in the Cloisters of La Certosa . . . 436 

170. Remains of the Castra Pretoria : Northeast Corner of the (^lad- 

rangle 438 

171. The Walls of the Pra'torian Camp, with Aurelian's Superstructure 439 

172. One of the Victories from the Arch of Gordianus III. . . . 440 

173. Map of Region IX. — Can)i)us ^Martins and Circus I'laminius . . 440 

174. Plan of the Ara Ditis et Proserpin* 447 

175. Fragments of the Pnlvini of the Ara Ditis ..... 448 

176. Architectural Details of the Circus Flaminius .... 453 

177. The Inscription of Anicius Faustus from the ('ircus Flaminius (?) . 454 

178. A Fragment of the Forma Urbis showing Round Temple of Her- 

cules 45,5 

179. The Finding of the Bronze Statue of tlie Hercules ]\[agnus Ciistos, 

August 8, 1864 . .4.56 

180. The Shrine of the Hercules Invictus, discovered in 1889, on the Via 

Portuensis 457 

181. The so-called Pompey the Great of tlie Palazzo Spada . . . 4(!0 

182. The Mausoleum of Augustus, turned into a Garden by the Soderiui 

about 1.550 "... 463 

183. The Ara Pacis August:\i — details 467 

184. The Ara Pacis Augusta;— details 468 

185. Plan of the first (red) and of the third (black) Pantlicm . . .474 

186. The I'antheon flooded by the Tiber 477 

187. T!ie Pantheon at the Time of Urban VIII. (1625) . . . .482 

188. The Bronze Trusses of the Pronaos of the Pantheon, from a Sketch 

by Dosio 483 

189. The Remains of Raphael, discovered September 14, 1833 ., . 485 

190. The Temple of Neptune : an unfinished Study by Vespignani . 489 

191. Remains of the Hall of the Theatre' of Marcellus, from a Sketch 

by Du Perac (1575) 492 

192. Arcades of the Theatre of Balbus, from a Sketch by .Sangallo the 

Elder . . . ' . ' . . 493 

193. Forma Urbis, fragment 115 494 

194. Remains of the Crypta Balbi, designed by Sangallo the Elder . 495 

195. Remains of the Stadium discovered in 1869 at tlie South End of the 

Piazza Xavona 497 

196. The Nile of the Braccio Xuovo — A Fragment .... .501 

197. A Round Temple or Hall sketched by Giovannoli in 1619, near the 

Palazzo Capranica 503 

198. The so-called Arch of M. Aurelius on the Corso, sketched by Li- 

gorio 505 


199. Map of the Harbor of Rome 509 

200. Temple of Fortuna ; Detail of the Order 515 

201. The Excavations of 1827 in the Temple of Mater Matuta, from a 

Sketch by Valadier 517 

202. The Janus of the Forum Boarium, the Arch of Severus, and the 

Church of S. Giorgio, from a Sketch by M. Heemskerk . . 519 

203. Plan of S. Maria in Cosmedin 520 

204. S. Maria in Cosmedin in the Sixteenth Century .... 521 

205. The Wliarf for Landing Marbles on the Banks of the Campus 

Martins . . . " 52G 

206. Map of the Therma- Antoniniana> 533 

207. Part of the Building discovered by Guidi under the Baths of Cara- 

calla 533 

208. A Leaf from Palladio's Sketch-book (Baths of Caracalla) . . 535 

209. Capital of the Composite Order from the Tepidarium of Caracalla's 

Baths 537 

210. Palladio's Plan of the Thermse Decianw 543 

211. Capital from the Basement of Hadrian's Tomb .... 552 

212. Diagram showing the Order in which the Imperial Tiim1)stones 

were placed in the ^lausoleum 554 

213. The Girandola at the Castle of S. Angelo, from an Engraving by 

Lauro (1624) 556 

214. The Mausoleum of Hadrian and the Meta m Raphael's "Vision of 

Constantine " 557 

215. The Prati di Castello in 1870 558 

210. The Prati di Castello in 1890 559 




I. Site — Geology — CoxFiGt'RATiox of Soil. — During the 
sub-Apennine or quaternary period a powerful stream came down 
from the mountains, on the line of a rent or fissure which 
separated the Ciminian from the Alban volcanoes. The stream, 
from 1000 to 2000 metres wide and 30 deep, emptied itself 
into the sea between Ponte Galera and Dragoncello. By the 
combined action of the main flood and of its tributaries, portions 
of the tableland on the east or left bank became detached and 
formed small islands, while the edge of the bank itself was fur- 
rowed and serrated into promontories and iidets. Such is the ori- 
gin of the isolated hills, since called Capitoline. Palatine, Aven- 
tine, and Ca?lian ; and of the promontories projecting from the 
tableland, called Pincian, Quirinal, Viminal, Cespian. and Oppian. 
The Vatican and the Janicnlum on the west or right bai^k are less 
irregular, because they had to withstand the action of the main 
stream alone, and not of side tributaries. 

When men first appeared in these lands the quaternary river 
had diminished almost to the size and volume of the historical 
Tiber, and the hills had been reduced to a definite shape ; but the 
bottom of the valleys remained swampy, so as to be easily flooded 
by freshets. The marshes of the Yelabra, the Capra? palus, the 
Decennije, and other ponds are evidence of this state of things. 
The mouth of the river was still near Ponte Galera, 12 kilometres 
farther inland than the present one. The first human settlement, 
"dove I'acqua di Tevere s'insala," called i^/ca/m, stood on the hill 
of Dragoncello, opposite Ponte Galera. The dim remoteness of 
these events is shown by the fact that when Ancus Marcius, the 


fourth king, founded Ostia, as a substitute for Ficana, the mouth 
of the river had ah'eady advanced seawards 5810 metres. 

Fig. 2. — The Cliifs of the CapitoUne Hill above " La Consolazione." 

It is difficult to reconstruct in one's mind tlie former aspect of 
the site of Rome, as hills have been lowered, valleys filled u]i, and 
cliffs turned into gentle slopes. By means of borings made in 


1872,1 and of my own investigations into the depths of the founda- 
tions of modern buildings, I have ascertained that the promon- 
tories and the isolated hills were faced — at least on the river side 
— by sheer walls of rock, of which there are a few specimens left 
at the southwest front of the Capitoline, and on the west sides of 
the Palatine and Aveutine. In other words, the site of Home was 
like that of Veil and Faleria, with narrow dales inclosed by craggy 
clift's, shadowed by evergreens, and made damp and unhealthy 
by swamps and unruly rivers (Fig. 2). 

The otlier hills, the Quirinal, Viminal, Pincian, etc., were not 
different in shape, as shown by the following section taken across 
the Quirinal, from the Piazza Barberini to the corner of the Via 
Nazionale : — 

5^'^SSS^^Ss^. I 


l;3000 AliituJ' 

000 Distances, 

Kg. 3. — Section of the Quirinal Hill. 

Within the limits of the old ci 
those isolated were called inonta 
and Ca'lian), those connected 
roHes ((Quirinal and Viminal). 
the rule, being counted among 
with the tableland. In regard 
stand in the following order : — 

Quirinal, T'orta Pia . 
Viminal, railway fetation 
[Oppiari, the Sette Sale . 
Esr|uiline, S. ]Maria ^lagj^iore 
[Cespiaii, Via Qiiattro Cantoiii 
Palatine, S. Bi)naventnra 
Civlian, Villa Mattei . 
Capitoline, the Araewli 
Aveutine, S. Alessio . 

ty there were seven hills, of which 
s (Palatine, Capitoline, Aveutine, 
with the tableland were called 
The Es(piiline is an exception to 
the montes, although connected 
to altitude above sea-level they 

1 Raffaele Canevari, Atti Accademia Lincet, serie ii. vol. ii. p. 429. 



Other summits on the left bank : — 


Piiician Hill at the Villa Medici 56.33 

Piucian Hill at the Porta Pinciaiia 63.05 

The so-called pseudo-Aventine by S. Saba . . . 43.00 
Moute d' Oro, above the Porta Metroni . . . . 46.00 
Monte Citorio 24.34 

Before the construction of the central railway station, the highest 
point on the left bank was an artificial hill called the Monte della 
Giustizia, the work of Diocletian and of Sixtus Y. It rose to the 
height of 73 metres, and bears the name of " altissimus Roniaj 
locus" in Bufalini's map (1551). On the other side of the river, 
the ridge called the monn Vaticanus rises to the height of liO 
metres at the fort of Monte Mario, of 75 metres at the top of the 
pope's gardens. The Janiculum measures 89 metres at the Villa 
Savorelli-Heyland, 81.73 at the Porta di S. Pancrazio. 

Rome stands at an equal distance from the sea and the moun- 
tains, in the middle of an undulating plain deeply furrowed by 
ravines. This plain, 47 kilometres wide and 60 long, is bordered on 
the north side by the Sabatine volcanic range (Rocca romana, 601 
metres; Monte Calvi, 5.90; Monte Virginio, 540) ; on the east side 
by the limestone pre- Apennines (Monte Gennaro, 1269 ; Monte 
Affliano, 598; Monte Guadagnolo, 1218; the citadel of Prseneste 
at Castel S. Pietro, 760) ; on the southeast side by the Alban hills, 
the highest summit of which is not Monte Cavo (940), as generally 
supposed, but the Punta delle Faette, 950 metres. 

Students who visit Rome for the first time would do well to take at 
once a general survey of the seven hills, of the plain, of its border of 
mountains and sea, from the dome of S. Peter's, from the campanile 
of S. Maria Maggiore, or from the tower of the Capitol, which is 
easier of access and has a more interesting foreground (open 
every day from ten to three). The landmarks of the panorama 
can be singled out by referring to — 

Henry Kiepert's Carta corogr. ed archiol. dtlV Italia centrale, 1 : 250,000. 
Berlin, Reimer, 1881. — Enrico Abate's Guida della provincia di Roma. Rome, 
Salviucci, 1890. Map in two sheets. Second ed. 1893. Maps of the Istituto 
geogralico niilitare, 1 : 100,000 and 1 : 50,000. (The map 1 : 10,000 is not 
in the market.) The best for use is the Carta topografica dti dintorni di 
Roma, in 9 sheets, 1 : 25,000. 

The highest peaks visible from Rome are the Monte Terminillo, 
above Rieti, 2213 metres high, and the Monte Velino, above Avez- 
zano, 2487 metres. They usually keep their shining coat of snow 
till the middle of May. 


Literature. — Giovanni Brocchi, Dello statofisico del suolo di Roma. Rome, 
1820. — Raffaele C'anevari, Cenni suUe condizioni altimetriche ed idrauliche dell' 
agro romano. Rome, 1874. (Auuali Ministero agricoltura.) — Felice Gior- 
dano, Condizioni topogrqtiche ejisiche di Roma e Campagna. (Monogratia della 
citta di Roma, 1881, pp. i.-lxxxvi.) — Paolo Mantovaui, Descrizione yeologica 
della Campagna romana, Rome, Loescher, 1874 ; and Costituzione geologica 
del suolo romano, 1878. — Murray's Handbook of Rome, ed. 1875, p. 349. — 
Antonio Nibby, Roma anlica, vol. i. pp. 1-65, 2()7-.300. Rome, 1838. — Adolf 
Becker, Topogrrqjhie der Stadt Rome, p. 81. (Lage, Weichbild, Klima.) 
Heinrich Jordan, Tojiograjjliie d. S. R., vol. i. pp. 117-152. (Lage, Bodeu, 
Klima.) — Otto Richter, Topographie d. S. R., p. 18. (Lage und Formation.) 

There are two museums of geology and mineralogy — one in the L'niversity 
(della Sapienza), consisting of the collections of Belli, Brocchi, and Spada, and 
of a bequest of Leo XIL ; the other in the former convent della Yittoria, Via 
S. Susanna, second floor : open Tuesdays, Thursda3-s, and Sundays. 

II. Geology. — There are four geological formations in the 
district of Rome, with which the student must become familiar 
if he wishes to understand at once some imjjortant peculiarities 
of Roman masonry and architecture. They are the secondary or 
limestone, the tertiary or argillaceous, the volcanic, and the 
quaternary or diluvial formations. 

The limestone is best examined at INIonticelli, the ancient Cor- 
niculum, the fourth station on the Sulmona line. The rock, 
slightly dolomitised, is white at the base of the hill, with terebra- 
tuloe in great numbers ; reddish in the middle, with a dozen va- 
rieties of ammonites ; and white again at the summit, with tere- 
hratidce and traces of the anomalous fossil uptychus. The lime of 
^lonticelli, from the Caprine kilns, mixed with pozzolana, makes 
Roman masonry " fere perennius." The argillaceous formation is 
conspicuous in the Vatican and Janiculum ridges, the monti della 
creta (clay hills) of the present day. A waUc through the exten- 
sive quarries of the Valle dell' Inferno and the Yalle del Gelsomino 
will show the student the details of the formation, rich in ptero- 
podous molluscs, and will make him appreciate the vastness of 
the work of man, since bricks were first accepted as an essential 
element of Roman masonry. As the A'alle di Pozzo Pantaleo has 
been bodily excavated through the hills of Monteverde by the 
quarrj'men supplying tufa for the " opus quadratum " and the 
"opus reticulatum," so the valleys of the Gelsomino, delle For- 
naci, delle Cave, della Balduina, and dell' Inferno have been 
hollowed out of the clay hills by the ancient, Renaissance, and 
modern bricklayers. (See Bull, com., 1892, p. 288, and § xi. on 
Building Materials.) The pliocene marls of the Vatican ridge 
abound in fossils ; they can easily be gathered along the Via 


Trionfale opposite the Croce di Monte Mario, or in the cuttings 
of the Vitei'bo railway, at the top of the Valle dell' Inferno. 

The volcanic formation is represented in or near Rome by 
three kinds of tufa — the red or lithoid, the yellowish or granular, 
the grayish or lamellar ; and by two kinds of pozzolana — the red 
and the black. The surface of tufa beds, soft and unfit for build- 
ing purposes, is called " cax^pellaccio." The tufa quarries of S. 
Saba, the largest within the walls, were abandoned in 1889 ; the 
largest still in use are those of Monteverde, outside the Porta Por- 
tese, and of S. Agnese, outside the Porta Pia. The best kind of 
pozzolana is quarried near the Tre Fontane. Diluvial or qua- 
ternary deposits abound on each side of the Tiber. The cliffs of 
the Monti Parioli, between the Villa di Papa Giulio and the Acqua 
Acetosa, as well as the gravel pits of Ponte Molle and Ponte No- 
mentano, are best adapted for the study of this late formation, so 
rich in fossil mammalia, like the Eleplias, the Rhinoceros tichorinus, 
the Bos p)-imigenius, the hippopotamus, the lynx, etc. It is well to 
remember that the flint arrowheads found in the gravel at Ponte 
Molle do not belong to a local race, but were washed down from 
pre-Apennine stations by the flood. 

Travertine, the king of Roman building materials, is best 
studied at the Cava del Barco, near the stazione del bagni of both 
Tivoli railways. 

Pietro Zezi, Imlice blhliograjico delle puhllcazioniriyuaydanti la mineralogia, 
la geologia e la paleontologia. delta pruvincia di Roma. (Moiiografia di Konia, 
vol. i. p. clxiii.) 

III. Malaria. — The Romans did not deny the unhealthiness 
of the district in the midst of which their city was built. Cicero 
calls it " a pestilential region," and Pliny likewise calls the Ma- 
remma " heavy and pestilential." The hills were comparatively 
healthy (" colles in regione pestilent! salubres, colles saluberrimi," 
Livy, V. 54) ; still, the effects of malaria, increased by ignorance or 
contempt of sanitary rules, must have been felt also by the 
settlers on the Palatine, Esquiline, and Quirinal. Under Tiberius 
there were three temples of Fever left standing — one on the 
Palatine, one near the church of S. Eusebio, the third near the 
church of S. Bernardo; but they represented the memory of 
past miseries rather than actual need of help from the gods, 
because, long before the time of Tiberius, Rome and the Campagna 
had been made healthy in a large measure ; and when Horace 
(Epist., i. 7, 7) describes Rome as half deserted in the summer 
months, he refers to the habit of the citizens of migrating to 


their hill farms or seacoast villas, to escape depressing heat rather 
than malaria. This sunimer emigration en masse is still charac- 
teristic of Rome. Sixty thousand citizens left in 189o for an 
average period of forty days : one seventh of the whole population. 

Sanitary reform was accomplished, firstly, by the draining of 
marshes and ponds ; secondly, by an elaborate system of sewers ; 
thirdly, by the substitution of spring water for that of polluted 
wells ; fourthly, by the paving and multiplication of roads ; fifthly, 
by the cultivation of land; sixthly, by sanitary engineering, ai> 
plied to human dwellings ; seventhly, by substituting cremation 
for burial; eighthly, by the drainage of the Canipagna; and 
lastly, by the organization of medical help. The results were 
truly wonderful. Pliny says that his villeggiatura at Laurentum 
was equally delightful in winter and summer, while the place is 
now a hotbed of malaria. Antoninus Pius and M. Aurelius pre- 
ferred their villa at Lorium (Castel di Guido) to all other imperial 
residences, and the correspondence of Fronto proves their presence 
tliere in midsummer. Xo one would try the experiment now. 
The same can be said of Hadrian's villa below Tivoli, of the villa 
Quinctiliorum on the Appian Way, of that of Lucius Verus at 
Acqua Traversa, etc. The Campagna must have looked in those 
happy days like a great park, studded with villages, farms, lordly 
residences, temples, fountains, and tombs (see " Ancient Rome," 
chs. iii. and x.). 

The cutting of the aqueducts by the barbarians, the consequent 
abandonment of suburban villas, the permanent insecurity, the 
migration of the few survivors under cover of the city walls, and 
the clioking up of drains, caused a revival of malaria. ]\Iedi»val 
Romans found themselves in a condition worse than that of the 
first l)uilders of the city ; and being neither able nor willing to 
devise a remedy, as their ancestors had done, they raised their 
helpless hands towards heaven, and built a chapel in honor of Our 
Lady of the Fever (see '' Ancient Rome," p. .53). 

The present generation has once more conquered the evil, and 
has made Rome the best drained, the best watered, the healthiest 
capital of Europe, except London. This statement may not be 
agreeable to those who systematically and deliberately condemn 
whatever has been done by us since 1870; but they would do 
well to accept facts as they are. Comm. Luigi Bodio, Director 
of the State Department of Statistics, has favored me with the 
followino- official declaration : — 


" Rome, 10 Nov. 1894. 

" From 1st January, 1860, to 31st December, 1869, in an aver- 
age population of 205,229, thei-e were 5477 average annual bii-ths, 
5946 deaths. Rate of births, 26.70 per thousand; of deaths, 29 
per thousand. 

"Between 1890 and 1893, in an average population of 437,355 
souls, there were 11,678 births, 9791 deaths per annum. Rate of 
births, 26.70 per tliousand ; of deaths, 22.38. This last figure 
includes the floating population, and, above all, the peasants who 
come down from their moiintains to cultivate the Maremma, and 
furnish the heaviest percentage to the hospital lists. The rate of 
deaths among the resident population is only 1QA5 per thousand, 'while 
in London it rose to 20.37, in Vienna to 21.53, in Berlin to 23.09, 
in Paris to 23.80." i 

LiTEKATURE. — Pictro Balestra, L' iffiene nelln citta e camjjogna di Rmnn. 
1875. — Guido Baccelli, La malaria di Roma. (Monografia di Roma, 1881, vol. 
i.p. 149.) — Giovanni Brocclii, Discorso sulla condizione dell' aria di Roma nei 
tempi anticki. 1820. — Stefano Ferrari, Condizioni igieniche del climn di Roma. 
(Monografia di Roma, 1881, vol. i. p. 316.) — Rodolfo Lanciani, DI alcune 
opere di risnnamenio delV af/ro romano. Atti Lincei, 1879. " Tlie Sanitary 
Condition of Rome: " Ancient Rome, p. 49. — Lanzi-Terrigi, La malaria e il 
clima di Roma. Rome, 1877. — Francesco Scalzi, Malattie predominanti in 
Roma. Rome, 1878. — Angelo Secchi, Intorno ad alcune opere idrnuliche 
antiche rinrenute nella campagna di Roma. — ('orrado, Tommasi Crudeli, The 
Climate of Rome and the Roman Malaria. (Translated by Charles Cramond 
Dick. London, Churchill, 1892.) L' antica fognatura delle colline romane. 
Atti Lincei, vol. x., 1881. Alcune riflesdoni sul clima dell' antica Roma. 
Mittheil., 1877, p. 77. L'ancien drainage des collines romaines. Melanges de 
I'Ecole fran9aise, 1882. — Charles Edmund Wendt, The New Rome and the 
Question of Roman Fever. New York, 1892. — Philijipe Tournon, Etudes 
statistiques sur Rome. Paris, 1855, vol. i. pp. 223, 230. 

rV. Climate. — The climate seems to have been more severe 
in ancient times than now. Dionysius (Fragm., 1., xii. 8) describes 
a blizzard which covered the ground with seven feet of snow. 
Men died of cold, sheep and cattle were frozen, and many houses 
fell under the weight of their snowy pall. He speaks probably of 
the year 401 b. c, which Livy (v. 13) calls " insignis hieme gelida 
ac nivosa," when even the Tiber became a mass of ice. In 271 
snow lay on the Forum for forty days.'^ On 12th .January 67 n. c. 
the meeting of the Senate was adjourned on account of the cold 

1 Death-rate in 1886 — London, 19.8; Rome, 20.0; Paris, 24.6; Berlin, 25.8; 
Vienna, 26.2; Petersburg, 30.6; Buda-Pest, 39.4. 
' See Augustine, De civitate Dei, iii. 17. 


which prevailed in the CuriaJ The severity of another winter, per- 
haps that of 1!J B. c, is described by Horace (Od., i. 9). Martial's 
epigram, iv. 18, commemorates the fate of a youth transfixed l)y 
an icicle. Such excesses of temperature are not recorded in mod- 
ern days. Between 1828 and 1877 the lowest registered was 8.25° 
Centigrade (February, 18-1.5), the highest 42°, a most extraordi- 
nary case, which happened on July 17, 1841. The mean annual 
temjierature is 16.40°. In the course of the day the mercury rises 
(piickly in the morning and falls slowly after noon. In summer 
there are two maximums — one from twelve to one o'clock, the 
other towards nine p. m. The temperature is always lowest at 

Rain is most frequent in Xovember, heaviest in October. 
There are 155 cloudless days in the year, 122 misty, 83 cloudy. 
Maximum rainfall (1872), 10.'iO.:30 millimetres; minimum (1834), 
319.45. In summer time the land breeze blows from early morn- 
ing to nine a. m., the sea breeze from eleven to six. These refresh- 
ing winds make Kome more comfortable in summer than other 
cities of much higher latitudes. 

V. Hydrography — Rivers, Springs, Ponds, Marshes. — 
The Tiber rises from the Monte Coronaro, at the height of 1167 
metres above the sea, and reaches Rome after a winding course of 
373 kilometres, through Etruria, Umbria, and Sabina. The niean 
breadth of the river in the city district was 80 metres (now 100 
metres between the embankments), its average depth 3 metres, 
total length from springs to sea 393 kilometres. Below Rome it 
expands into a channel 120 metres wide, navigated by steamers 
and coasting-vessels of 100 tons burden. Ceselli's observations, 
from ]\Iarch, 1871, to Feltruary, 1872, state the daily average out- 
flow of the river at 1.296,000 cubic metres. During the same year 
8,582,333 tons of sand and mud were washed down to the sea, a 
volume of over 4,000,000 cubic metises. This state of things and 
the prevalence of southwesterly winds makes the coast advance 
westwards at a consideralile rate. We have just seen that Ficaua, 
the oldest human station near the bar of the river, is now 12,000 
metres inland, and kingly Ostia 6600 metres. The Torre di S. 
Michele, built in 1567 by Michelangelo on the edge of the sands, 
stands 2000 metres away from the present shore ; the Torre 
Clementina at Fiumicino, built in 1773, " in ipso maris supercilio," 

1 Cicero, Ad Quint, fratr., ii. 12. 


Htands 690 metres inland.^ The average yearly increase of the 
coast at the Ostia mouth is 9.02 metres, at the Fiumicino mouth 
3.10 metres. 

Literature. — Giuseppe Ponzi, Storia geologica del Tevere. (Giornale 
arcadico, vol. xviii. p. 1'29.) DtW Aniene e de suol rditti. (Ibid.) — Aubert, 
Roma e V inondazione del Tevere. (Giornale arcad., vol. Ixvi. p. 142.) — Alessan- 
dro Betocchi, Delfiume Tevere. (Moiiogratia di Koiua, vol. i. p. l'J7.) Effeme- 
ridi del Tevere, published yearh' by the Accademia dei Liiicei. — Marco Ceselli, 
Bulletiino nautico e geograjico di Roma, vol. vi. n. 3. — Carlo Fea, Storia delle 
acque. Rome, 1817. — Rodolfo Lanciani, / comentarii di Frontino intorno le 
acque e gli acquedofti. Rome, Salviucti, 1880, pp. 3-28. — Alessandro Nar- 
ducci published, in 1876, an essay on the bibliography of the Tiber (Saggio di 
hibUografia del Tevere, Rome, Civelli), in which over 400 works are registered. 
Their number may be stated now at 700. The best library for consultation 
on the subject is the Biblioteca del Miriistero dei Lavori publici. Piazza di S. 
Silvestro. There is a special department in Rome for the works and embank- 
ment of the Tibei", with a good collection of maps and diagrams (Ufficio tec- 
nico speciale per la sisteniazione del Tevere. Via di Ripetta, n. 222 c). 

The inundations are the great historical feature of the Tiber. 

From the traditional flood, in the course of which Romulus 
and his twin-brother were exposed to the waters under the rocks 
of the Palatine, to the beginning of the Christian era, twenty-six 
inundations are recorded ; thirty from 1 to 500 a. d. ; twenty-one 
from 500 to 1000; twenty-three from 1000 to 1500; thirty-two 
from 1500 to the present day ; a total of one hundred and thirty- 
two. The worst of which we liave the measurement reached the 
following altitudes at the hydrometer of Ripetta (ordinary level 
of water, 0.70 metres) : — 


December, 1280 10.02 

November, 1.376 17.02 

December, 1495 16.88 

October, 1530 18.95 

September, 1557 18.90 

DECEMBER, 1598 19.56 

January, 1606 18.26 

February, 1637 17.55 

November, 1660 17.11 

November, 1668 16.00 

December, 1702 15.41 

February, 1805 16.42 

December, 1846 16.25 

December, 1870 17.22 

1 The coast has increased about 390 metres since 1st April, 1857, when au 
official survey was taken by the local collector of customs. 



The flood of 1598, the highest recorded in history, began on 
Christmas eve ; at noon the next day there were 6.50 metres of 
flood in the Via di Ripetta, 6.58 metres at the Pantheon, 5.28 
metres at the Piazza Xavona, 4.56 metres on the Corso by S. 
Lorenzo in Lncina. A boat went ashore in the Piazza di Spagna, 
where tiie Fontaua della Barcaccia was erected by Bernini to 
commemorate the event; two arches of the Pons ^Emilias were 
overthrown at three P. M. on the 21th, a few seconds after Cardinal 
Pietro Aldobrandiuo had crossed it to rescue some families sur- 
rounded by the foaming waters. Houses were washed away l)y 
hundreds; TOO persons were drowned in the city, and 800 in the 
suburbs, besides thousands of cattle. As usual, famine and pesti- 
lence followed the flood. 

In the flood of 1702, which rose to only 15.11 metres, fifty-two 
streets and squares were submerged on the left bank, north of the 
Capitol, eighty-five south of that hill, and sLsty-two on the other 
side of the river. 

The last flood, on December 28 and 29, 1870, which gave rise to 
King Victor Emmanuel's first visit to his new capital on a merci- 
ful errand, marks another important date in the history of the 
city, because to it we owe the construction of the new embank- 
ments, which, when finished, will have cost the state, the county, 
and the city over 20(),0()().()00 lire. The curve of the flood of 1870 
is represented in this diagram : — 



2 ; ? 2 ? : 

I ; £ IS ti:: s 

T " " T : 


? ? 7 f i i i 

Hours a> 



. i . 2 00c. |S 

2 - 2 - 

.. 2 . ; 

. 2. 

2 . .2 

Days S 

s s 

s s 







January 1871 

Fig. 4. — Curve of the Flood of December, 1870. 

The event is too recent to require a description. It brought to 
our minds the floods so often mentioned by the " Liber Pontifi- 
calis," when the waters, breaking through the walls at the Poste- 
rula sancti Martini (Ripetta), would dash against the clifl^s of the 
Capitol, ltd ut in via lata (Corso) amplius ijuam duas statural (3.80 
metres) Jiuminis aqua excrevisset (a. d. 772). 


Literature. — Leone Pascoli, II Tevere navigato. Rome, 1740. — Gaspare 
Alveri, Delle inondazloni del Tevere. (Roma in ogni state, voL i. p. 571.) — 
Antonio Grifl, 11 fiume Tevere nelle sue piit inemorabili inondazioni. Album, 
voL iv. pp. 29, 390. — Philippe Tounion, Etudes statistiques sur Rome, vol. ii. 
p. 207. — Gaetauo Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione ecclesiastica, vol. Ixxv. 
p. 125. — Filippo Cerroti, Le inondazioni di Roma. Florence, 1871. — Ralfaele 
Canevari, Tavola delle principali inondazioni del Tevere. Rome, 1875. — 
Michele Carcani, II Tevere e le sue inondazioni dalle origini di Roma sine ai 
giornl nostri. Rome, 1875. — Alessandro Bettocclii, Monografia della citta di 
Roma, 1881, vol. i. p. 24-'i. — Liidovico Gomez, De prodigiosis Tiheris iminda- 
tionihus. Rome, 1531. 

Tlie earliest project for restraining the Tiber from overflowing- 
its banks dates, as far as we know, from the time of Julius Caesar, 
who moved in the House a bill for the cutting of a new bed from 
the Pons Molvius to the Trastevere, along the base of the Vatican 
hills.^ The merit of having placed the unruly river under the 
management of a body of conservators, selected from the highest 
consular ranks, belongs to Augustus according to Suetonius (37), 
to Tiberius according to Tacitus (Ann., i. 70) and Dion Cassius 
(Ivii. 14, 8). 

Augustus gave the posts of chief conservators to C. Asinius 
Gallus and C. Marcius Ceusorinus in the year 7 b. c, when the bed 
of the river was cleared " ruderibus et eedificiorum prolapsionibus," 
deepened and widened, and its banks were lined with terminal 
stones, marking the extent of public property which the conserva- 
tors had rescued from private encroachment. Scores of these 
stones are still in existence. After the inundation of A. D. 15, 
which had caused what Tacitus describes as " aedificiorum et homi- 
num stragem," Tiberius referred the subject to Ateius Cajjito and 
L. Arruntius, the first of whom was a great authority on such mat- 
ters. They suggested, and the Emperor sanctioned, the institution 
of a permanent committee of five senators, to be called curatores 
riparum. This institution lasted until the reign of Vespasian or 
Domitian, when we hear for the first time of one conservator only, 
a patrician, assisted by two adiutores of equestrian rank. In or 
about A. D. 101 the care of the sewers was added to that of the 
Tiber, and this important branch of the city administration 
received the title of .'itatio alvei Tiheris et cloacarum. About 330 
the chief conservator exchanged his classic title for that of consu- 
laris, and about 400 for that of comes. Archaeologists have been 

1 Cicero, Ad Attic, xxxiii. 3. Caesar's project was brought forward again 
in 1879. See Zucchelli, Di una nuova inalveazione del Tevere. Rome, For- 
zaui, 1879. 




able to draw an almost complete chronology of these officers from 
the terminal stones on which their names are engraved. 

Literature. — Corpus Inscr., vol. i. p. 180; vol. vi. p. 266. — Theodor 
Mominsen, Staatsrecht, ii^, p. 1047. — Giuseppe Gatti, Bull. comm. arch., vol. 
XV., 1887, p. 306. — Thedenat, Dictiunn. antiq. grecques et ram. de Saglio, 
vol. i. p. 162-3. — Luigi C'aiitarelli, Bull. comm. arch., vol. xvii., 1889, p. 185; 
vol. xxii., 1894, pp. 89 and 354. — Dante Vaglieri, Bull. comm. arch., vol. 
xxii., 1894, p. -254. 

Two means were adopted in im[)erial times to protect the city 
[rom floods — an embankment on either side, and the shortening 
of the bed between the city and the sea. 

First, as to the embankment. We have seen how the Tiber is 
siibjeot to differences of level, which reached to 12.86 metres in 
tlie flood of Clement VIII., increasing foui'teen times the volume 
of its waters. To give such a capricious river a regular outlet, 
modern engineers have built a uniform bed 1(10 metres in width, 
which has to serve both for droughts and for floods. Their pre- 

Modern embankment 

Fig. 5. 

decessors, on the other hand, had adopted a triple section, the 
narrowest to serve in time of drought, the second in moderate, 
tlie third in extraordinary floods, as shown in the following 
diagram : — 

Ancient embankment 


Fig. 6. 

The advantages of the old over the modern system are obvious. 
With the old the river was obliged to run in every season of the 
year within limits well defined, and proportioned to its volume, 



"without raising sandbanks and depositing silt and mud. The 
moderate heiglit of each of the three receding steps allowed the 
river to preserve its pleasing aspect, as is the case in many of the 
modern capitals of Europe ; while the huge walls between which 
we have imprisoned the stream have transformed it into a deep 
and unsightly channel, with nothing to relieve the monotony of 
its banks. 

Side outlets to relieve the flood and shorten its course towards 
the sea were first cut open by Claudius. An inscrii^tion discovered 
at Porto in 1836 contains the expression : fossis dvctis vrbem 
iNA^NDATioxis PEKicvLO LiBERAviT (see Corpus Inscr., vol. xiv. 
n. 85). Trajan changed the course of the channels. Another 
fragmentary inscription, now in the cloisters of S. Paul outside 
the Walls, says of him : fossam fecit q\A iNVNdationes Tiberis 
GDSIDVE \rhem vexardes . . . arcerentur. This subject has been 
exhaustively treated by — 

Pietro Ercole Visconti, Dissertazioni Accad. archeol., vol. viii. (1838), p. 
213. — Luigi Caniiia, Ibid., p. 259. — Antonio Nibby, Dintorni di Roma, vol. 
ii. p. 612. — Reifferscheid, Bull, hist., 186-3, p. 8. — Charles Texier, Revue 
gen. d' Architecture, vol. xv. p. 306, pis. 31, 32. — Rodolfo Lanciani, Ricerche 
mlla citta di Porto (in Ann. Inst., vol. xl., 1868, p. 144.) Corpus Inscr. Lat., 
vol. xiv. p. 22, n. 88. 

The following cut represents the mouth of the navigable arm 
of the river at Fiumicino, which is the modern representative of 
the fossa Traiana : — 

Fig. 7. — The Mouth of the Tiber at Fiumicino. 

The characteristics of the Tiber are, first, the supposed whole- 
some qualities of its water, the favorite beverage of Clement VII., 


Paul III., and Gi^egory XIII. This simply proves that the three 
pontiffs were proof against tji^hoid, for the river was then, as it 
continued up to 1890, the true Cloaca Maxima of the city. The 
second is the abundance and regularity of its feeding springs, in 
consetjuence of which the river has never changed in volume and 
level within historical times. There is a tendency to believe that 
the Tiber was much lower in old times, because Pliny (xxxvi. 24, 2) 
speaks of Agripi)a being rowed into the Cloaca .Maxima, the 
moutli of which it is now impossible to enter. Observations made 
in 1S(J!( by Padre Secchi at the marble wharf (Marmorata), and 
by the engineers of the embankment, prove that since the fall of 
the Empire the bed of the river has hardly risen three feet. 
AVhile this fact is absolutely certain, it gives rise to problems 
which are difficult to solve. 

In the si)ring of 1879 a Roman house was discovered on the 
right l)ank, in the gardens of la Farnesina, the paintings and 
stuccoed panels of which have become famous in the artistic world, 
and form the best ornament of the ^luseo delle Terme. 

The pavements of this noble mansion were only 8 metres 
and 20 centimetres above the level of the sea, and about 3 
metres above that of the river. During the four months employed 
by us in removing the frescoes and the stucco panels, the Tiber 
entered the house five times. Taking ten times as a yearly 
average, the paintings and the stuccoes must have been washed 
by ordinary floods four thousand times, from the age of Augustus, 
to which the house belongs, to the fall of the Empire ; and yet 
frescoes and stuccoes were in perfect condition, and showed no 
sign of having been spoilt by water. I have not yet found a 
satisfactory solution of the problem ; because, even admitting the 
existence of an embankment between the house and the river, 
drains would always have provided a way for the flood. 

Literature. — Xotizie (lefjll Scari, 1880, p. 127, pis. 4, 5. — Monumenti 
inediti dell' Instiittto, Supplenu-nto ISltl. — ^Yolfgang Helbig, Collections of 
Antiquities in Rome, vol. ii. p. 2-20. — Kodolfo Lanciani, Far/an and Christian 
Borne, p. 2*)3. 

The Tiber was celebrated for its fish. There is a work on this 
subject by Paolo Giovio, translated from Latin into Italian by 
Carlo Zangarolo. ^lacrobius, Pliny, and Juvenal praise above 
all the hipus, when caught " inter duos pontes " (in the waters of 
S. Bartolomeo's island), where he fed on the refuse of the Cloaca 
^laxima. The lupus has been identified by some "v\ith the 
" spigola " or Pcrca lehrax, by others with the " laccia " or Clupea 


alosa, better known by the name of shad, the best Tiberine fish 
of the present day. There is a bas-relief in the Capitol, represent- 
ing a sturgeon 16 inches long, with the text of an edict of 1581 
providing that any sturgeon caught in Roman waters exceeding 
the statute size would be considered the property of the city 

VI. Bridges. 

Literature. — Gio. Battista Piranesi, Opere, vol. iv., Ponti antichi, etc. — 
Stefano Piale, Degli antichi ponti di Roma. Rome, 183-2. — Adolf Becker, 
De muris, p. 78; aud Tojwgraphie, p, 093. — Tlieodor Moniiusen, Berichte der 
scichs. Gesellschajl dtr Wiss., 1850, p. 320. — Heinrich Jordan, Die Briickeii. 
(Topographic, vol. i. p. 393.) — Mayerlioefer, Die Briicken in alien Rom, 1883.— 
Zippel, Die Briicken in alien Rom. (Jahrbucli fiir klass. Phil., 1880, p. 81.) — 
Otto Richter, Die Befestigung des Janiculum. Berlin, 1882. 

Pons sublicius, the oldest of Roman bridges. — Its antiquity 
is proved not so much by the tradition which attributes it to 
Ancus Marcius, as by the fact that no iron was used in its original 
construction, or in subsequent repairs. Pliny (H. N., xxxvi. 15, 
23), ignorant as he was of " Pre-history," gives a wrong explana- 
tion of the fact when he introduces the story of Horatius Codes, 
whose followers experienced so much difficulty in cutting it down 
in the face of the enemy. Such was not the case. Iron was pro- 
scribed irom the structure for the same reason which prevented 
masons or stonecutters from using tools of that metal in repairing 
some of the oldest temples ; for instance, that of the Dea Dia 
(see " Ancient Rome," p. 41). At that time the Romans lived still 
" morally " in the age of bronze, and felt a religious repulsion 
for the new metal. 

The bridge was carried away by a flood in 2-3 b. c, perhaps the 
same mentioned by Horace (Od., i. 2) ; and again in the time of 
Antoninus Pius. On either occasion it was restored according to 
the old rite.i It seems almost certain that, if the frame and 
the roadway were of timber and planks {mhlicia),i\\& foundations 
in mid-stream must have been of solid masonry.^ The piers were 
prominent enough above the water-mark to make the memory of 
the bridge last through the Middle Ages, when we hear very often 

1 See Dionysius, iii. 45 ; Pliny, xxxvi. 5, 23 ; Macrobius, i. 11; and Vita 
Antonin., viii. 

2 Servius, u^n. viii. 046, says of Porsenna: cnm jper sublicium pontem, hoc est 
ligneum qui modo lapidens dicitur, fransire conaretiir ; but his words deserve 
little credit. (See ^thicus, Cosmogr., in Jordan's Topogr., i. 393, n. 1.) 



of a " pons fractus iuxta Marmoratam." They were destroyed 
to the water's edge under Sixtus IV. •• On July 28, 1484," says 
the Diary of lufessura, " Pope Sixtus sent into camp 400 large 
cannon-balls, made of travertine, from the remains of a bridge at 
La Marmorata, called • il ponte di Orazio Codes.' " The last traces 
were blown up in 1877 to clear the bed of the river. 

Literature. — Carlo Fea, in Winckelmanii's edit. Prato, 18;52, vol. xi. 
pp. 379-400. — Antonio Xibby, Roma antica, vol. i. \t. 19!l. 

Poxs Fabricius (Ponte Quattro capi). — Tlie island of .Escu- 
lapius niust have been joined to the left bank by a wooden bridge 

Fig. 8. — The iBmilian, Fabriciaii, Ccstiau Bridges, and the Ishiud in Uie Tiber. 

as early as 192 b. c. (see Li\y, xxxv. 21, .5) ; another structure nf 
the same kind is supposed to have joined the island witli tin- 
Trastevere and the fortified summit of the Janiculum. In tlu; 
year 62 b. c. Lucius Fabricius, commis.sioner of roads, tran,s- 
formed the first into a solid stone bridge. The inscriptions which 
commemorate the event, engraved below the parapets on either 
side, are followed by a declaration signed by P. Lepidus and M. 
Lollius, consuls in 21 b. c. that the work had been duly and satis- 
factorily executed. From this declaration we learn one of the 
wise principles of the Roman administration — that the contrac- 
tors and builders of bridges were held responsible for their solidity 


for forty years, so that they would regain possession of the de- 
posit which tliey made in advance only in the forty-first year 
after it liad been made. Nothing speaks more highly in favor of 
the bridge than the fact that it is the only one which has survived 
intact the vicissitudes of 1957 years. It has two arches and a 
smaller one in the pier between them ; a fourth is concealed by 
the modern embankment on the left. 

The student must remember that the streets of ancient Rome 
were from three to five metres lower than the present ones, while 
the bridges have remained the same ; the inclines which gave 
access to them were, therefore, much longer and steeper than 
they are now, and offered space for several more openings or 
arches, which have since been buried by the accumulation of the 
soil. These steep inclines were called 2^Gdet> pontic, and coscice in 
the Middle Ages. 

The Pons Fabricius took the name of Pons Judaeorum when the 
Jewish colony settled in the neighboring quarter. It is now 
called dei Quattro Capi, from the four-headed hermce which once 
supported the panels of the parapet. There are only two left in 
situ. The river, unfortunately, no longer flows under this most 
perfect of Roman bi'idges ; by a miscalculation in the plan of the 
new embankment the channel has been dried up, and the Ship of 
^sculapius has stranded on a mudbank. 

Literature. — Luigi Caniua, Edijizii di Roma antica, vol. iv. tav. 242. 
— Corpus Inscr., vol. i. p. 174, ii. 600 ; vol. vi. n. 1305. 

Pons Cestius, Pons Gratianus, Ponte di S. Bartolomeo, between 
the island and the Trastevere. — Its construction is attributed 
to Lucius Cestius, one of the six magistrates whom Csesar en- 
trusted with the government of Rome on leaving for Spain in 
46 B. c. It was rebuilt by L. Aurelius Avianius Symmachus, pre- 
fect of the city, in a. d. 365, and dedicated in the spring of 370 
to the Emperor Gratianus. (See Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. p. 245, 
n. 1175.) Its third restoration took place in the eleventh 
century in the time of Benedict VIII. ; the inscription which 
commemorates it describes the bridge as fere dirvtvm in tliose 
days. In 1849, the followers of Garibaldi threw one of the in- 
scriptions of Gratianus into the stream. The bridge was altered 
completely in 1886-89, so that of the three arches only the central 
one is ancient. In the course of the last work it was found 
that the blocks of travertine used by Symmachns in the restora- 
tions of 36.5-370 had been taken away from the theatre of Mar- 




cellus, mainly from the lo\Yei- (Doric) arcades of the hemicycle. 
He liad also made use of stones bearing historical inscriptions of 
the time of Trajan. 

The two bridges made an architectural and pictorial group 
with the Ship of iEsculapius.^ It is not known when and by 
whom the island was turned into this form. As far as we can 


f: -.-".. .„^ 

' *-a»4 ■ -H 

• -nttrrHt^-' ~ - - 

(«.■ ^^, 


Fig. 9. — The Stern of the Ship of ^sculapius. 

judge from the fragment of the stern, represented in the cut above, 
the imitation must have been perfect in every detail. The ship, 
however, did not appear as if it w'as floating on the river, excej)t 
in time of flood, because it rested on a platform 2 metres above 
low-water mark. It was entirely built of travertine, and measured 
280 metres between the perpendiculars, with a beam of 76 metres. 
An obelisk, pieces of which are now preserved in Naples, repre- 
sented the main-mast. 

A fanciful copy of this island exists in the Villa d' Este at Tivoli 
as a part of the plan, or rather model in full relief, of the city 

1 Literatin-e on the Island of TEsculapius.— Corf. Vat., Sim, f. 42; Jordan, 
Forma Urbis, ix. 42; Corpus fnscr., vol. vi. n. 9-12, 9824; Accad. Rom. 
Arch.: sessionc 20 genn. 1881; Becker, Topo(jr., p. 651; Richter, Toporjr., 
p. 158; Gamucci, Antich. di Roma, iv. p, 279; Nibby, Roma antica, ii. 291. 


of Rome which Pirro Ligorio added to the curiosities of that 
delightful place. A stream, derived from the Auio, represents the 
Tiber, on which the ship appears to be floating, with the obelisk 
in the place of the mast and the coat-of-arms of Cardinal Ippolito 
instead of the emblems of the " merciful God." 

LiTEKATUKE. — Gio. Battista Piranesi, Anticliita di Roma, vol. iv. pis. 23, 
24. — Antonio Nibbj', Roma antica, vol. i. p. 167. — P. Bonato, Annali 
tiocieta archit. itallani, vol. iv., 1889, p. 139. — Notizie degli Scavi, 1886, 
p. 159; 1889, p. 70. 

Pons JEmilius. — In the early days of Rome there was but 
one line of communication with the Janiculum and with the cities 
on the coast of Etruria : the road that passed over the Sublician 
bridge, crossed the plain of Trastevere by S. Cosimato, and 
ascended the Janiculum by the Villa Spada. Livy (i. 33 ; v. 40) 
and Valerius Maximus (i. 1, 10) describe it, on the occasion of 
the flight of the Vestals to Veil ; and Fabretti (De Aq., i. 18, p. 43) 
speaks of its rediscovery in the seventeenth century. He saw a 
long piece of the jiavement between the bridge and S. Cosimato ; 
and where the pavement was missing, as between the Villa Spada 
(de Nobili) and the church of S. Pietro Montorio, its course was 
marked by a line of tombs on either side. Tlie ascent up the hill 
was exceedingly steep, and hardly fit for carriage traffic. Things, 
however, were improved in the sixth century of Rome, when a 
new bridge and a new and better road were built. M. ^milius 
Lepidus and M. Fulvius Nobilior, censors in b. c. 181, founded the 
piers ; the arches were added and the bridge was finished thirty- 
eight years later. The new road, the Lungaretta of the present 
day. was then ti-aced across the low swampy plain of Trastevere, 
partly on an embankment, partly on viaducts built of stone. One 
of these viaducts was discovered in 1889 near the Piazza di S. 
Grisogono, and is described in the Bull. arch, com., 1889, p. 475, 
and 1890, pp. 6, 57. 

The Pons ^milius, owing to its slanting position across the 
river and to the side pressure of the floods against its piers, has 
been carried away at least four times : the first during or shortly 
before the reign of Probus (about a. d. 280) ; the second in 1230, 
when it was rebuilt by Gregory IX. ; the third on September 27, 
1557 (rebuilt by Gregory XIII.) ; the fourth on December 24, 
1598, after which it was never rej^aired. There is but one arch 
left now in mid-stream, the two on the right having been destroyeo" 
in 1887. 



LiTERATfKE. — Heiiuich Jordan, Tapographit, i. p. 420. — Pietro Lauciaiii, 
Del ponte senatorio. Kome, 1826. — Gio. Battista de Rosi<i, Le prime raccoUe, 
etc., p. 57. — Filippo Bonanni, Numism. poiitlf., vol. i. p. -323, n. 38, 39. 

Bridge of Agrippa. — A stone cippus, discovered in August, 
1877, behind the church of S. Biagio della Pagnotta, near the 
Strada Giulia, has revealed the existence and the name of a bridge 
of which nol)ody had ever heard before, either from classic writers, 
or from inscriptions, coins, or other such soui'ces of information. 

The inscription reads as follows : " Bj- order of Tiberius Claudius 



Line of new embankment 





Tomb of/--. 

Garden of La Farnesina 

A !* 



''■^-/— "-^--i/ne of new embankment 

Fig. 10. — Foundations of Bridge (?) above the Ponte Sisto. 

Csesar, etc., we, Paullus Fabius Persicus, C. Eggius Marullus, C. 
Obellius Rufus, L. Sergius Paullus, L. Scribonius Libo, chief con- 
servators of the Tiber and its banks, have marked with cippi tlie 
limits of public property (on the left bank) from the Tricjarinm to 
the Bridge of Agrippa (ad pontrm Af/rippa)." 

The Trigarium was an oi)en space, near the Strada Giulia, for 
the breaking in and training of horses, for which luirjiose the 
ancients availed themselves of the trigaAhe untamed animal being 
harnessed between two trained ones. As regards the Bridge of 
Agrippa, all our science is at a loss to explain the mystery. It 
seems impossible that there should have existed in Eome a large 
bridge, thrown across the Tiber by such a man as Agrippa, in the 
golden age of Augustus, and yet that not a trace should be left of 
it in situ or in wi'itten or engraved documents. Two solutions 
are more or less acceptable. The first is that the bridge now- 
called Ponte Sisto may have been originally the work of Agrippa. 
Its history is unknown. From the name of Pons Aurelius or 


Pons Antouiiii, given to it in the third century, its construction has 
been attributed to Caracalla. Caracalla, however, may have been 
simply a restorer, as we know that Roman bridges used to change 
their names after every restoration. The second theory is that 
Agrippa's bridge was swept away by a flood soon after the accession 
of Claudius, and that its remains were carefully removed to restore 
free navigation up and down stream. This surmise seems justified 
by the discovery made, 100 Jiietres above the Ponte Sisto, of what 
appear to be the remains of sunken piers, as shown in Fig. 10. 

These remains are lying so low under the bottom of the river, 
they are so irregular in shape and in their respective distances 
(9.30 metres, 11.50 metres, 23.50 metres), their construction 
shows such a curious mixture of large stones and rubble work, 
that I still hesitate to consider them to be the remains of Agrippa's 
mysterious bridge. 

LiTERATUEK. — Luigi Borsari, Notizie. degli Scavi, 1887, p. 323; and Bull, 
nrch. com., 1888, p. 92. — Christian Huelsen, j\Iit(heiluii(/en, vol. iv., 188!), 
p. 285. 

Pons ^lius (Ponte S. Angelo). — A volume could be written 
on this most histoi'ical of Roman bridges ; but I confine myself to 
the mention of the latest discoveries made in connection with it. 

The Pons ^-Elius was built in A. v>. 136 by Hadrian, together 
with the mausoleum to which it gave access. The construction 
was recorded by two inscriptions (Corpus Tnscriptionum, vi. 973), — 
copied by Giovanni Dondi dall' Orologio in the jubilee of 1375, — 
which fell into the river in the catastrophe of 1450. There were 
six arches visible before the transformation of the bridge in 1892 ; 
two more have been discovered since in the long incline of the 
left bank, making a total of eight, of which three only served 
in the dry season. When the mausoleum was transformed into a 
fort or tete de pont in 403, the bridge was closed with two gates, 
one at each end. The gate facing the Campus Martins is called 
Avprixla by Procopius ; ^ the other, facing the Vatican, was named 
Porta S. Petri in Hadrian io, "Hadrianium" meaning the fort. 

The access to the bridge from the Campus Martins is repre- 
sented in the following remarkable photograph taken in July, 
1892. The incline is 40 metres long, with a gradient of eleven 
per cent. The roadway is paved in the ordinary Roman fashion, 
the side pavement being of slabs of travertine. The holes on the 
outer edges of the sidewalks mark the linP of the parapets, frag- 
1 Goth. i. 19. See Becker, De Maris, p. 113. 



ments of which have been found in situ. They were composed 
of pilasters and panels, very neatly carved. On December 19, 

Fig. 11. — The Incline to the iElian Bridge from the Campus Martins (Left Bank). 

1450, while great crowds were returning from S. Peter's, where 
Nicholas V. had been showing- the Sudarium. a mule belonging to 
Cardinal Pietro Barltn became restive and caused a panic. Tlie 
parapets gave Avay imder the pressure, and one hundred and 
seventy-two pilgrims fell into the river. To prevent the recurrence 


of such a calamity, Nicholas V. opened the modern Piazza di 
Ponte (enlarged 1854) ; he also built two expiatory chapels at the 
entrance to the bridge, from the designs of Bernardo Rossellino. 
During the siege of the castle of S. Angelo in 1527, Clement VII. 
and his garrison were much exposed to shots fired by outposts 
concealed in the chapels. After his liberation the pope caused 
them to be demolished, and raised in their place two statues, of S. 
Peter by Lorenzetto and of S. Paid by Paolo Romano. The other 
statues, representing angels with the symbols of the Passion, were 
added by Bernini in 1668. In the course of the works of 1892 it 
was ascertained that the foundations of the chapels of Nicholas 
V. had been built with pieces of statuary and architectural 
marbles (described by Visconti in Bull. arch, com., 1892, p. 263). 

LiTEKATUKE. — Gio. Battista Piranesi, Antichita, vol. iv. — Antonio Nibby, 
Roma antlcn, vol. i. p. 159. — Eodolfo Lanciani, Jtiner. di EindtdJtn, p. 15 ; 
and Bull, com.., 1893, p. 14. — Liiigi Borsari, Notiziedegli (Scaw, 1892, p. 411. — 
Christian Huelsen, Mittheilungai, 1894, p. 321. 

A hundred metres below the Ponte S. Angelo the remains of 
another bridge appear at low water. It is probably the work of 
Nero, who did so much to beautify and enlarge the gardens in the 
district of the Vatican, which he had inherited from Agrippina 
the elder. The classic name of the bridge is not known, although 
many have been suggested (Neronianus, Vaticanus, Triumphalis). 
In the Middle Ages it was called Pons mptus ad S. Sjnritum in 
Saxia. See — 

Gio. Battista Piranesi, Antichita, vol. iv. pi. 13 ; vol. i. p. 13, n. 91 ; and 
Camp. Mart., pi. 45. — Stefano Piale, in Venuti's Roma antica, vol. ii. p. 190. 
— Antonio Niliby, Roma antica, vol. i. p. 205. 

Pons Valextinianus (Ponte Sisto). — The bridge of Valen- 
tinian I., represented by the modern Ponte Sisto, was one of the 
noblest structures spanning the river. It was rebuilt in 366 and 
367 by the same Symmachus whom I have mentioned in connec- 
tion with the Pons Gratianus, with the spoils and on the site of an 
older one (of Agrippa? or Caracalla?), and was dedicated to Va- 
lentinian and Valens. Overthrown by the inundation of 797 (?), 
it was repaired by Sixtus IV., in 1475, from the designs of Baccio 
Pontelli. In 1878, the branch of the river which flows under the 
first arch on the left having been diverted, the corresponding arch 
of Valentinian's bridge was found lying bodily on the bottom of 
the stream in such good order that the pieces of an inscription, 
which ran from one end to the other of the south parapet, were 


discovered in their proper succession. A triumphal arch which 
decorated the approach from tlie Campus ^lartius ^ had fallen also 
into the river, with the bronze statues and groups by which it was 
crowned. The pieces, recovered in 1878, are now' exhibited in the 
Museo delle Terme, except a head which found its way into the 

Fig. 12. — Bronze Head found in the Tiber. 

aiiti(|uarian market and was bought, many years later, by Ales- 
sandro Castellani. This remarkable head is of the highest im- 

1 As in classic times triumphal arches were raised on the Sacra Via leading 
to the Capitdlium, so in the Christian era they were raised on the roads con- 
verging towards S. Peter's; and es|iecially ad pedes pontium, at the foot of tlie 
bridges wliicli the jiilgrims crossed on their way to the Apostle's tomb. That 
of Gratianus Valentinianus and Tlieodosius stood in the Piazza di Ponte S. 
Angelo ; that of Arcadius, Honorius, and Theodosius at the approach to the 
Pons Vaticanus ; that of Valentinianus and Valens bv the Ponte Sisto. 


portance in regard to the controversy whether the bronze statues 
placed on this and other monuments of the end of the fourth 
century were contemporary works, or simply spoils from earlier 
edifices which were considered to answer the new purpose more or 
less satisfactorily ; and also whether the head was changed or not 
into a new likeness. Experts consider this head to be of better 
style than that prevalent in the second half of the fourth centui'y. 

The parapets were divided into panels by projecting pilasters. 
Each panel contains six or eight letters of an inscription which 
ran the whole length on either side, and each pilaster an in- 
scription of its own regarding the statue placed upon it. One of 
the pedestals found in 1892 is dedicated " to the august Victory, 
faithful companion of our lords and masters, the S. P. Q. R., 
under the care of Avianius Symmachus, ex-prefect of the city." 
Near it was lying the right wing of the statue of Victory. It is 
evident, therefore, that if a proper seai'ch were made in the bed of 
the river nearly all the bronzes of the bridge could be recovered. 

The fragments of the Pons Valeutinianus are dispersed in vari- 
ous corners of the Museo delle Ternie. The inscriptions of Sixtus 
IV. are in the Museo JMuiiicipale al Celio (Orto botanico). 

LiTEKATUKE. — Bull, (ircli . com., 1878, p. 241. — Rodolfo Lanciani, Ancient 
Rome, p. 257. — Theodor Mommsen, in Ephem. ejwjr., vol. iv. p. 279. — Chris- 
tian Huelseii, Mitlhellungen, 18!)2, p. 3213. 

VII. Traiectus (ferries). — The traffic between the two banks 
of the Tiber was cai'ried on also by means of ferries, known by 
the name of traiectus, the tra(/hetti of the present day. Each had 
a name of its own : like the traiectus LucuUi, Marmorariorum, 
Togatensium at Ostia (Corpus Inscriptionum, xiv. 254, 403, 42.5). 
The sites of the ferries at Home are marked by corresponding pos- 
terns in the walls of Aurelian, along the banks of the Campus 
Martins : thei'e was one at the Porto di Ripetta, others at the Porto 
della Tinta, at the Posterula Domitia, at the Porto dell' Armata, 
etc. The ferries of the Armata and Ripetta lasted till 1887. 

Literature. — Bidl. arch, com.., 1889, p. 175 ; and Nolli's Pianta di Roma, 

VIII. Ob.jects of Value in the Bed of the River. — 

The belief in their existence dates from the Middle Ages. Leav- 
ing aside the old stories of the seven-branched candlestick and 
of tlie gold-plate of Agostino Chigi, which rest on no foundation of 
truth, the dredging works carried out since 1877 prove that the 
bed of the Tiber contains a marvelous quantity of objects of value, 


from bronze statues, masterpieces of GrEeco-Roman art, down to 
the smallest articles of personal wear, from Hint arrowheads of 
preliistoric times to the weapons used in fighting the French in 
1849. The dredging, unfortunately, has been only superficial, its 
purpose being to give the stream a uniform depth of 9 feet ; 
while the objects of value have been absorbed to depths which 
vary from 3 to 35 feet below the bottom of the river. Twice 
only the maximum depth has been reached (Ponte Garibaldi, 
Ponte Sisto), and on either occasion a great mass of works of 
art or antiquity has been gathered.^ By comparing these discov- 
eries with those made in the foundation of the embankment walls, 
we have satisfied ourselves on several points : — 

1. That, however great the absorbing power of mud and sand- 
banks is, the objects are not so deeply hidden as to be beyond the 
reach of man. 

"2. That the i)ower of the current to wash lieavy objects down 
stream, even in time of flood, is moderate. A fragment of the 
annals of the Salii palatini, which fell or was thrown into the 
river at the Sponda della Regola towards the end of the fifth 
century, was recovered in 18W1, .5.50 metres below that point. The 
fragment had traveled, therefore, at the slow rate of 39 metres per 

3. That there is a certain chronological regularity in the 
strata of sunken objects, each stratum corres})onding to one of 
the revolutions, sieges, and political disturbances so frequent in 
the history of Home. The higher strata are contemporary with 
the siege and capture of the city by General Oudinot, when 
thousands of " improvised " war weapons were thrown into the 
river to avoid detection. There are traces of the disturbances 
of 1831, of the French Revolution, and of the Napoleonic Avars. 
These objects are more curious than valuable. The real wealth 
begins with the layer corresponding to the Sacco di Roma of 1527, 
not to speak of mediaeval or barbaric invasions. For two or three 
years the average of coins dredged up amounted to twelve hun- 
dred per month, mostly coppers of the last tM'o centuries, even 
of popes whose reigns were peaceful and undisturbed. How 
did they happen to be there ? The solution of the mystery lies, 
perhaps, in the fact that the dirt collected from the streets or 
from private houses was thrown daily into the river at two points, 
"la Penna" above Ripetta, and S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini. To 
lose money in the streets is a rare occurrence, but at home it hap- 
1 See AncH-nt Rome, p. 257. 



pens very easily : coppers may drop on the carpets and roll under 

pieces of furniture, and when 
servants sweep the rooms the 
coins may get mixed up with 
the dust. Such refuse has been 
thrown into the river for 
many centuries. 

4. That the objects sunk 
in the river are recovered in 
good condition, whether of 
terra-cotta, or marble, or metal, 
iroir excluded. Iron not only 
gets rusty and almost dis- 
solved in water, but imparts 
to marble — if in contact with 
it — a deep reddish hue, which 
is qiiite characteristic of the 
Tiberine scidpture. Brass Im- 
perial and Republican coins 
are splendidly preserved, but 
W'ithout " patina," which 
makes them less valuable in 
tlie market. 

I can give no better evi- 
dence of the care which Old 
Father Tiber has taken of the 
works of art intrusted to him 
than by reproducing liere one 
of the marble statues found in 
his bed not long ago. This 
archaic Apollo, a copy of a 
bronze original, is now exhib- 
ited in a cabinet of the Museo 
delle Terme on the south side 
of the quadrangle. A short 
notice of the find is given 
in the " Mittheilungen " of 

1891, p. 802. Compare " Notizie degli Scavi," 1891, pp. 287 and 

337 ; Ilelbig's " Guide," vol. ii. p. 21-1, n. 1028. 

Fig. 13. — Statue found in the Tiber. 

IX. Cloac'.e (drains). — The hills of the left bank, from the 
Pincian to the C'ajlian, follow one another so as to make three val- 



leys, each having its o\Yn outlet for spring, rain, and waste waters. 
The northern basin, between the Pincian and the Quirinal, was 
di'ained by the river Petronia, which collected the Sallustian 
springs, and fell into the Tiber a little above oui- Ponte Garibaldi ; 
the middle basin, between the Quirinal and the Esquiline, by a 
river probably called Spinon, which collected the waters of the 
Vicus Longus, Vicus Patricius, and the Subura, crossed the Argi- 
letum, the Forum, and the Velabrum, and joined the Tiber at the 

Fig. 14. — The Course of tlie Cloaca Maxima. 

present mouth of tlie Cloaca ^Maxima ; the southern basin, lietween 
the Esquiline, the CcTelian, and the Aventine. by a third river (Xo- 
dinus), :3G0() metres long. After receiving eight tributaries from 
the springs of Apollo, of the Camoenaj, of ^lercury, of the Piscina 
Publica, etc., it emptied itself into the Tiber a little below the 
mouth of the Cloaca Maxima. (See map, Fig. 1.) 

The first step towards the regulation of these three rivers was 
taken even before the advent of the Tarquins. Their banks were 
then lined with great square blocks of stone, leaving a channel 
about 5 feet wide, so as to prevent the spreading and the wander- 
ing of flood-water, and provide the swampy valleys with a perma- 
nent drainage ; but, strange to say, the course of the streams was 
not straightened nor shortened. If the reader looks at the map 
above (Fig. 14), representing the course of the Cloaca Maxima 
tlirough the Argiletum and the Velabrum, he will find it so 
twisted and irregular as to resemljle an Alpine torrent more than 
a drain built h\ skillful Etruscan engineers. The same thing may 
be repeated for the other main lines of drainage in the valleys 
Sallustiana, Murcia, etc. When the increase of the population 
and the extension of the city bej'ond the boundaries of the Pala- 
tine made it necessary to cover those channels and make them run 


underground, it was too late to think of straightening their course, 
because their banks were already fixed and built over. 

The Roman cloacae have been overpraised. It is certainly a 
marvelous fact that some of them were still in use a few years 
ago, after a lapse of twenty-six centuries ; but they bid defiance 
to modern sanitary principles. First of all, they served to carry 
off the sewage and the rain-water together. This double employ- 
ment made it necessary to have large openings along the street, 
which exposed the popidation to the effluvia of the sewers. In 
the third place, the sewers emptied themselves directly into the 
Tiber, thus polluting its waters, which were vised not only for 
bathing but also for drinking purposes. Only six years ago did 
the Tiber cease to be the cesspool of Rome. It must also be 
borne in mind that the "latrina" of Roman houses was incon- 
veniently placed next the kitchen, and the same cloaca was used 
for the sinks. Against such great dangers to public and private 
health the Romans had but two protections : the masses of water 
by which the drains were constantly Hushed, and the hilly nature 
of the city ground, which allowed them to give the drains a steep 

Drains dating from the time of the Kings or of the Republic 
are built of blocks of peperino and lapis Gabinus (sperone), those 
of the Imperial period of bricks. Two tiles, placed against each 
other in a slanting position, form the roof ; the floor is made of 
a large tile slightly convex. There are no sluices or flood-gates. 

The Cloaca Maxima and tliat of the Vallis Murcia (described 
in Ancient Rome. p. 54 ; and Bull. arch, com., 1892, \i. 279) are by 
no means alone in respect of their size, length, and magnificence 
of construction. There is a third, discovered by I^nrico Narducci 
in the ])lain of the Circus Flaminius, equal, if not superior, to 
them. The section which Narducci explored in 1880 begins at 
the corner of Via Paganica with the Piazza Mattel, and runs in a 
straight line to the Tiber, by the Ponte Garibaldi. Its side walls 
are built of blocks of lapis Gabinus, some of which measure 45 
cubic feet ; the arched roof is made of five blocks only, wedged 
together ; the floor is paved like that of a Roman road. It runs 
at the considerable depth of 9.53 metres under the modern city. 
(See Bull. Inst.. 1881, p. 209.) 

We must remember that these great sewers were built through 
marshes and ponds, and generally through a soil soaked with 
spring-water. Rome may be said to be floating over this subter- 
ranean alluvium even now. In the sixty days required to build 


the sewer of the Via del Babuino in 1875, 650,000 cubic metres of 
water were absorbed by seven steam pumps. The inundation of 
the Coliseum in 187S could not possibly be got under control : 
powerful engines only lowered it by a few inches, and it cost tlie 
city nearly one million lire to provide the Coliseum with a regular 

The level of the subterranean flood has risen since Roman 
times. In the foundations of the Banca di Roma and of tlie 
Palazzo Canale, on either side of the Via Poli, the pavement of a 
street was found under two feet of water. The cellars of the wine 
docks, discovered in 1877 in the gardens of la Farnesina (celUe 
riiiarice Nova et Arruntiana), were flooded up to the key of their 
vaulted roofs. The chefs-d'oeuvre of Saitic art, discovered by 
Tranquilli in 1858 in the sacred area of the Iseum, near the ajxse 
of la Minerva, were lying on the floor of the peristyle tliree feet 
under water. An excavation made by Parker in 18(J9 in Cara- 
calla's Baths, by SS. Nereo and Achiileo, in the Via di Porta 8. Se- 
bastiano, had to be given up, although successful, in conseijuence 
of the invasion of spring-water. 

In the many hundred antique drains discovered in my time, I 
have never seen a sign of communication with the houses lining 
tlie streets through whicli the drains passed. All the side chan- 
nels which emi)ty into the Cloaca Maxima, from the Forum Au- 
gustum to the Tiber, belong to streets or public buildings — none 
to private dwellings. The same observation has been made with 
regai'd to the sewers of the Escjuiline, Viminal, etc. This fact would 
lead us to believe that cesspools, or pozzl neri, were more popu- 
lar in R(mie than the latrina, communicating directly with the 
public sewei-. Yet only one pozzo ncro has been found in our 
excavations. It is described in the Bull. arch, com., 1892, p. 285. 
In the same periodical, 1873, p. 24:$, pi. ii., .3, there is a description 
and the design of a latrina discovered in the drilling grounds of 
the Praetorians, Via Magenta., No. 2. Fig. 15 (next page) repre- 
sents the latrina annexed to the guest-rooms of the Villa Adri- 
an a. 

LiTEKATUKE. — Antlke Denkmdler of the German Arch. Inst., vol. i., 1889, 
taf. xxxvii. — £«//. arch, com., 1872, p. 279; 1890, p. 95, pis. 7, 8. — Pietro 
NardiK'ci, Focpintura della clttu di Roma sulla siniglra del Tevere, Rome, 1884; 
and Roma notterranea, Ulustraz. della cloaca massima, 1885. — Codex Ixxv. 68, 
in the Kinfj's Lihvarv, B. M., p. 15. — Theodor Schreiber, Berichte der sacks. 
GesellschaJ't der IViss., 1885, p. 78. — Rudolfo Lanciaui, Ancient Rome, p. 54. 



Fig. 15. — The Latrina annexed to the Guest-Rooms of tl 

X. The Quarries from which Rome was built. — The 

materials used in Roman constructions are the lapis ruber (tufa) ; 
tlie lapis Alhanus (peperino) ; the lapis Gabinus (sperone) ; the 
lapis Tiburtinus (travertino) ; the silex (selce) ; and bricks and 
tiles of various kinds. The cement was composed of pozzolana 
(0.67) and lime (0.33). Imported marbles came into fashion 
towards the end of the Republic, and became soon after the pride 
and glory of Rome. . 

A. Tufa (lapis ruber). — The only material which the first 
builders of Rome found at hand was the volcanic conglomerate 
called tufa. The (quality of the stone used in those early days 
was far from perfect. The walls of the Palatine hill and of the 
Capitoline citadel were built of material quarried on the spot — 
a mixture of charred pumice-stones and reddish volcanic sand. 
The quarries of the Palatine M-ill be described in the proper 
place. Those used for the fortifications of the Capitol were 
located at the foot of the hill towards the Argiletum, and were so 
important as to give their name, Lautumice, to the neighboring 
district. It is probable that the pi'ison called Tullianum, from a 
jet of water, tullus, which sprang from the rock, was originally a 
portion of this quarry. The tufa blocks employed by Servius 


Tullius for the building of the city walls, and of the agger, ai> 
pear to be of three (qualities — yellowish, reddish, and gray; the 
first, soft and easily broken up, seems to have been quarried from 
the Little Aventnie, near the church of S. Saba. The galleries 
of this ([uarry, much disfigured by mediaeval and modern use, can 
be followed to a considerable distance, although the collapsing 
of the vaults makes it dangerous to visit them. I have entered 
these recesses only twice, with the late ^Ir. J. H. Parker, while 
trying to rediscover the channel of the Aqua Appia, first seen and 
described by Raffaello Fabretti about 1675. I am not able to say 
where Servius found the reddish tufa (Cervara?). The quarries 
of the third quality were, or I'ather one of them was, discovered 
on February 7, 1^72, in the Vigna Querini. outside the Porta 8. 
Lorenzo, near the first milestone of the Vicolo di Valle Cupa. It 
was a surface (juarry, comprising five trenches IG feet wide, J) feet 
deep. Some of the blocks, already scjuared, were lying on the floor 
of the trenches, others were detached on two or tliree sides oidy, 
the size of others was sinqily traced on the rock by vertical or 
horizontal lines. (See illustration in Bull. arch, com., 18S8, pis. 
i., ii., figs. 3-G.) This tufa, better known by the name of cap])el- 
laccio, is very bad. The only buildings in which it was used, 
Itesides the inner wall of the Servian agger, are the platform of 
the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, in the gardens of the German 
Embassy, and the puticuli in the burial-grounds of the Esqui- 
line. Its use must have been given up before the end of the 
period of the Kings, in consecpience of the discovery of better 
quarries on the right bank of the Tiber, at the foot of the liills 
now called Monte Verde. A description of these last, still in use, 
can be found in the — 

Nnthie (h';/l! Scnv!, 188(5, p. 454; 1888, p. 1.30; 188!t, pp. 71 and 24:3.— AV//. 
arch, com., i892, p. 288. — MittheUungen, 1891, p. 14!i. 

They cover a space about one mile in length and a quarter of 
a mile wide on eacli side of the valley of Pozzo Pantaleo. In fact, 
this valle}-, which runs from the Via Portuensis towards the lake 
of the Villa Pamphili, seems to be artificial ; I mean, produced by 
the extraction of the rock by millions of cubic metres in the 
course of twenty-four centuries. If the work of the ancient 
quarrymen could be freed from the material which conceals 
it from view, we should possess within a few minutes' di'ive from 
the Porta Portese a reproduction of the famous mines of El ]Ma- 
sarah. with beds of rock cut into steps and terraces, with roads 


and lanes, shafts, inclines, underground passages, and outlets for 
the discluirge of rain-water. The cuttings on either side show two 
strata of tufa : the upper, 8 metres thick, is a very hard ash-col- 
ored rock resembling in texture the pudding-stone ; the lower, of 
a light red color and less comjaact, is fractured by seams and veins, 
so that it cannot be obtained in large blocks ; and as the purpose 
of the Romans was to obtain cubes from 3 to 5 feet long, as shown 
by a few left on the spot, they used the lower or reddish stone 
only to make prisms for reticulated masonry. The gallei'ies of 
the qiiarry vary in size from 10 to 20 feet, and their floor is lev- 
eled so as to conduct the rain-water to one central outlet, running 
towards the brook of Pozzo Pantaleo. AVhen a (piarry had given 
out, its galleries were filled up with the refuse of the neighboring 
ones — chips left over after the squaring of the blocks ; so that, in 
many cases, the color and texture of the chips do not correspond 
with those of the quarry in which they are found. Tins layer of 
refuse, transformed by time into humus, and worked upon by hu- 
man and atmospheric forces, has given the valley a different aspect, 
so that it looks as if it were the work not of quarrymen, but of 
nature. Some of the abandoned galleries were transformed into 
tombs and columbaria. One raised by Aurelius Niketa to his 
daughter iElianetis contains the following inscription : Fossor, vide 
ne fodias ! Deus inaynus oculus hahet. Vide, et tu'JiHos hales. 
Which means, " Quarryman, do not approach this tomb : the 
great God watches thee ; remember that thou also hast children." 
These words prove that tombs and (juarries were contemporary 
and not very far apart. 

Tufa may be found used in many existing monuments of an- 
cient Rome, such as the drains of the middle and southern basin 
of the left bank, the channels and arches of the Marcia and Anio 
vetus, the Servian walls, the temples of Fortuna Virilis, of Her- 
cules Magnus Gustos, the Rostra, tlie embankment of the Tiber, 
etc. The largest and most magnificent quarries in the suburban 
district are the so-called Grotte della Cervara. No words can 
convey an idea of their size and of the regularity of their plan. 
They seem to be the work of a fanciful architect who has hewn 
out of the rock halls and galleries, courts and vestibules, and imi- 
tated the forms of an Assyrian palace. The quarries of La Ger- 
vara, at the fiftli milestone of the Via Gollatina, are described 
by Strabo (lib. v.). 

B. Pkpkrixo (lapis Albanus). — For the study of the peperino 
mines, which contain a stone special to tlie Alban district, formed 


by the action of hot water on gray volcanic cinders, the reader 
should follow on foot the line of the new Albano railway, from the 
place called II Sassone to the town of Marino. Many of the 
valleys in this district, now made beautiful by vineyards and 
oliveyards, owe their existence to the pickaxe of the Roman 
stonecutter, like the valley of Pozzo Pantaleo. The most curious 
sight is a dolmen or isolated rock 10 metres high, left in the 
centre of one of the quarries to certify the thickness of the bed 
of rock excavated. In fact, the whole district is very interesting 
both to the archaeologist and to the paysaffiste. The mines of Ma- 
rino, still worked in the neighborhood of the railway station, would 
count, like the Grotte della Cervara, among the wonders of the 
C'ampagna, were they known to the student as they deserve to be. 

If the discovery of a piece of " xs grave signatum " in a seam 
of peperino near the Ponte di S. Gennaro, between Civita Lavinia 
and Velletri, could be proved true (by the exhilution not of the 
l)iece alone, but of its mould on the rock itself, which has not been 
done yet), the stone would ap]iear to be of modern formation. 

The principal Roman buildings in which the lapis Albanus 
has been used are: the Claudian acpieduct, the Cloaca Maxima, 
tlie temples of Antoninus and Faustina, of Cybele, of the Eventus 
Bomis, of Neptune, the inclosure wall of the Forum Augustum, 
Forum Ti'ansitorium, and Forum Pacis, the Porticus Argonauta- 
rum, Porticus Pompeii, the Ustrinum of the Appian Way, etc. 
The sarcopliagus of Cornelius Scipio Barbatus in the Vatican 
museum, and the tomb of the Tibicines in the JNIuseo Municipale 
al Celio are also of this stone. 

C. Travertixo (lapis Tibiirtinus). — (Quarried in the plains of 
Tivoli at places now called Le Caprine, Casal Bernini, and II Barco. 
This last was reopened aftei" an interval of many centuries by 
Count (i. Brazza, brother of the African explorer. Lost in the 
wilderness and overgrown with shrubs, it had not been examined, 
I believe, since the visit of Brocchi. It can be reached by stop- 
ping at the station of the Aqute Albiilse, on the Tivoli line, and 
following the ancient road which led to the works. This road, 
twice as wide as the Appian Way, is flanked by substructures, and 
is not paved, but macadamized. Parallel with it runs an aqueduct 
which supplied the works with motive power, derived probably 
from the sulphur springs. There are also remains of tombs, one 
of which, octagonal in shape, serves as a foundation to the farm- 
house del Barco. 

The most remarkable monument of the whole group is the 


Roman quarry froui which five and a half million cubic metres 
of travertine have been extracted, as proved by the measurement 
of the hollow space between the two opposite vertical sides. That 
this is the most important ancient quarry of travertine, and the 
largest one used by the Romans, is proved, in the first place, by 
its immense size. The sides show a frontage of more than two 
and a half kilometres ; the surface amounts to 500,000 square 
metres. The sides are quite perpendicular, and have the peculiar- 
ity of projecting buttresses, at an angle of 90°. Some of these 
buttresses are isolated on three sides, and still preserve the 
grooves, more or less deep, by means of which they could be 
separated from the solid mass ; these grooves vary in dejith from 
50 centimetres to 2 metres, and look fresh and sharp, as if 
the quarry had been abandoned only a short time ago. The 
second argument is furnished by the indirect traces of the work 
of man, which show that the excavation must at least be many 
centuries old. In order to keep the bottom of the works clean 
and free for the movenient of the carts, for the action of the 
cranes, and for the manoeuvres of the workmen, the chips, or 
useless product of the squaring of the blocks, were transported to 
a great distance, as far as the banks of the Anio, and there piled 
up to a great height. This is the origin of that chain of hills 
which runs parallel to the river, and of whose artificial formation 
no one, as far as I know, had the least suspicion. One of these 
hills, visible from every point of the neighbo)'ing district, from 
Hadrian's villa as well as from the Suljihur Baths, is elliptical in 
shape, 22 metres high, 90 metres long, and 65 metres wide. It 
can with reason be compared with our Testaccio. It is easy to 
imagine how immense must have been the number of blocks cut 
from the Cava del Barco during the period of the formation of 
this hill alone. Another proof of the antiquity of the quarry, and 
of its abandonment from Imperial times down to our own day, is 
given by this fact. The Aqute Albulse, the most copious sulphur 
springs of central Italy, collected into canals by the Romans and 
subjected to a scientific hydraulic regime, were allowed free play 
from the first barbaric invasion up to the sixteenth centuiy, when 
Cardinal Ippolito d' Este gathered them again into the channel 
which takes its name from him, and w^hich is in use at the present 
day. In this long period of abandonment it seems that the prin- 
cipal branch of the wandering waters directed its course towards 
the Cava del Barco, leaping from the rim of the nortli vertical 
side into the chasm below. This fall of water, saturated with 



carbonate and sulpliate of lime, and la.sting for many centuries, pro- 
duced the following effect. The north wall was concealed under 
a hard chalky incrustation, and transformed into a slope with an 
inclination of 45° or 50°. Tliis stratum of recent formation is, 
on an average, H metres wide at the base, and only a few centi- 
metres at the top. Stonecuttei's in the quarry are now obliged to 
remove this crust before reaching the ancient walls of travertine, 
which still preserve the traces of the blows of the Roman pickaxe. 
At the bottom of the quarry we meet with arother phenomenon. 
The stratum of chips which covers it has been cemented and 
pasted over by chalky sediments, forming beds and layers of a 
hard breccia resembling the pudding-stone. The southern walls 
of the quaiTy, on the contrary, are free from incrustations, a.s they 
have never been in contact with the sulphur water. 

The system now followed in qnarr\'ing tlie l>locks is the same 
as that which prevailed in old times. The fon-nian ascertains 


Fig. 16. — The Quarries of Travertine, Cava del Barco. 

the weak point of the rocky mass, and the vertical or horizontal 
line of the seams, and directs his men to jilace steel wedges alono- 
the weak line, and hammer them simultaneously, the moveiuent 
being timed to the rh\^hm of a song. This illustration, from a 
photograph which I took in December, 1893, explains the process 


better than any description could do. The large block in the 
foreground has already been detached on four sides, and the men 
are busy placing the steel wedges on the weak seam at the bottom. 
I need not say that as many men are required to hammer as 
there are wedges. Sometimes the task is accomplished at the first 
stroke, sometimes it requires half an hour's work. 

D. SiLEX (selce). — Used for rubble-work in small fragments, 
and for paving streets and roads in larger pieces of iientagonal 
shape. The stone was quarried from four lava streams which had 
flowed from the Alban volcanoes in the direction of Rome (Capo 
di Bove, Acqua Acetosa, Borghetto, and Monte Falcone), and from 
one stream of the Sabatine range (S. Maria di Galera). The 
working of the quarries, the cutting and shaping of the paving- 
stones, the laying in and repairing of pavements, was intrusted 
to a large body of trained men, organized in companies and di- 
rected by government officials.' The material was kept in store 
in a great state building named Castra Silicariorum, which may 
have served also as barracks for the Silicarii. The institution is 
still flourishing under the name of "Magazzino dei Selci." The 
present works occupy a large tract of land north of the Protestant 
cemetery in the plains of Testaccio. 

Pumice-stone was used occasionally by Roman masons to dimin- 
ish the weight and lateral pressure of great vaulted ceilings, as in 
the baths of C'aracalla. 

LiTEKATURE. — The introductory chapters of W\([A\eUm'ii Remains of An- 
cient Rome (2d ed. 1892), dealing with the site and sreneral features of the city, 
with the materials of which it is built, and with the methods of construction, 
are the best ever written on the subject. The author shows himself a special- 
ist of unrivaled knowledge. So thoroughly has he mastered the technicalities 
of ancient masonry and stonework that he makes clear and almost agreeable a 
subject which students have usually avoided as dry and difHcnlt to understand. 
An abridged memoir on the same subject, issued by the same author, is to be 
found in vol. xli. of the Ai-clHeolof/in, 1888: "On the Chief Methods of Con- 
struction used in Ancient Rome." 

Compare also, Giovanni Brocchi, Delia stafo Jisico del svulo di Roma, 1820, 
p. 10!); Antonio Nibhv, Dei mnteriaU imjrrer/ftti nelle fahhriche di Roma,delle 
cosli-Kzioni, e dello stile (in Roma antica, vol. i. p. 234); Faustino Corsi, Delle 
pietre antiche, Rome, 1845, pp. 11-76. 

XI. Bricks. — There are three collections of brick-stamps in 
Rome : one, of little value, in the Kircherian museum ; the second 

1 The procurator ad silices, cir procurator silicum viarum sacrce urhis, subject 
to the authority of the Minister of Public Works. (See Corpus Inscriptionum, 
vi. 1598; and Orelli-Henzen, n. 6519.) 


in the last room of the Vatican Library, past the " Nozze aldo- 
braudiue ; " the third and best in tiie INIiiseo Municipale al Celio. 
This last contains over a thousand specimens, and a unique set 
of the products of Roman kilns. In fact, the tirst hall of the 
Museo is set apart exclusively for the study of ancient building 
and decorative materials. 

Roman liricks were square, oblong, triangular, or round, the 
latter being used only to build columns in the Pompeian style. 
The square species comprises the tcfjukv hlpcdales, of 0.59 metre x 
(K.ISJ; the teyuUe sesquipedales, of 0.45 metre X 0.45; and the 
Idlercull bessales, used in hypocausts, of 0.'J"2 metre X 0.22. Arches 
were built of a variety of the hij)C(/(iles, of the same length, but only 
(1.22 in width, and slightly wedged. The triangular bricks were 
obtained by cutting diagonally a liijidn Iwssalh witii a wooden rule 
or a string before it was put into the kiln. T]u> largest bricks 
discovered in my time measure 1.05 metre in length. They were 
set into an arch of one of the great stairs leading to tiie avenue or 
boulevard, established in Inqtciial times on tlie lop of the agger 
of Servius (railway station). 

Roman l)ricks aic very often stamped with a seal, the legend 
of which contains tlie names of the owner and manager of the 
kihis, of tlie maker of the tile, of the merchant intrusted with tlie 
sale of the products, and of the consuls under whose term of office 
the bricks were made. These indications are not necessarily found 
all in one seal. 

The most inq)oi'tant of them is tlie consular date, because it 
hel|is tlie student to determine, within certain limits, the date of 
tJH^ l)uildiiig itself. The rule, however, is far from being absolute, 
and before iixing the date of a Roman structure from that of its 
brick stanq)S one must take into eonsideratitni many other points 
of circumstantial evidence. 

When we examine, for instance, the grain warehouses at Ostia, 
or Hadrian's villa at Tivoli, and find that their walls have never 
undergone repairs, that their masonry is characteristic of the first 
quarter of the second century, that their bricks bear the dates of 
Hadrian's age and no others, we may I'est assured that the stamps 
s])eak the truth. Tlieir evidence is, in such a case, conclusive. 
Rut if the l)ricks are variously dated, or bear the names of various 
kilns, and not of one or two only, then their value as an evidence 
of the date of a building is diminished, if not lost altogether. 

The following case, derived from personal experience, will ex- 
plain the point. Professor Jordan, in a remarkable speech deliv- 


ered on April 25, 1884, at the German Institute, attributed the 
house of the Vestals to the age of Hadrian, because he had found 
a stamp of Domitius Tullus (a. d. 59-95) on the south wing of 
the atrium ; three of Cn. Domitius Clemens (111-128) in the stairs 
leading to the first floor ; two of Rutilius Lupus (110-122) in one 
of the cells of the first floor ; and so on.^ Yet there was no doubt 
in my mind that the building was renewed from the foundation, 
and on a different plan, by Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, 
and tliat Hadrian had nothing to do with it. I was able to prove 
the case so clearly - that Jordan's theory was abandoned, and my 
contention as to the date was adopted. The presence of bricks of 
Hadrian's time can be easily explained. When Severus undertook 
the reconstruction of the house of the Vestals and of the whole 
adjoining quarter, which had been devastated by the fire of Corn- 
mod us, he began by leveling to the ground the remains of the 
buildings which had partly withstood the violence of the flames. 
The materials so saved were put aside and used in the reconstruc- 
tion of the Atrium Vestae. 

The circular seals have often a symbol in the centre — a figure 
of a god or a goddess, a leaf, a fruit, etc. Sometimes the symbol 
has a phonetic value. Thus we find the image of the wolf im- 
pressed on the tiles of INI. Rutilius Lupus ; of the wild boar on 
those of Flavins Aper ; of the eagle on those of Aquilia Sozomena ; 
the wreath {(rTf< on those of C. Jiilius Stephanus, etc. 

The name of the building for which the bricks were destined 
appears only in three seals : Castris Pra'toris, " for the prsetorian 
camp;" Partus Atu/usli, "for the Claudian harbor at Ostia ; " and 
Partus Traiani, " for the harbor of Civitavecchia." 

Brick-kilns were called figUnct., theu" sections or workshops 
ojficince. The kilns were named either after their owner, Ac'dia- 
nce, Fulviance, etc. ; from their being situated in a district, Sala- 
renses, de via Aurelia, etc.; or from the street on which they were 
placed, a Pila alta, ah Euripa, ad Mercurium felicem. It is possi- 
ble, however, that some fanciful name might have been, selected 
without any reference to the owner or to the site of the works. 
The sheds under which the materials were kept ready for sale or 
for shijiment were called horrea and partus respectively. 

The legends sometimes show curious mistakes of spelling : opup 
for opus; phi</([mi^.) iov Jig (\ms^) ; pradia ior pra'dia, etc. 

The bricks, again, occasionally bear curious signs, such as foot- 
marks of chickens, dogs, or pigs, which stepped over them while 
1 See Bull. Inst., 1884, p. 92. 2 Jhid,^ p. 145. 


still fresh, impressions of coins and medals, words or sentences 
scratched with a nail, etc. A bricklayer, who had perhaps seen 
better times in his youth, wrote on a tegula bipedalis the first 
verse of the ^neid, " Anna virnmque cano," etc. 

Names of murdered Emperors were sometimes struck off the 
stamp, like that of Commodus in No. 541, b (Corpus Inscriptio- 
niim, XV. 1). After the murder of Geta, the seal avggg • nnn, 
which meant " of our three Emjierors, Severus, Caracalla, and 
Geta," was changed into AVGG//iNN/y/ by the erasure of the third 
G and of the third N. 

Antiquarians have discussed the question whether the seals 
were cast in metal or carved in hard wood, or whether they were 
made up of movable types, incased in a metal frame. The fact 
that letters upside down are not uncommon (like sacckssi for 
svccESSi) has been adduced to prove that the types were mova- 
ble; but, on the other hand, we have specimens of seals cast 
bodily in lead or bronze, such as those found in the Tiber in 
1879 (Visconti, Bidl. arch, com., 1879, pp. 197, 212). There is a 
stamp (No. 1440, a) in which the name of the consul balbin 
has been changed into that of brttio (Brittio) so imperfectly 
that both can be read at the same time. In another (No. 68, d) 
the letter s in the name ravsi, omitted by the engraver of the 

seal, has been added so, t-ravi. This expedient shows that the 
missing letter coul<l not have been wedged into its proper place. 
We must discredit, however, the idea that movable types were 
not known to the ancients. Albert Dumont (Inscriptions ccra- 
miques de Grece, pp. 40 and -V.)')) brings strong evidence in favor 
of it; and A. iNIilchhoefer (Ann. Inst., 1879, p. 90) has traced the 
use of sucli types in an Etruscan sarcophagus. 

The great manufacturing centre of Roman bricks was the dis- 
trict between the via? Triumphalis, Cornelia, and the two Aurelife, 
now called the Monti della Creta, which includes the southern 
slojjes of the Vatican ridge and the northern of the Janiculum. 
Here also, as at Pozzo Pantaleo, the traces of the work of man 
are simply gigantic. The valleys del Gelsomino, delle Fornaci, 
del Vicolo delle Cave, della Balduina, and a section of the Val 
d' Inferno, are not the work of nature, but the result of excava- 
tions for " creta figulina," which began 2300 years ago, and have 
never been interrupted since. A walk through the Monti della 
Creta will teach the student many interesting things. The best 
point of observation is a bluff between the Vicolo della Cave and 


the Vicolo del Gelsomino, marked with the word " Ruderi " and 
with the altitude of 75 metres, in the military map of the suburbs. 
The bluff rises o7 metres above the floor of the biick-kilns of the 

There were other important establishments in the plains of 
the Tiber (I'rati di Castello, Monti della Greta beyond 8. Paolo) 
and of the Anio (Ponte Salario, Givitas Figlina), to whicli the 
alluvial marls furnished the "materia prima." 

lionuxn bricks were exported to all the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean : they have been found in the Riviera, on the coasts of 
Venetia, of Narbonensis, of Spain and Africa, and in the island 
of Sardinia. One brick from Syria (No. 2415) and two fi'om the 
gulf of Genoa (Nos. 2412, 241o) have been j^icked up in Rome, 
l)ut they must have been transported liere incidentally by ships in 

The brick-making business must have been very remunerative, 
if we judge from the rank and wealth of many personages who 
had an interest in it. Many names of Emperors appear in brick- 
stamps, and even more of Empresses and princesses of the Imperial 
family. (See index to de Rossi's Iscrizioni doliari, pp. 525, 527.) 

LiTERATUKE. — Gaetaiio Marini, Iscrizioni dulia rl jmbliciite dal comm. G.B. 
de. Rosd, can annotazioni di Enrico Dressel. Rome, 1884. — Descemet, 3Iar- 
ques de briqnes relatives a une ■partie de la (/ens Dumitla (Bibl. des Ecoles fr. 
d'Atheiies et de Rome, vol. xv. p. 2) ; and Inscriptions doliaires. — C. Ludovico 
Visconti, On Urick Stamps (in Parker's Archreology of Rome, vol. or part iv. 
p. 41. London, 1870). — Heinrieh Dressel, Alcnne osservazioni intorno ai Ixdli 
dei mattoni urbaul (in Bull. Inst., 1885, p. 98). — Untersuchun<ien iibcr die 
Kronoloijie der Zier/elstempel, 188(i. — Corpus Inscriptioniim Latinarum,,yol. 
XV. 1. Berlin, 1891. — Gio. Battista Liigari, Sopra /' etcc di alcuni bolli di 
fijuline (in Bull. arch, com., 18'J5, p. (10). 

XII. Makbles. — It would not be consistent with the spirit of 
this present work to enter, even superficially, on the question of 
Roman marbles. From the topographical point of view (marble 
wharves, warehouses, and sheds, places of sale, offices of adminis- 
tration, artists' studios, and stonecutters' shops) it will be illus- 
trated in Book IV. § vii. I refer the reader, in the mean time, to 
the following standard works : — 

Faustino Corsi, Delle pietre nntlche, M cd., Rome, 1845. — The Rev. H. W. 
Pullen, J fandbook of Ancient Roman Marbles, Londim, Murra}', 1894. — Luigi 
Brnzza, Iscrizioni dei marmi (in Annal. Inst., 1870, p. 106). 

The perusal of these three volumes must go hand in hand 
with the study of the marbles which they describe, so as to enable 
the student to tell them apart. For this jiurpose sjilendid coUec- 

.)fARBLES 43 

tions have been placed at our disposal : one at Oxford, whicli 
numbers 1000 tablets; one in the geological museum in Jermyn 
Street, London ; a third in the University of the Sapienza in 
Rome, consisting of (JOO large and about 1000 smaller slabs. The 
best of all is the set bequeathed by Baron Ravenstein to the mu- 
seum of the Porte de Hal, Brussels. It contains 76i specimens, 
which were arranged and catalogued by Tommaso and Francesco 
Belli. The variety and richness of Roman marbles may be 
estimated from the fact that there are 4:5 qualities of bigio, and 
151 of alabaster. The rarest marbles known are the breccia 
d' Egitto, the breccia di Villa Adriana and the breccia di Villa 
Casali. There are specimens of these exhibited in the first hall of 
tlie jSIuseo ISIunicipale al Celio. The churches of S. INIaria in 
Aracd'li, della Minerva, and della Vittoria, and tlie Capella Bor- 
gliesiana in 8. Maria jNIaggiore, are noted for their wealth in rare 
marl lies. 

XIII. Metiious of Constkuction. — For this suliject also 1 
must refer the student to the works quoted on page :5S. Tlie Ro- 
mans have built in opus quadratuin, incertiim, rcticulaluin, htteritiuiii, 
lateritio-reticulatum, and in concrete. An excellent set of plioto- 
tyjies explaining these various styles of masonry can be found in 
vol. i. part ii. of Parker's " Archaeology of Rome," Oxford, London, 
1874 : The Historical Comtrurtion of Walls. 

The following rules are useful to the student for determining the 
age of a Roman building : : — 

L In Rome there are no traces of the so-called Pelasgic or 
polygonal style of masonry. i The oldest remains, like tlie walls 
of the Palatine and of the Capitol, are built in ojyus fjuadratum 
in the Etruscan style, with the blocks of tufa placed lengthwise 
in one tier and crosswise in the next. This ride was followed 
tlirough the Republican period. I know of very few exceptions : 
one is the great wall upon which the Constantinian basilica of S. 
Clement is biult, where the blocks are all placed lengthwise. 

In Imperial times the exception becomes the rule. The in- 
closure walls of the Forum Angustum, of the Forum Transi- 
torium, etc., and the cella> of many temples, show the blocks 
placed in one direction only. 

The opus (piadratum was given up (except in case of restora- 
tions) in the third century after Christ, and imitations in plaster 
were substituted for it. The facade of the Senate-house, rebuilt by 

1 Rodolfii Fonteauive, Avanzi detii Cidopici ndla provincia di Roma. Rome, 
Sciolla, 1887. 



Diocletian, the Thei-mas of Constantine, and liis Basilica Nova, 
the Thermaii of Diocletian, and parts of the Sessorian palace, were 
plastered in this style. (See plates, Nos. 2, 26, 30, etc., in Stefano 
du Perac's " Vestigi dell' antichita di Roma " and " Atti Lincei," 
an. 1883, vol. xi. serie iii. pi. 3.) 

2. The ojnis incertum, of which Fig. 17 gives a specimen from 
the Porticus iEmilia, 176 b. c, marks a transition from the 
polygonal to the reticulated work. The Romans must have im- 

Fig. 17. —The Opus Incertum. 

ported it from Tibur, where it was in great favor. Resides the 
l\n-ticus ^^milia, tliere are (or were in 1872) other remains built in 
this style under the cliff of the Viminal, opposite S. Vitale. Pho- 
tograiths of them are given by Parker in " Archaeology of Rome," 
voL i. 1874, Construction of Walls, pi. vi. 2. The opus incertum 
was given up about the time of Sulla, and replaced by the opus 
reticiilatum, made of regular tufa prisms in imitation of network. 
There are three kinds of opus reticulatiim : in the oldest the 


prisms are small, and the intersecting lines of the network 
slightly irregular ; it marks the infancy of the new style. A 
specimen may be found on the Palatine, on the left-hand side of 
the path which ascends from the foot of the Seal* Caci to the 
Temple of Jupiter Propugnator. 

In the second stage the prisms become larger, and the cross lines 
of the network perfectly straight, while the angles of the walls are 
strengthened with rectangular pieces of tufa resembling large 
bricks. The house of Germ aniens on the Palatine is the best 
specimen of this style, which seems to have lasted until the time 
of Trajan. 

The last period, from Trajan to the first Anton ines, marks a 
decided improvement in the solidity of the work. The angles and 
arches are built of bricks, and the wall itself is strengthened by 
horizontal bands of the same material (Fig. 18). The netwoi-k. 
therefore, does not cover the whole face of the wall, but is divided 
into panels from four to five feet high. At the end of the second 
century the opus reticulatiim was given up altogether. 1 have 
never discovered what its advantages were. It did not contribute 
certainly to the solidity of the building, and it demanded more 
skill and time from the mason than the brickwork. In the last 
place, its elegance and beauty were generally concealed by a coat- 
ing of plaster. Yet builders and architects like Trajan and Ha- 
drian preferred it to any other kind of masonry. The extensive 
warehouses of Ostia, the substructures of the Tliermse Traianaj, 
Hadrian's villa near Tibur, the inner harbor and docks at Porto, 
and a hundred contemporary edifices, are built in this style. (See 
Fig. 18, i>. 46.) 

•3. Opus lateritium. — The fundamental rule for the chronology 
of brick structures is this : the thinner the bed of cement be- 
tween the layers of bricks, the older the structure. In other 
words, in the opus lateritium of the golden age the bricks are so 
close together that the line of cement is hardly visible ; while at 
the end of the third century the layer of cement is even thicker 
than the line of bricks. The rule is obviously subject to exce2> 
tions, especially when the brick facing was destined to be seen 
and not to be plastered over. In such cases we are apt to find 
excellent specimens of brick " cortina," even in times of decadence. 

The most perfect specimens of brickwork in Rome are some 
portions of the Pra?torian camp (the Porta Decumana, Porta Princi- 
palis Sinistra), the Amphitheatrum Castrense, and the Arcus Ne- 
roniani on the Ca'lian. The decline in the stvle can be followed 



almost year by year from the time of the Fhivians to that of 
Constantiue. I suggest as representatives of periods, more than 
years, the Domus Augustana for tlie time of Domitian ; the so- 
called " baths of Titus " for the time of Trajan ; the Pantheon 
and the spiral staircase of the Mausoleum for that of Hadrian ; 
the Villa Quinctiliorum for that of Commodus ; the Thermaj An- 
toninianae for that of Caracalla ; the substructures of the Temple 
of the Sun in the Villa Colonna for that of Aurelian ; the Baths 
of Diocletian, the Basilica Nova, the Senate-liouse, for the end of 
the third century and the beginning of the fourth. These types 
of construction are carefully illustrated in vol. i. of Parker's 
" Archaeology of Rome." 



Fig. 18. — Tlie Opus Reticulatum. 

I have said that when the brickwork was intended to remain 
exposed to view, and not to be concealed l>y plaster, it is always 
more perfect than we should exjiect from the general style pre- 
vailing at the time. 

The best period for ornamental brick-carving in three shades of 
color — yellow, red, and brown — includes the second half of the 
second century and the beginning of the thii'd. The tomb attri- 
buted to Annia Regilla (Pagan and Christian Rome, p. 201), the 
tombs of the Via Latina, the door of the Excubitorium Vigilum 
at the ]\Ionte de' Fiori, Trastevere (Ancient Rome. p. 'JoO), the 


door of the Catacombs of Pra?textatus, the temple at S. Urbano 
alia Caifarella (Pagan and Christian Rome, p. 294) are the best 
specimens of this kind of work. 

There is another peculiarity of the opus laterilium wliicli may 
help the student to determine the age of an edifice in doubtful 
cases. The brick facing of a wall is sometimes interrupted by 
parallel horizontal lines of tegulai bipedales of a different line, 
from three to six feet apart. These lines appear for the first time, 
I believe, in the Pantheon and in the spiral staircase of Hadrian's 
tomb, and are most conspicuous in the buildings of the time of 
Severus and Caracalla. 

XIV. Aqueducts. — One of IIh- praises liestowed by Cicero on 
the founder of the city is locum t'li(/it fonlihus ahunduntem, "he 
selected a district very rich in springs." A glance at llie plan 
(Fig. 1) will at once prove the accuracy of the statement. Twenty- 
three springs have been described within the walls, several of 
which are still in existence ; others have disappeared owing to the 
increase of modern soil. " For four hundred and forty-one [442] 
years," says Frontinus (i. 4), "the Romans contented themselves 
with such water as they could get from the Tiber, from wells, and 
from s]>rings. Some of these springs are still held in great venera- 
tion on account of their health-restoring qualities, like the spring 
of the Camcena;, that of Apollo, and that of Jutnrna." 

Tiie springs of the Camrena' were just outside the I'orta Capeiia, 
in the slope of the Cadian, behind tlie church of S. Cregorio, and 
under the wall of the Villa Mattel. The remains of the tem])le 
descrilied by Juvenal (Sat., iii. 11) were discovered and delineate<l 
by Pin-o Ligorio about 35(>(>. 

Nothing is known of the springs of Apollo. Tiiose of .lutiirna 
are described at length in P>o()k IT. p. 125. The celebrated foun- 
tain of Egeria remained visible in the lower grounds of tlie Vigna 
P>etliiii (between the Via di S. Stefano Rotondo and the Via della 
Ferratella) until 1882, when the vigna was buried under an em- 
l)aidcnient 11 metres high; but although the nymphfeum itself 
has disai)[:)eared, the waters still seem to find their way to another 
fountain lower down the valley of P^geria. This graceful building 
of the Renaissance stands in the grounds of the Villa Mattel (von 
Hoffman), at the corner of the Via di Porta S. Sebastiano and 
delle INIole di S. Sisto, and the water which inundates its lower 
floor has some medicinal power. Another famous spring, that of 
the Lupercal. has been identified with our Sorgente di S. Giorgio, 



which bubbles \\\) in the very bed of the Cloaca Maxima, near 
the church of that name. The identity is uncertain. The Tullia- 
num still flows in the lower crypt of the prison of that name ; the 
Aqua3 Fontinales in the Cortile di S. Felice, Salita della Dateria, 
and in the house No. 2,5 Salita del Grillo ; the Aqua Damasiana 
in the Cortile di S. Damaso of the Vatican palace, in the foun- 
tain modeled by Algardi 
by order of Innocent 
X. (1649); the Aqua 
Lancisiana in front of 
the Palazzo Salviati alia 
Lungara, where there is 
a basin with three jets, 
designed by Lancisi in 
the time of Clement XI. 

The first aqueduct, 
that of the Aqua Appia, 
is the joint work of Ap- 
pius Claudius Csecus and 
C. Plautius Venox, cen- 
sors in 312 B. c. The 
first built the channel, 
the second discovered 
the sjirings 1153 metres 
northeast of the sixth and seventh milestones of the Via Collatina. 
They are still to be seen, much reduced in volume, at the bottom 
of some stone quarries near the farmhouse of La Rustica. The 
channel followed the Via Collatina, entered Rome ad Spem Vetcrcm 
(Porta ]\Iaggiore), crossed the valley of the Piscina Publica (Via 
di Porta S. Sebastiano) close to the Porta Capena, and ended on 
the left bank of the Tiber at the foot of the Clivus Publicius (S. 
Anna, Via della Salara) ; length of channel, 16,445 metres; vol- 
ume of water discharged in twenty-four hours, 115,303 cubic me- 
tres. The aqueduct of the Appia has been discovered thrice : by 
Fabretti, in the Vigna Santoro at the corner of the Via di Porta S. 
Paolo and the Vicolo di S. Balbina (an. 1607) ; by Parker in 1867, 
in the tufa quarries of S. Saba ; and by myself in 1888, under the 
remains of the palace of Annia Cornuficia Faustina in the Vigna 
Maciocohi, Via di Porta S. Paolo. It differs in shape from all 
other Roman aqueducts, as shown in Fig. 20. 

Anio vetus. — The second aqueduct was begun in 272 b. c. by 

Fig. 20. — The Channel of the Aqua Appia under 
the Aventine. 


Manius Curius Dentatus, censor, and finished three yeai's later by 
Fulvius Flaccus. The water was taken from the river Anio 850 
metres above S. Cosimato, on the road from Tivoli to Arsoli 
(Valeria). The course of the channel can be traced as far as 
(iallicano ; from Gallicano to Rome it is uncertain. It entered the 
city ad Spem A'eterem, a little to the right of the Porta ^laggiore, 
where Piranesi, Xil)by, and myself have seen and delineated the 
I'emains of the suJistructio supra terrain passuum ccrxi men- 
tioned by Frontinus (i. 0).^ From the Porta Maggiore to the Arch 
of (iallienus (Porta Esquilina) the aqueduct can be followed step 
by step, having been laid bare at least twenty times during the 
construction of the railway station and of the Esquiline qiuirter. 
Length of channel, 63,704 metres ; volume of water discharged 
in twenty-four hours, 277,806 cubic metres. The Anio Vetus was 
set apart for the irrigating of gardens and for the flushing of drains. 

Marc'ia. — Tn 144 u. c. tlie Senate, considering that the increase 
of the population had diminished the rate of distriltution of water 
(from 530 to 430 litres i)er head), detenuined that the old aipie- 
ducts of the Appia and tlie Anio should be repaired, and a new one 
built; the appropriation for both works being 8,000,000 sesterces, 
or 1,760,000 lire. 

The execution of the scheme was intrusted to Q. Marcius Rex. 
He selected a group of sjirings at the foot of the Monte della 
Prugna, in the territoiy of Arsoli, 4437 metres to the right of the 
thirty-sixth milestone of the Via Valeria ; and after many years 
of untiring efforts he succeeded in making a display of tlie water 
on the highest platform of the Capitol. Agrippa restored the 
aqueduct in 33 b. c. ; Augustus doubled the volume of the water 
in 5 B. c. by the addition of the Aqua Augusta ; in a. d. 79 
Titus rivom aqua' Marcue vetustate dilapsiim refecit et aquam qiue 
in vsu esse desierat reduxit (Corpus Inscriptionum, vi. 1246) ; in 
lf(6 Septimius Severus brought in a new supply for the use of his 
Thermaj Severiana^ ; in 212-213 Caracalla aquam Marciam variis 
l-asihus im/)edita7n, purgato fonte, excisis et perfnratis )nnntil)us, 
adquisifo fonte novo Antonlniano, in urhem perdurendam curarit 
(ibid. 1245), and built a branch aqueduct, four miles long, for tlie 
use of his baths ; in 305-306 Diocletian did the same thing for his 
great thermae ; and, finally, Arcadius and Honorius devoted to the 
restoration of the aqueduct the money seized from Count Gildo, 
the African rebel. 

1 Piranesi, Antichita, vol. i. pi. 10. — Nibby, Komn anfica, vol. i. p. 339. — 
LaiU'iaiii, AcqutJutti. \\. 50, jil. iv. Ulc. 7. 



The Marcia followed the right bank of the Anio as far as S. 
Cosimato, and the left as far as Tivoli, where it turns round the 
slope of the Monte Ripoli towards S. Gericomio and Gallicano. 
Here begins a line of viaducts and bridges, the most magnificent 
of any that can be found in the whole district of Rome. The 
course of the Marcia (and of her three companions, Anio Vetus, 
Claudia, and Anio Novus) being pei'pendicular to that of the 
valleys by which this part of the land is thickly furrowed, and 
their level running halfway between the ihahref/ and the summit 
of the intervening ridges, the engineers were obliged to alternate 
bridges and tunnels, some of which ai'e still perfect. 

A visit to these beautiful highlands will prove most satisfactory 

Fig. 21. — Ponte Lupo. 

to the student. It can be made in a day, from the station of 
Zagarolo on the Naples line, thence by diligence to Gallicano, and 
on foot (guide necessary) to the ruins. The bridges are seven in 

Ponte Lvpo, in the Valle dell' Acqua Rossa, for the transit of 
four waters, Marcia, Anio Vetus, Anio Novus, and Claudia, be- 
sides a carriage-way and a bridle-path. Originally it was built 
for the Anio Vetus alone, and its dimensions were 11.20 metres in 
heisht, 81.10 metres in length, 2.75 metres in thickness. After 


the addition of the JNIarcia, side by side and above it, the struc- 
ture became 16.0(1 metres high, 88.00 metres long, 12 metres thick. 
Lastly, after the addition of the Claudia and Anio Novus, it be- 
came 32 metres high, 155 metres long, 1-4 metres thick, without 
counting the buttresses, which are clearly visible in the illustra- 
tion opposite (Fig. 21). All ages, all styles of masonry are 
represented at Ponte Lupo, and in the four tunnels whicli con- 
verge towards it or radiate from it. 

Pond deir Inferno in the Valle dell' Inferno, for the transit of 
the Claudia and of the Anio Novus ; and 

Ponti (lelle Forme Rotte, for the same, in the Valle del Fosso di 
S. Gregorio. 

Ponte (li S. Pietro, in the Valle delle Forme Rotte, for the 
transit of the Aijua Marcia. 

Ponte (li S. Giovanni, in the same valley, for the transit of the 
Anio Vetus. The bridge was rebuilt by Augustus in reticulated 
work, ami again repaired in brickwork by one of the late Emper- 
ors (first arch on the left). 

From (iallicano to the sixth milestone of the Via Latina tlie 
Marcia runs underground; from the sixth milestone to the Porta 
Maggiore, I'orta S. Lorenzo, and to the present railway station it 
was borne on almost triumphal arcades, built of tufa with mould- 
ings of travertine. The same arcades were afterwards used to 
carry the Aqua Tepula and the Julia. The following photograph 
gives the section of the channel at a point where it emerges from 
the ground in the farm of Roma Vecchia. A. The channel of 
the Marcia. B. Renuiins of that of the Tepula above it. C. A 
buttress, probably of the time of Hadrian. D. Another, probably 
of the time of Severus. E. The channel of the Acqua Felice, 
built by Sixtus V. FF'. The arcades of the Claudia and of the 
Anio Xovus. 

The afjueduct reaches Rome at the Porta ISIaggiore (the meet- 
ing-point of ten waters, Appia, Appia Augusta, Anio Vetus, 
Mai-cia, Tepula, Julia, Claudia, Anio Novus, Alexandrina, Felice), 
and follows the line of the walls of Am-elian as far as the Porta 
S. Lorenzo. The course beyond this gate is so complicated that I 
think it well to refer the student to sheets xvii. and xviii. of the 
"Forma L'rbis," in which all particulars are carefully mapped, 
rather than describe it here. 

Aqua Tepula — Aqua Julia. — The veins, so named from 
their almost tepid temperature of 17° Cent., and now called Sor- 
genti deir Acqua Preziosa, were collected at the foot of the Alban 



hills (Valle Marciaiiii) in 125 b. c. by the censors Cn. Servilius 
Ca?pio and L. Cassius Longinus. For ninety-two years the Tepula 
reached Rome by its own channel ; but in 33 b. c. Agrippa, after 
he had collected the springs of the Aqua elulia — higher up the 
same valley at a place now called '* II Fontanile degli Squarcia- 
relli di Grottaferrata," which were much colder and purer, and 
double in volume — determined to mix the two and obtain a corn- 

Fig. 22. — The Aqueducts at Roma Vecchia. 

jionnd water superior in quality to the Tejiula, though slightly in- 
ferior to the Julia. The Julia was admitted accordingly into the 
channel of the Tepula at tlie tenth milestone of the Via Latina, 
and the amalgamation allowed to proceed for the space of four 


miles. At the sixth milestone the compound water was again di- 
vided in two conduits, proportioned to the volume of the springs 
(400 quinaria; for the Tepula, and 12()<3 for the Julia). The tem- 
perature of the Tepula being 17° Cent., that of the Julia 10°, and 
tlieir volumes 1 : 8, the mixture must have marked at the Piscina 
a temperature of about 12°, which is the best for drinking pur- 
poses. Length of channel for the Tepula, 17,74.5 metres ; for the 
Julia, 22,853 metres. Volume of the first, 28,115 cubic metres in 
twenty-four hours ; of the second, 76,195, Both were borne on 
the same arches which carried the Marcia. 

Aqua Virgo. — The springs, located at the eighth milestone of 
the Via Latina, above the farmhouse of Salone in the Val del 
Ponte di Nona, were drawn into a canal by Agrippa, and reached 
tiie city on June 9, 19 h. c. Length of channel, 20,(397 metres; 
volume in twenty-four hours, 158,203 cubic metres. 

Aqua Alsietina. — "1 cannot conceive," says Frontinus (i. 11), 
" why such a wise prince as Augustus should have brought to 
Rome such a discredit al)le and unwholesome water as the Alsie- 
tina, unless it was for the use of the naumachia " (an oval pond 
531 metres long, 354 metres wide, for naval sliam fights). It was 
destined afterwards for the irrigation of the Transtiberine or- 
chards. Length of channel, 32,848 metres ; volume, 24,767 cubic 
metres per day. (See Notizie degli Scavi, 1887, p. 182.) 

Aqua Claudia. — None of the Roman aqueducts are eulo- 
gized by Frontinus like tlie Claudian. lie calls it " opus magni- 
ficentissiine consummatum ; " and after demonstrating in more 
than one way that the volume of the springs collected by Claudius 
amounted to 4607 quinari;r, he says that there was a reserve of 
1()00 always ready. 

The works, begun liy Caligida in a. d. 38, lasted fourteen years, 
the water having reached Rome only on 1, 52 (the birth- 
day of Claudius). The course of the aqueduct was first around 
the slopes of the Monte Ripoli. like that of the ]\rarcia and of the 
Anio Vetus : Domitian shortened it by several miles by boring a 
tunnel 4950 metres long through the Monte Affliano. (See An- 
cient Rome, p. 63.) Lengtli of channel, 68,750 metres, of which 
15,000 on arches; volume per day, 209,252 cubic metres. The 
Claudia was used for the Imperial table : a branch aqueduct, 2000 
metres long, left the main cliannel ad Spem A^terem (Porta Mag- 
giore), and following the line of the Via Ca'limontana (Villa 
Wolkonsky), of the Campus Ca'limontanus (Lateran), and of the 
street now called di S. Stefano Rotondo, reached the temple of 


Claudius l)y the church of SS. Giovauni e ruolo, and the Imperial 
palace by tlie churcli of S. Bouaventura. (See Boolv 11. § xxv.) 

Anio Novus. — The Aiiio Novus, like the Vetus, was at first 
derived from the river of the same name at the forty-second mile- 
stone of the road to Subiaco, great precautions being taken for 
purifying the water by means of a piscina limaria. The works 
were begun by Caligula in a. d. 38, and completed by Claudius on 
August 1, 52, on a most magnificent scale, some of the arches 
reaching the height of thirty-two metres above ground ; and there 
were eight miles of them. Yet, in spite of the purifying reser- 
voir, and of the clear springs of the Rivus Herculaneus (Fosso di 
Fioggio), which had been mixed with the water from the river, the 
Anio Novus was hardly ever drinkable. Whenever a shower fell 
on the Simbruine mountains, the water would get troubled and 
saturated with mud and carbonate of lime. Trajan improved its 
condition by carrying the head of the a(pieduct higher up tlie 
valley, where Nero had created three artificial lakes for the adorn- 
ment of his Villa Sublacensis. These lakes served more efficiently 
as piscinm limarkE, or " purgatories," than the artificial basin of 
Caligula, nine miles below. The Anio Novus reached Rome in its 
own channel after a course of 86,964 metres, but for the last 
seven miles it ran on the same arches with the Aqua Claudia. 
The Anio Novus was the largest of all Roman aqueducts, dis- 
charging nearly three hundred thousand cubic metres per day. 

There are two places in the suburbs of Rome where these 
marvelous arches of the Claudia and Anio Novus can be seen to 
advantage : one is the Torre Fiscale, three miles outside the Porta 
S. Giovanni on the Albano road (to be reached also from the 
Tavolato station, on the upper Albano railway) ; tlie other is the 
Vicolo del Mandrione, which leaves the Labicana one mile outside 
the Porta Maggiore and falls into the Tusculana at the place 
called Porta Furba. A walk through the Vicolo del INIandrione 
will make the student more familiar with the aqueducts of 
ancient Rome, their structure and management, their respective 
size and importance, than many books written on the subject. 
He must remember that the higher of the two lines of arches 
carried the Claudia and the Anio Novus, the lower cai'ried the 
Marcia, Tepula, and Julia. The ugly channel of the Acqua Felice 
takes advantage of the remains of both ; the Alexaudrina, Anio 
Vetus, and Appia run underground (see Fig. 23). 

Aqua Traiana. — A rule was strictly followed under the Em- 
pire, that no one should be allowed to build and open tlierni;>3 for 


l>nl)Iic use unless a sj)ecial supply of water was secured at the same 

time. The Aqua A'irgo served for Agrippa's thermae and Euripus, 
the Alsietina for the naumachia of Augustus ; Titus repaired and 


increased the volume of the Marcia for the use of his baths, and 
so did Severus, Caracalla, and Diocletian. The construction of 
the Thermse Alexandrinse is contemporary with the canalization 
of the Aqua Alexandrina, etc. That of the Aqua Traiana seems 
to be also connected with the construction of the Thermal Surianse, 
which Trajan had built on the table-land of the Aventine in honor 
of his friend and supporter Licinius Sura. An inscription dis- 
covered in 1830 at la Conetta, on tlie Bracciano road (Corpus In- 
scriptionum, vi. 1260), and the medal (Cohen, Imper., ii. 49, n. 
305) give the date of a. d. 109 for the completion of the aqueduct. 
Its sources were on the western shore of the Lago di Bracciano, 
along the chain of hills between Oriolo and Bassano. The va- 
rious branches met at a central reservoir near Vicarello, where the 
true aqueduct begins. It was 57,000 metres long, and discharged 
118,127 cubic metres per day. 

The Aqua Paola of the present day is not at all so good as the 
Traiana, since Paul V., the restorer of the aqueduct, mixed up the 
good springs with the inferior water of the lake. 

The last water brought into Imperial Rome is the Aqua Alex- 
ANDKiNA. Its springs, at the foot of Monte Falcone, on the Via 
Prsenestina, were collected in 226 by Severus Alexander, for the 
use of his baths. The aqueduct, most minutely described by 
Fabretti (De Aquis, dissert, i.), was about 22 kilometres long, and 
increased the daily supply of the city by 21,632 cubic metres. 
Its most conspicuous remains are to be seen in the Valle di Acqua 
Bollicante (Via Labicana). 

The Roman waters were not equally good. In the scale of 
perfection the Marcia and the Claudia occupy the first place, the 
Virgo comes next, followed by the Appia, Julia, Traiana, Anio 
Nevus, Alexandrina, Tepula, Anio Vetus, and Alsietina. 

The Traiana reached Rome at the considerable height of 71.16 
metres above the sea, the Anio Novus at 70.40, the Claudia at 
67.40, the Julia at 63.73, the Tepxda at 60.63, the Marcia at 58.63, 
the Anio Vetus at 48, the Alexandrina at about 43, the Virgo at 
20, the Appia at 20 (?), the Alsietina, " omnium humilior," at 16.50. 

At the time of Constantine there were in Rome 11 great 
thermge, 926 public baths, 1212 public fountains, 247 reservoirs, 
a "stagnum Agrippce" without speaking of private houses, of 
public and private gardens, of docks and warehouses, each well 
provided with water. 

Some of the fountains were of monumental character, and rich 
in works of art. Agrippa, while sedile, decorated those existing 


at the time with tliree hundred marble and bronze statues and 
four hundred columns. We know of one work of art only, — an 
" <#i'«<^-'* Hydne " which he placed on the Servilian fountain " a<l 
Serviliam lacu7n." The fountains of Prometheus, of the Shep- 
iierds, of Orpheus, of Ganymede, of the Four Fish (Scari), of the 
Tliree Masks, etc., must have been so named from the statues and 
marbles with which they were decorated. 

One only of the great fountains has escaped destruction, that 
popularly called " I Trofei di iNlario," in the Piazza Yittorio Em- 
manuele on the Esquiline. Its ancient name is not known for 
certain : Lenormant has suggested that of Nymplniium Alexandri ; 
I prefer that of Lacus Orphei. Its mediajval name was Cimbrum 
INIarii, a recollection of tlie monument erected here in memory of 
the victory of the Campi Raudii ; while in the early Renaissance 
it was called " Le Oche Armate." The trophies which adorned it 
were removed to the Piazza del Campidoglio under Sixtus V. 

Gio. Battista Piranesi, II Castello fleW Acqua Giulut ; and Tro/'ei di 
Ottnviano Augusto. Rome : K. Calcografia. — Francois Lenormant, Jlemoire 
mr la veritable designntiun du monuinvnt connu sous It nom de Trophees de 
Marius. (R^vue Numism., 1840.) — Rodolfo Lanciaiii, / coinentarii di Fron- 
tino, p. 173. 

Supposing the inhabitants of Rome to have numbered, suburbs 
included, one million, there was a daily water supply of IHOO 
litres per head. In modern Rome, for a population of half a 
million, there are about 760 litres per head. 

The volume of water which supplied Rome may be estimated 
by comparison with the Tiber, which discharges only 1,296,000 
cubic metres per day, while the old aqueducts carried not less 
than 1,747,311 cubic metres. 

LiTERATUKK. — Raphael Fabretti, Be aqnis et ar/ucedurtilms veteris Romce, 
2d-ed. Rome, 1788. — Alberto Cassio, Corso delle acque antiche. Rome, 
1757-59. — Carlo Fea, Storia delle acque di Roma. — John Henry Parker, The 
Aqueducts of Ancient Rome. Oxford, London, 1876. — Alessandro Bettoehi, 
Le acque e gli acquedotti di Roma antica e moderna. (Monografia della citta 
di Roma, voL ii. ch. xix. 1881.) — Rodolfo Lanciani, / comentarii di Frontino 
intovno le acque e gli ncquedoUi. Rome, Salviucci, 1880. 

An interesting collection of objects connected with the suppl}- and distribu- 
tion of water in ancient Rome is exhibited in Hall No. VI. of the Museo 
Municipale al Celio. 

The following table concerning the Roman aqueducts may be 
useful to the student : — 










"3 3 




t-;OiO-*-*rHOu.. O : 

> S 






1-^ O t~^ 1 






CO IM 1-1 CD 1- 1^ *< -* 

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O H^ ~ "^ O O to 

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5-S <u 




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co'ao ^ CI c^ oS' -r^ ^S ^ 




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XV. MuRi Urbis (the Walls). — Rome has been fortified 
seven times, witli seven lines of walls : by the first King, by 
Servins Tullius, by Aurelian, by Honorius, by Leo IV., by Urban 
VIII., and by the Italian government. 

The literature on this point of Roman history and topography 
is very copious. The works in which the subject is treated from 
a general [)oint of view are — 

Antonio Niljby, Lt mura di Roma, diser/nate da Sir IV. Gell. 1820. — Ste- 
fano Pialt;, .Six Memoirs, rei)rinted from the Atti dtlla jiont. Accadtmia rom. 
d' Archevlijijiu. 18'20-;J.5. — Adolf Becker, Dv, Jiomw veteris muris u/i/iie portis. 
I^eipsic, 1842. — Kodolfo J^anciani, Lt mnra e la parte di Servio (in Annal. Inst., 
1871, p. 40) ; and Bull. arch, com., 187(i, pp.24, 121 (1888, p. 12). — Heinrieh 
.Jordan, Topoiinijihic, vol. i. p. 200, Desclireilinng der .servianisclien Maner ; 
]p. .'}4(), die aureliauisclie Mauer. — C'esare (iuareiigiii, Lt mura di Roma. 
Konie, 1882. 

XVr. MuRUS RoMULi (Walls of the Palatine). It is probable 
that the Alban colonists of the " hill of Pales," protected by 
marshes and cliffs, contented themselves with raising a palisade 
and cutting a ditch at the only weak point of their natural for- 
tress, viz. across the neck of the Velia. After coming in contact 
with their more advanced neighbors, like the inhabitants of the 
turrif/era; Antemnd', they thought it more expedient to follow 
tlieir exami>le, and wall in and fortify their village, which was at 
the same time the fold of their caf tie. 

The text most freijuently quoted in reference to the IVIurus 
Romuli is that of Tacitus (Ann., xii. 24), according to which the 
furrow ploughed by the hero — the sulcus primiyeiiius — started 
from a })oiut in the Forum Boarium, marked in later times by the 
bronze Bidl of INIyron ; and followed the valley between the Palatine 
and the Aventine as far as the altar of Consus, the valley between 
the Palatine and the Ca;lian as far as the Curiae Veteres, the east 
slope of the hill as far as the Sacellum Larum. The same historian 
says that the Ara ISIaxima of Hercules was included within the fur- 
row, and Dionysius states that Vesta's temple was outside it. The 
furrow followed the foot of the cliffs or slopes of the Palatine, its 
course being marked with stone cippi. Others affirm that the city 
of Romulus was square (jerpaywvos — Ronui (.^uadrata). The truth 
is that neither the walls nor the ))omerium of Romulus can be said 
to make a square; that a line drawn from l)eyond the Ara Maxima 
to the Ara Consi cannot be said to go " along the foot of the 
cliffs of the Palatine" {per Ima mantis Palatini); that the valley 
in those days was covered with water, deep enough to be navi- 


gated by canoes, so that neither a furrow could be ploughed 
through it, nor stone cippi set up to mark the line of the furrow. 
Moreover, the same marshes extended on the southeast side as far 
as the Curiaj Ve teres, on the northwest as far as the Temple of 
Vesta ; and the shape of the Palatine walls was rather trapezoid, 
like that of a terramara of the valley of the Po, than square like 
an Etruscan templum ; while, lastly, the name of Roma Quadrata 
did not belong to the city on the hill, but to the altar described in 
" Pagan and Christian Rome," p. 70, which stood in front of the 
Temple of Apollo. 

There is manifestly a chronological error in speaking of places 
and things, not as they were in the earliest days of Rome, but as 
they appeared after the draining of the marshes. A confusion is 
also to be observed in ancient and modern writers with regard to 
the line of the walls and the line of the pomerium marked by 
stone cippi. The two are almost independent, and wide apart. 
The existing remains of the walls, at the west corner of the hill, 
are 220 metres distant from the site of the Ara Maxima, which 
was itself within the pomerium. The walls of Romulus have 
been discovered in six places, marked A, B, C, D, E, F in the 
annexed map. They will be described in Book II. § viii. 

XVII. Other Walls of the Kingly Period. — Although 
we find in classic texts mention of what may have been fortifica- 
tions, independent of those on the Palatine, — like the Murus Ter- 
reus Carinarum, the Capitolium Vetus, and the arx or citadel on 
the Aracoeli summit of the Capitoline hill, — yet there is but one 
existing relic which can possibly be considered as such : a frag- 
ment of a wall in a garden, Via dell' Arco di Settimio, No. 1. It 
is identical in material and style of masonry with the walls of the 

Literature. — Stefano Piale, Del secondo recinfo di Romafatto da Numa, 
e delh af/f/wnte def/li altrt re. Rome, 183.3. — Rodolfo LaiU'iani, Annali Imti- 
ttito, I9,i\, p. 42. — Arthur Scheiner, Aua Roms Frnhezeit. (Mittheil., 1895, p. 

XVIII. The Walls of Servius Tullius. — In the eulogy 
of Bartolomeo Borghesi the late Comm. de Rossi remarks justly 
that we know more on some points of Roman history, institutions, 
religion, etc., than the ancients did. The same thing may be re- 
peated as regards some points of Roman topography. Dionysius, 
for instance, says that the walls of Servius Tidlius had become 
5v(T(vpfTot 1 in tlie Augustan age, on account of the structures of 

1 Difficult t(i trace. 



'//jarlLi/, /■'■■■ 


Fig. 25. 

every descrii^tion, public and private, which had been built 
against, across, and above them. Owing to discoveries made since 
1860 we can trace the line of the Servian walls and of the agger, 
describe its structure, and locate 

its gates more exactly than Dio- SECTION OF WALLS 

nysius could have done. 

The walls run against the face 
of the cliffs (of the Capitoline, 
(iuirinal, Oppian, Ca^lian, and 
Aventine) at two thirds of their 
height above the plain, and cross 
the intervening vallej's at their 
narrowest point. 

They are built of blocks of 
tufa, exactly 2 feet high (0.59 
metre), placed alternately 
lengthwise and crosswise, the 
tufa being of an inferior quality 
and yellowish gray in color. 
The thickness of the wall varies from 2 to Z\ metres ; the maxi- 
mum height yet discovered is 12.98 metres (Vigna Torlonia, Aven- 
tine, Fig. 29). The blocks are not cemented, at least not in the 
original structure. I have only once found traces of lime, in a 
joint of one of the buttresses (corner of Via Volturno and Gaeta) ; 
but, as a rule, the use of cohesive substances seems to have l)een 
unknown to or despised by the engineers of Servius. The blocks 
which form the face of the wall are well squared, and fit into 
each other so that the joints are rendered almost invisible, but 
they are irregularly cut inside. On the Aventine, however, and 
especially in the space between the church of S. Saba and that of 
II Priorato di Malta, the walls, instead of resting against the live 
rock of the cliffs or the earth of the slopes, have an inside lin- 
ing of concrete, the thickness of which equals or exceeds that of 
the opus quadratum itself. This part of the fortifications is not 
original, but seems to have been rebuilt or strengthened by 

Across the valleys or tablelands the system of defense varies 
altogether. There is a ditch, and an embankment made with the 
earth excavated from the ditch. Tlie embankment is supported 
on the outer side by a strong wall, fortified with buttresses, while 
on the inner side it slopes down at an incline of 35° or 40°. 
Sometimes there is a .second supporting wall on the' inner side, 



weaker and much lower than the outer one. Two roads run par- 
allel with the fortification, one at the foot of the inner wall, one 
on the outer edge of the ditch. This system of defense was 
called an agger. 

Topographical books state that in the circuit of tlie Servian 
city there was but one agger, between the Colline and the Esqui- 
line gates ; but recent discoveries prove that all weak points of the 
circuit were fortified in that way. We have found the agger in 
the higher part of the Esquiline, near tiie Palazzo Field, Via 
Merulana ; on the Smaller Aventine, near S. Saba ; and on the Quiri- 
nal, by the Piazza di Magnanapoli, etc. Yet there is no denying 
that the one between the Colline and Esquiline gates, for strength, 
size, elevation, and length, is the agger juor excellence, from which 
a street (subager) and a promenade {nunc licet aggere in aprico 
spatiari) were named in classic times, and a whole district (Mons 
Superagius) in the Middle Ages. 

I shall point out to the reader now which of the remains of this 


Fig. 2C. 

venerable fortification deserve a visit, and which are the sites of 
its historical gates. (See map of Walls.) First, as to the river- 
front, Livy (ii. 10) and Dionysius (v. 23) distinctly as.sert that the 
bank was unprotected, because the river itself, with its wide bed 
and swift current, was considered to afford a sufficient protection. 
Yet there is no portion of the whole circuit of the Servian city at 
which the fortifications are more evident or better preserved than 
at the river-front. I made designs of every fragment of them 
before the construction of the modern quays, and I do not think 
there is a break of 50 metres between the two extreme points 
(marked approximately by the Pons Fabricius and the Pons Sub- 


licius). The construction is the same everywhere : a foundation- 
wall about 2 metres high above low-water mark, forming a step 
or a landing 3 metres wide, and a wall 6 metres high sujjporting 
the bank. I have found traces of cement in the upper layers of 
stones, as well as traces of an inner lining of concrete. Both may 
l>ertain to later restorations. 


Fip. 27. 

The walls left the river halfway between the clinrclies of S. 
Maria Egiziaca and S. Nicola in Carcere, and readied the rocks of 
the Capitol at the Via della Bufola. Three gates opened in this 
short tract : the Fluinentana by the river (Via della Fiumara, 
destroyed 1882), the Triumphalis (Via della Bocca della Veritk), 
and the Carmentalis (Via delhi Bufola). Consult — 

Adolf Becker, De niurl.% p. 81. — Eniil Braun, ^foniiment. InM., 1854, p. 78, 
tav. X. — Alessandvo Donati, De urbe Rama, p. 7!t. 

The Capitoline was strongly fortified on the side facing the 
Campus Martins. Remains of the wall can be seen on the edge of 
the rock which supports the Caffarelli palace (I) ; on the ascent to 
the Piazza del Campidoglio, called " La salitadelle tre Pile " (II) ; 
and in the substructures of the monument to Victor Emmanuel 
(III). They intersected the Via di IMarforio between Nos. Sl'^ 
and 8P, where the Porta Ratumena must 1)e located. The direc- 
tion of the Via Flaminia, which issued from this gate, is marked 
by the tomb of C. Poplicius Bibulus on one side, and the so-called 
tomb of the Claudii on the other. 

From the Porta Ratumena to tlie Porta Foiitinalis, under the 
Palazzo Antonelli, Piazza Magnanapoli, the walls must have been 
destroyed by Trajan when he cut away the sjwr of the Quirinal 
to make room for his forum. The Porta Fontinalis is the only 
one left standing in the whole circuit (IV). Other remains are 


to be seen in the beautiful Villa Colonna (V), upon which rest 
those of the Temple of the Sun ; others under the Villa Spithoever, 
Via delle Finanze (VI). Two gates opened in this tract : the 
Sanqvialis, the approximate site of which is shown by the tomb 
of the Sempronii, discovered in 1866 near the top of the Salita 
della Dataria ; and the Porta Salutaris, under the Palazzo Craw- 
shay, Via delle Quattro Fontane. The agger began at the junc- 
tion of the Via di Porta Salaria with the Via venti Settembre, 
crossed the Treasury buildings, the Via Volturno, the railway 
station, the Piazza Fanti, the Via Carlo Alberto, and ended near 
the conservatory of the gardens of Msecenas in the Via Merulana. 
It was almost intact before the construction of the new quarters 
and of the railway station ; now thex'e are scanty remains to be 
seen (VII) in the Piazza del Maccao ; in the goods station. Via di 
Porta S. Lorenzo (VIII) ; in the gardens of the Acquario Romano 
(IX) ; and in the Via Carlo Alberto (X). The Porta Collina, dis- 
covered in 1873 at the junction of the Via Goito and the Via venti 
Settembre, was destroyed for the erection of the northeast pavilion 
of the Treasury buildings. (See map in " Ancient Rome," p. 14.5.) 
Traces of the Porta Viminalis are visible in the goods station, 
while the Porta Esquilina is represented by the ai"ch of Gallienus, 
Via di S. Vito. 

The annexed cut (Fig. 28) i-epresents an excavation made in 1877 
at the foot of the agger to determine the breadth and depth of the 
great ditch. It seems that when the agger itself was transformed 
into a public walk, the ditch was filled up, and turned into build- 
ing lots. Traces of a private house can be seen at the bottom of 
the trench. 

Beyond the last fragment visible in the Via Merulana (XI) we 
lose sight of the fortifications, although their course and the site 
of the gates Querquetulana, Caelimontana, and a third near the 
Piazza della Navicella, can be distinctly traced from discoveries 
made in times gone by. 

The famous Porta Capena, which marks the beginning of the 
Appian Way, seems to have been discovered twice : by Orazio 
Orlandi in the latter part of last century ; and by Mr. J. H. Parker 
in 1867, in the slope of the C?eliau, behind the apse of S. Gregorio. 
Parker gives a view of his excavation in Plate xviii. of the " Aque- 
ducts of Ancient Rome " (London, Murray, 1876). The site of the 
gate can be determined to-day by means of a remarkable fragment 
of the walls (XII) visible in the wine-cellar of the Osteria della 
Porta Capena, in the gardens of S. Gregorio, Via di Porta S. 
Sebastiano, No. 1. 


On the other side of the valley the walls appear again, in front 
and under the old abbey of S. Balbina, now a house of refuse for 



,j„— 1, 





\ , 



Fig. 28. —The Ditch of the Agger of Servius. 

women (XIII) ; at a corner of the Via di S. Saba and the Via di 
Porta S. Paolo (XIV) ; on the Via di Porta S. Paolo itself, where 


the road bifurcates, one arm descending towards the gate, the 
other towards the Monte Testaccio (XV). This is the finest ruin 
of all, because it shows the restorations of the time of Camillus 
resting on the original structure of Servius. Fig. 29 represents 
the i^resent state of the ruin, but more than half of it is concealed 
by the accumulation of modern soil. I had the good fortune to 
see it completely exposed to view in 1868, when I made the draw- 
ing a facsimile of which is here given. 

Tliere is another fragment to be seen in the adjoining Vigna 
Maccarani-Torlonia (XVI), some stones of which were removed 
by Padre Secchi, the astronomer, to the Observatory of tlie Col- 
legio Romano, to serve as a pedestal for the great Merz equatorial. 
The walls appear again against the cliff of the Aventine, at the 
Arco di S. Lazzaro, Via di Marmorata (XVII) ; and lastly, under 
the convent of S. Sabina, where they were laid bai-e in 1856 
(XVIII). There is absolutely no trace of Servian fortifications 
on the opposite or Transtiberine side of the river. 

Four gates opened in the walls between the Porta Capena and 
the Tiber : the Naivia, on the Via Aventina, from which issued 
the Via Ardeatina; the Rudusculana, on the Via di Porta S. 
Paolo, from which issued the Via Ostiensis ; the Navalis, on the 
Via di S. Maria Aveutinese ; and the Trigemina, on the Via di 

Many stones built into the original wall of Servius are marked 
with signs or letters, which have given rise to much speculation. 
Consult — 

Luigi Briizz.n, Sopi-a i ser/ni incisi nci 7na.%ti flvllc iinirn, etc. (Annali Inst., 
1876, pis. i, k.) — Heinricli .lorchui, Topoyraphu', vol. i. \i. 250, pis. 1, 2. — 
Otto Ricliter, Uebvr antlke Steinmi'tzzeichtn, 1885. 

Literature. — Adolf Becker, Be Romce reteris onuris atque portis, p. 81; 
and Topof/raphie, p. 92. — Thomas Uyer, History of the City of Rome, p. 47. 
— R. Bergau, Die Befesiic/unc/ Romn clurch Tuvquinim Prisms unci Serrius 
Tullius. Gottingen, isfn. — Rodolfo Lanciani, BulJe muru e porte di Servio 
(in Ann. Inst., 1871, )>. 40) : and Bull. urch. com., 1876, pp. 24, 121. — Heinrieh 
.Jordan, Topot/rapliie, vol. i. ji. 200. — Otto Ricliter, i'(e Befestiguny des 

XTX. Walls of Aurelian and Probus, a. d. 272. — We 
have no account of the construction of the walls of Aurelian. 
We only k)iow, in a general way, that the Emperor was compelled 
to fortify the capital by the bai'barian invasion of a. d. 271, in the 
course of which the enemy had reached the banks of the Metaurus ; 
that, during the respite between the Marcomannic and tlie Pal- 




myrene campaigns, he inclosed the city mui-is quam ralUlissimis, 
and that the great undertaking, begun in 272, was finished by 
Probus about seven years hiter. 

The circuit of tlie walls, which I have measured inch by inch for 
the construction of the " Forma Urbis," measures 18,837 metres. 
The strip of land occupied by these fortifications is 19 metres 
wide : five of which are taken by the inner " clieminde ronde" four 
by the walls themselves, ten by the outside road ; 358,000 square 
metres were consequently expropriated by Aurelian ; and, as the 
land was thickly covered with villas, houses, gardens, and tombs, 
the cost of purchase must have been considerable. At 20 lire the 
square metre it would I'each 7,000,000 lire. 

The walls consist of a solid foundation of concrete from 3.-50 
to 4 metres thick, faced with triangular bricks ; of a covered way 
with loopholes on the outside, and a gallery or arcade in the inner 
side ; and a terrace or balcony above, lined with battlements (Fig. 
30). There are towers at an interval of 100 Roman feet (29.70 
metres), projecting from four to five metres. Each tower contains 
a staircase giving access to the lower corridor and to the terrace 
above. According to the survey made by Ammon, after the 
restoration of the walls by Arcadius and Honorius in 403, there 
wei'e 381 towers in all, exclusive of those of the mausoleum of 
Hadrian (Hadrianium), which had been converted into a tete du 
pont, to prevent the approach of the enemy from the Via Tri- 
umphalis and the Prata Neronis. Of these 381 towers only one 
has come down to us in a perfect state — the sixth to the left 
of the Porta Salaria. We can judge from its elegance and good 
construction that the builders of the walls had tried to disfigure 
the monumental city as little as i:)ossible ; we can judge also how 
much damage the walls must have suffered in the course of cen- 
turies, to be reduced to their present state of decay ! 

These noble walls, which have so often saved the city from 
pillage and destruction, on the face of which our history is wi'itten 
almost year by year, and so carefully preserved even in the darkest 
period of the Middle Ages, are now doomed to disappear. State 
and city have with equal promptness declined to undergo the 
expense of keeping them in repair. A section of them, 70 metres 
long, between the Porta S. Giovanni and S. Croce in Gerusalemme, 
fell in 1893. The only measure taken was a warning given to 
passers-by that another portion would soon share the same fate. 

The volume of masonry employed in tlie construction of the walls 
is estimated at 1,033,000 cubic metres. The cost at the present 



day would liave exceeded 26,000,000 lire, but we cannot make any 
calculation for Aurelian's time, because we do not know what 

Fig. 30. — The Covered Way of the Walls of Aurelian, Vigna Casali. 

were the price of labor and the cost of building-materials in his 
day. As a rule the walls are built with the spoils of the edifices 


which stood on their line and were demolished to clear the space ; 
only the surface and the arches are coated with bricks made for 
the occasion. Two recent discoveries illustrate this point ; they 
also bear evidence to the hurry with which the work was done, 
and therefore to the greatness of the peril from which Rome had 

A piece of the walls was cut away in November, 1884, between 
the third and the fourth tower on the right of the Porta S. 
Lorenzo, for the opening of the new Viale del Camposanto. An 
older construction had been embedded there in the thickness of 
the masonry, viz., a garden wall incrusted with shells, enamel, and 
pumice-stones, with niches worked in a rough kind of mosaic, 
and crowned by a cornice covered with sheets of lead. When 
Aurelian's engineers met with this obstacle, they did not lose 
time in demolishing it, but embedded it in their own masonry. 
So far, this is not remarkable ; but what remains inexplicable is 
that the statues were not removed from their niches. 

We have found them one by one in their original places, and 
they are not the work of an ordinary chisel, but delicate pieces of 
Graeco-Ronuxn sculpture, so much so that Professor Petersen lias not 
disdained to give illustrations of them in the " Bull. arch, com.," 
vol. xvii., a. 1889, p. 17, tav. 1, 2. The statues and the whole front 
of the garden wall were not damaged by the new consti'uction be- 
cause the engineers had taken care to protect them with a coating 
of clay. Traces of this nymphseum are still to be seen on the left 
of the new Barriera di S. Lorenzo. The second discovery was made 
in February, 1892, on the line of the Via INIontebello, between the 
garden of the English Embassy and the Praetorian Camp. Here a 
private house of the first century stood on tlie line of tlie walls. 
One would have expected the house to be leveled to the ground, 
and the walls raised on the space left free by the demolition ; but 
the engineers, in their haste, satisfied themselves with filling up 
the space between the sides of each room, leaving intact mosaic 
pavements, marble stairs, lintels, thresholds, and frescoes. This 
done, as soon as their own masonry was sufficiently hardened, they 

1 The victorj' of Aiirelian on the hanks of the Metaurus must have been 
so decisive that the whole Empire rejoiced at it. It is recorded even in the 
formulaj of contemporary gaming-tables (labulm lusnrim). One of these, 
discovered in 1892 in the catacombs of Priscilla, contains the words, " hostes • 
victos • Italia • gaudet • Indite • Romani;" another, discovered almost at the 
same time, in the cemetery of S. Eucharius at Treves, says, "virtus • imperi • 
hostes • vincti • liidant ■ Romani." 


shaved off, as it were, whatever projected on either side, and went 
on with their work. 

We come now to an important, and altogetlier new, point of 
research. For what cause, and from what military, teclmical, or 
financial reasons, was this special course of the walls selected ? 
and why were some important districts of the city left out, others 
included which contained nothing but tombs ? The answer is 
easily given. The com'se selected was that of the octroi, which 
followed closely that of the pomerium, or in other words, the 
line of separation between the city proper (continentia cedijicla) 
and the suburbs (^expatiantia tecla). Much has been written about 
the octroi line by — 

Theodor Mommsen, Bcrkhte rl. sacks. Gesillsc/i. ,lHbO, p. 3()U. — Gio. Battista 
dc Rossi, Archavol. Anztlf/vr, 1850, p. 147 ; and Piunte di Roma, ch. vii. p. 46. 
— Corpus /user., vol. vi. n. 1016, n, b, c. — Ephemeris Ejjiijr., vol. iv. p. 276. — 
Rodolfo Lauciaiii, Bull. arch, com., vol. xx., 1892, p. 93. 

It was marked by stone cippi, five of which have been described 
by epigraphists. The first was found, at the time of Andrea 
Fulvio, on the landing-place of the Tiber, under the Aventine. It 
bore this inscription : — 


which proves that duties were levied also on some kind of mer- 
chandise and provisions which came by water. The other four 
belong to the reorganization of the octroi made by M. Aurelius and 
Commodus al)oat the year a. d. 175, and they are all inscribed with 
the same regulations : " These terminal stones have been set up, in 
consequence of the quarrels which often arise between the importers 
and the tax-receivers, to show which is the exact line of the octioi 
according to the ancient custom." 

The place of discovery of the first stone is uncertain ; the second 
was found near the Porta Salaria ; the third near the Porta Flami- 
nia ; the fourth near the Porta Asinaria. They stood, therefore, on 
the very line followed a century later by Aurelian's waUs. Now it is 
evident that whoever establishes a financial barrier round an open 
city must try to take advantage of every existing natural or artificial 
obstacle to prevent smuggling and fraud. Another obvious pre- 
caution is to reduce to a minimum the number of openings, so as 
to save the expense of a large staff of officers. Between two ojien- 
ings, viz., between two toll-houses, they must have raised palisades, 
stone walls, hedges, or excavated ditches, unless the obstacles 
offered by the undulations of the ground or by public edifices 


afforded sufficient protection against snmggiing. This was exactly 
the case with Rome, where one sixth of the whole octroi line had 
been found ready-made by the substructure of the Horti Aciliani 
on the Pincian (550 metres) ; by the inclosure wall of the Ilorti Sal- 
lustiani (1200 metres), and of the Praetorian Camp (1050 metres) ; 
by the arcades of the Marcian (SCO meti'es) and of the Claudian 
aqueducts (475 metres) ; and lastly, by the Amphitheatrum Cas- 
treuse (100 metres). The octroi line, therefore, of the time of M. 
Aurelius and Commodus comprised an inclosure built on the prin- 
ciples of financial strategy, with first-class gates and custom-houses 
on the main roads and river landings, and with posterns and small 
pickets on the smaller lanes and landings of ferry-boats. From 
such financial fortifications to the walls of Aurelian the step is very 
short. Aurelian simply changed into a strong bulwark the octroi 
inclosure, respecting its gates, posterns, and ferries. 

Rkferences. — Arlolf Becker, De muris atque jwrtis. Leipsic, 1842. — 
Antonio Nibby and William Gell, Le mwa di Romn, 1820. — Eugene Miintz, 
Les arts a In cour des Papes, passim. — G. Battista de Rossi, Bull, arch crist., 
serie v., anno ii., 1891, p. 35. — Rodolfo Lanciani, Le mum di Aureliano e di 
Probo: Bull. arch, com., xx. p. 87. 

The late John Henry Parker prepared illustrations of the walls of Aurelian 
by numerous drawings and photographs, the first by Cicconetti, the second by 
Lucchetti. The collection of drawings belongs now to the Conimissione Arch, 
comunale di Roma ; the negatives of the photographic collection were de- 
stroyed by tire in July, 1893. 

XX. Restoration of the Walls by Hoxorius. — The re- 
storation of the walls by Ai'cadius and Honorius was commenced, 
according to Claudianus, " audito rumore Getarum," from the fear 
of an advance of the Goths under Alaric, and was completed in 
January, 402, under the direction of Stilicho. The great under- 
taking was celebrated by several inscriptions engraved above tlie 
gates, of which three only have survived destruction : those of the 
portai Tiburtina, Prpenestina, and Portuensis. (See Corpus Inscrip- 
tionum, vol. vi. n. 1188-90.) 

These inscriptions speak of " instauratos in-bi a^ternse muros 
portas ac turres, egestis immensis ruderibus," INIacrobius Longini- 
anus being the prefect of the city. The catastrophe, however, was 
not avoided, but deferred. Alaric crossed the Aljjs from Illyria 
towards the end of 402, and showed himself before the walls 
of INIilan, while Honorius was intrenching himself at Ravenna. 
Stilicho, by a miracle of energy and bravery, collected an army, 
reached the Goths at Pollenzo, and defeated them in the spring of 


403. The victory was celebrated by Houoriiis in the following 
year, with the last triumph witnessed in Rome, the last spark 
of a noble light about to vanish forever. The pageant marched 
along the walls just restored, and ended at the triumphal arch 
raised to the glory of the Emperor and his associates — 


Six years later, on August 24, 410, Alaric and the Getarum 
Natio entered Rome by the Porta Salaria ! 

AVithout entering into particulars concerning this restoration of 
the walls and gates, I shall only dwell a moment on the tale it 
tells about the fate of Rome at the beginning of the fifth century. 
Stilicho and Honorius found the walls almost buried under a mass 
of rubbish and refuse (imjnensa rudera) ; and as they had neither 
time nor means to clear the rubbish away they leveled it on the 
spot, and raised at once the level of that strip of city land from 
nine to thirteen feet. The thresholds of the porta; Flaminia, 
Tiburtina, Pr?enestina, Ostiensis of Honorius are as much as this 
above those of the time of Aurelian. And what destructions were 
accomplished for the sake of providing materials ! It is enough 
to quote the instance of the Porta Appia, the bastions of which 
were rebuilt of solid marltle, from the celebrated Temple of Mars 
which stood outside the gate. 

XXI. Gates of Aurelian and Honorius. — The gates of 
the city of Rome have seen more historical events during the 16"24 
years of their existence than any other monuments of the ancient 
world. Considering that even the volume of Gell and Nibby is 
far from being exhaustive on this jioint of historical topography, T 
could hardly enter into the subject myself. The student will find 
detailed information in the works mentioned below. 

Starting from the left bank of the Tiber, above the Ponte Mar- 
gherita, we must mention, first, the corner tower of great strength, 
which was considered by the Romans to be haunted by the ghost 
of Xero: uhl iimhra Neronis diu mansitavit. Later it was called Lo 

C. Ludovico Visconti, Bull. arch, com., 1877, p. 195. — Rodolfo Lanciani, 
Forma Urhi^, pi. 1. — Constantino Corvisieri, Archivio Societa storia patria, 
vol. i. p. 92, n. 1. 

Between the river and the Porta Flaminia (del Popolo) there 

1 See Corjnis Inscripiionum, vol. vi. n. 1196. The inscription of the arch 
refers also to the victory gained by Stilicho over Radagaisus in 405. 


was a beautiful tomb, upon which the third tower left of the gate 
is planted. 
Ludwig Urlichs, Codex topogr., p. 243. — Bull. arch, com., 1891, p. 140. 

The Porta Flaminia of llouorius, flanked by two round towers, 
was discovered in 1877 during the demolition of the two square 
bastions of Sixtus IV. 

C. Ludovico Visconti, Bull. arch, com., 1877, p. 209. — Constantino Corvi- 
^\e.Y\, Archivlo Societa storia patria, vol. i. p. 79, n. 1. — Pasqiiale Adinolfi, 
Roma nell' eta, di mezzo, vol. i. p. 81. — Giuseppe Tomniasetti, Archivlo Societa 
storia patria, vol. vi. p. 173. 

Behind the apse of S. Maria del Popolo the walls reach the 
northeast corner of the Pincian liill, the substVuctures of which, 
built by the Acilii Glabriones, were so gigantic in size and height 
that no extra works of defense were added to them by Aiirelian. 
At the opposite or northeast corner of the hill we find the " muro 
torto," a piece of the substructure which is inclined outwards at 
an angle of six or seven degrees. Procopius (Goth., i. 23) de- 
scribes it exactly as we see it now. In the Middle Ages women 
of ill fame were buried at the foot of the inclined wall, and in 
more modern times men and women who died impenitent. 

The Porta Pinciana, originally a modest postern, was trans- 
formed into its present shape by Belisarius. It opens on the Via 
Salaria vetus, which took the name of Pincia or Pinciana at the 
end of the fourth century. This gate will always get a share of 
the interest we feel for the gallant defender of Rome in .537. The 
Goths of Vitiges were encamped on the INIonti Parioli, watching 
the Porta Pinciana ; and on the site of the Villa Albani, watching 
the Porta Salaria. The best feat of the siege was the sally made 
by Belisarius, in the course of which the barbarians were driven 
back as far as the Anio. The Byzantine leader rode a white 
charger named ^d\iov by Procopius, and Balan by the Goths ; but 
in spite of prodigies of valor, his men began to waver, and he 
was obliged to retreat. The garrison of the Porta Pinciana, not 
recognizing the leader, covered as he was with dust and blood, 
obliged the retreating party to face the enemy again and drive 
them away from the walls. Belisarius at last entered the gate 
amidst frantic cheering, and his name was given to the gate itself 
(Porta Belisaria) in'memory of the eventful day. 

From the Pinciana to the Salaria the walls of Aurelian are in 
splendid preservation. A tower, the sixth before reaching the Sa- 
laria, is the only perfect one in the whole circuit. The Porta 


Salaria of Honorius, injured by the bombardment of September 
20, 1870, was rebuilt in the present form by Vespignani. The 
discoveries made on this occasion are described by — 

C. Ludovico Visconti, llfanciullo Q. Siilpicio ^fassimo. Rome, 1871. — Wil- 
helm Henzen, Sepulcri untichi rinvenutl alia porta Salaria (in Bull. Inst., 
1871, p. 98.) — Giovanni Ciofi, Inscnpt. . . . Q. Sulpicii Maximi. Rome, 
1871.— J. H. Parker, Tombs in and near Rome, Oxford, 1877, pi. 10. — Ro- 
dolfo Lanciani, Pagan and Christian Rome, p. 280. 

The Porta Pia, a work of 1561, by Matteo da Castello, stands 
75 metres to the left of the ancient gate of the time of Honorius. 
It was first called Nomentana, and later on, Porta S. Agnetis and 
Porta della Donna. Its two round towers are built, as usual, over 
classic tombs. The one on the right was excavated in 1827 by 
Zamboni. It belonged to Quintus Haterius, called by Tacitus 
" senex fcedissimoe adulationis." 

After passing two posterns in the portion of the walls which 
surround the garden of the Englisli Embassy, we meet with the 
Pr.-etorian camp, described in Book IV. ; and, on the other side 
of it, with the Porta Chiusa, which gave access to the Vivarium 
or imperial menagei'ie, where wild beasts were kept in readiness 
for tlie games of the amphitheatre. The walls on this part of 
the city have been largely restored with blocks of stone, from the 
inclosure wall of the Vivarium. 

The Porta S. Lorenzo, spanning the Via Tiburtina, was one of 
the most remarkable before 1869, when Pius IX. caused it to be 
demolished, to make use of the stones of which it was built for 
the foundations of the Colonna del Concilio on the Janiculum. 
The gate was double : the outside arch, dating from the time of 
Augustus, carried the Marcia, Tepula, and Julia over the road; 
the inside formed part of the fortifications. Fig. 31 (preceding 
page), from a photograph taken in 1868, shows tlie rise in the 
level of tlie city from the time of Augustus to that of Honorius, 
as the threshold of the gate of the fourth century is on the same 
level with the spring of the arch of Augustus. 

Between the Porta Tiburtina (S. Lorenzo) and the Prfenestina 
(Maggiore) the walls follow the line of the arcades of the Marcia. 
Tepula, and Julia, beautiful remains of which can be seen in the 
inner side, near the new barriera. 

The Porta Prfenestina, a magnificent work of Claudius in tlie 
so-called rustic style, served originally for the tran.sit of the 
Claudia and Anio Novus over the roads leading to Prseneste and 
Labicum. Honorius walled up one of the archw^ays, and fortified 



the other with towers resting on tombs. Tlie towers and the gate 
were destroyed in 1838, when the pcwariwn of the baker M. Ver- 
gilius Eurysaces and of his wife Atistia were laid bare. 

Tlie Porta S. Lorenzo. 

Luigi ("aiiina, SuJ Juogo denomiiiato la Speranza rercJiIa. Rome, 1839. — Bull. 
/ws^,"l8:i8, |). 144. — .4'«». hjsl., 1838, p. -221. —Curjjus Inscr., vol. i. pp. 222, 
223 ; vol. vi. n. 1958. 


The next piece of the wall, from the Porta Maggiore to S. Croce 
in Gerusalemme, must be visited from the garden annexed to this 
church. It appears like a combination of aqueducts and fortifi- 
cations, of classic, mediaeval, and modern structures, i\^'-clad and 
exceedingly picturesque. The entrance is from the first gate on 
the left of the church. 

After passing the Amphitheatrum Castrense, described in Book 
IV. § XV., the great breach produced by the collapse of the walls 
in 1893, and the Porta S. Giovanni, built by Gregory XIII. in 
l.')7o, we reach the Porta Asinaria, which, although sunk deep in 
the ground, is one of the best preserved of Roman gates. Through 
it Belisarius entered on December 9, .580, while the. Gothic garri- 
son was escaping by the Porta Flaminia. We can follow the 
i:>rogress of one and the retreat of the other army, and the vicissi- 
tudes of the war, by the way contemporary inscriptions are dated. 
In the lands belonging to or reconquered by the Byzantines the 
epitaplis of 5o0 are dated " post consulatum Belisarii ; " in those 
occupied by the Goths, " iterum post consulatum Paulini iunioris." 
There was, however, in Home an obscure man whose faith in the 
liberation of the city from the barbaric rule, at the hand of Beli- 
sarius, was never shaken. Ilis tombstone, now in the " Sacre 
Grotte Vaticane," says that John, the book-keeper of the tavern of 
Isidorus, had died on May '23, 536, consvlatv vilisari viri 
CLAKissiMi. It was engraved six months before the retreat of the 
Goths. Ten years later the same gate was tlirown open to Totila 
by the treachery of a body of Isaurians. 

There is a postern under the Lateran palace, and farther on, 
where the IVIarrana of Calixtus II. enters the city, a gate now 
closed, the classic name of which seems to be Porta Metroni. An 
inscription inside it mentions the restoration of this stretch of 
the walls made in 11.")" by the S. P. Q. R., R(egnante) D(omino) 
N(ostro Friderico) 8(emper) A(ugusto). The erasure of the 
name of Barbarossa must have taken place in 1167, when the city 
was besieged by the allied forces of the Tusculans and of tlie 

The next gate, tlie Latina, is beautifully preserved, but closed 
like the Porta Metroni. There is the Christian monogram above 
the arch between the mystic letters A and n. 

Antonio XiMiy, Ronm anfirn, vol. i. p. 148. — Giuseiipc Tuniniasetti, La via 
Latina, p. fj. IJome, 1880. 

The Porta S. Sebastiano, the Appia of .\urelian and Ilonorius, 


was rebuilt by the latter with the spoils of the Temple of Mars 
" extra muros.'' 1 am sure that if the blocks of marble could be 
examined from the inside of the two bastions, they would all be 
found sculptured or engraved like those of the Porta del Popolo 
of Sixtus IV. On the right post of the gate, and concealed by 
the wooden folding frame, is engraved the figure of an angel, with 
the inscription, " In the year of our Lord 1327, xi. indiction, Sept. 
29, in the feast of S. Michael, a foreign army [that of King Robert 
of Naples] tried to force its way into the city, but was repulsed 
by the people of Rome led by Jacopo de' Ponziani." 

Orazio Marucchi, Silhir/e di alcune iscrizioni, etc., p. 100, n. 47. 

On the right of the Porta S. Sebastiano opens one of the pos- 
terns used only in jubilee years, and walled up since the Na- 
poleonic times. Others are to be seen on the side of each gate 
leading to great places of pilgrimage, like the Salaria (Forma 
Urbis, pi. iii.), the Tiburtina, and the Ostiensis. After the tenth 
tower there is a fine specimen of brickwork of the time of the 
Antonines, a door flanked by half columns of the Corinthian order, 
with finely cut capitals and frieze. It does not belong to a tomb, 
as Nibby and others have suggested, but to a private villa dis- 
covered at the beginning of this century in the Vigna Volpi, within 
the walls. 

The Rastione del Sangallo, a few steps farther on, carefully kept 
in repair up to 1870, is now abandoned to its fate, and its brick 
facing is spoilt by vegetation which almost hides it from view. 
Huelsen has discovered in the Ufiizi the original design of Antonio 
da Sangallo, which shows the portion of the wall destroyed by 
Paul III. to make room for this bulwark, which was 400 metres 
long, with nine towers and one gate. The gate is undoubtedly the 
Ardeatina, ou the subject of which consult — 

Antonio Nibby, Dint ami di Romn, vol. iii. p. 560. — Gio. Battista de Rossi, 
Roma sotterraiiea, vol. ii. p. 8. — Heinrich Jordan, Topor/rajjhie, vol. i. pp. 
2.33, .3G8. — Giuseppe Tommasetti, Architno Societa storla j)atria, 1879, p. 385; 
1880, p. 135.— Christian Huelsen, Mittheil., 1894, p. 320, pi. 9. 

The Porta Ostiensis, now di S. Paolo, the last on the left bank, 
dates from the time of Ilonorius, its level being nearly four metres 
higher than that of the pyramid of Cestius. The treacherous 
Isaurians thi-ew it open to the Goths in 549. King Ladislas en- 
tered it in 1407, and caused it to be walled up, but the Romans 
reopened it in 1410. 

The walls did not end at their junction with the Tiber, but 


turned inwards, following the left bank for 780 metres, until they 


Fig. ;VJ. - l)(i(.r nf tlif First Oiitiirj- Imilt into tlie Walls of Aurclian. 

met with those of the opposite shore. Tliere were two great 
towers to protect the entrance to Rome by water, a chain being 


drawn at night between them. The towers are represented in the 
above sketch by Van der Aa (Fig. 33). 

The walls on the Transtiberine side, still perfect in the sixteenth 
century, have now disappeared, except for a short space on either 
side of the Porta Septimiana. There were three gates : the Por- 
tuensis, on the road to the Portus August! ; the Aurelia, on the 
top of the Janiculuin ; and the Septimiana, on the road towards 
the Vatican district. 

The Portuensis stood 453 metres in front of the present one, 
built in 1644 by Innocent X. Its site is indicated in Nolli's plan. 
It had a double archway, and on the frieze above was engraved 
the inscription of Ilonorius (Corpus, vi. 1190). The Aurelia had 
changed its classic name into that of S. Pancratius since the time 
of Procopius. Urban VIIL rebuilt it in 1044, and I'ius IX. after 

Pig. 33. — Tlie Two Towers at the Entrance to the Harbor of Rome. 

the French bombardment of 1S49. The Septimiana was reduced 
to its present state by Alexander VI. in 1498. 

XXII. Walls of Leo IV., Leopolis, Joiiannipolis, Lau- 
RENTiOPOLis. — The construction of the walls of Leo IV. for the 
defense of the Vatican suburb and of the basilica of S. Peter is 
a consequence of the first Saracenic invasions. From Palermo 
and Ca]ip Lilybiieum, which had already been named Mars-allah 
(Marsala, the narl)or of (iod), the fleet of the Infidels sailed for 
the Bay of Naples in 845, and after a long stay at ]\Iisenum, 


advanced towards the moiitli of the Tiber in 846. The i'eeble 
garrison of Gregorioi)olis (Ostia. recalled to life and fortified by 
Gregory IV.) was easily overcome, and the l)arbarians were pre- 
vented from taking possession of Rome rather by the strength of 
its walls than by the valor of its defenders. 

To revenge themselves for their repulse, the Saracens wrecked 
the two suburban churches of S. Peter and S. Paul, and carried 
away the inestimable treasures which the faithful had accumulated 
in the course of centuries over the tombs of the Apostles. The 
sight of the burning ruins caused the death of Pope Sergius II., 
and the panic-stricken citizens elected Leo IV. as his successor. 

A curious discovery was made some years ago by Signor Pietro 
Kocclii in connection witii one of these Saracenic inroads. Wliile 
excavating tiie remains of a temple, in the farm of La Valchetta, 
six miles below Rome on the road to Ostia, he discovered tiaces 
of one of their camps, consisting mainly of daggers and poniards 
with curved blades of Oriental make. The Saracens liad over- 
thrown the temple, but columns, frieze, and capitals were found 
lying In situ, together with a statue of liacchus in Pentelic mar- 
ble. The statue, slightly restored by Fabi-Altini, adorned the 
studio of the late Mr. W. W. Story in'l.S92. 

I^eo IV. lost no time in relieving the fortunes of Rome: he 
nuide an alliance with (iaeta, Amalfi, and Naples, organized a 
tieet, and, taking the command of the allied forces, attacked the 
Infidels at Ostia, near the moutli (if the Tiber, and gained a com- 
jilete victory over them.^ 

To i)revent, however, the repetition of the same occurrence, 
the ]X)])e determined to surround S. Peter's and the Borgo with a 
fortified inclosure, the remains of which are still to be .seen in the 
gardens of the Vatican and in the so-called Corridojo di Castello. 

The study of this work of niediieval military engineering is 
instructive, and .shows how carefully Leo IV. liad tried to imitate 
the structure of the Aurelian walls. For those who have not the 
fjjiportunity of examining the Leonine walls in the gardens of 
the Vatican — where the best jireserved portion, including two 
round-towers, is to be seen — the most favorable 2)oint of observa- 
tion is the courtyard adjoining the church of S. Angelo dei Corri- 
dori. The wall is V2 feet thick, and has, or rather had, a double 
gallery, — one in the thickness of the wall, supported by open 

1 This naval battle has been (lescril)t'(l l)y (Jufilit'Imotti in chap. xi. of tlie 
Sfuria dclhi maririd ponfificiii, and illiisfratcd by Haphacl in fresco No. IV. of 
the Stntiza dell^ /ncmi/in di Bovijo. 


arcades on the inward side, and one on the top, level with the 
battlements. The lower gallery was afterwards transformed into 
a passage, II Corridojo di Castello, connecting the palace of the 
Vatican with the fortress of S. Angelo. Many popes and cardinals 
have escaped either from death or from servitude by means of 
this corridor, one of the leading historical events in connection 
with it being the flight of Pope Clement VII. from the hordes of 
Charles V. led by the Constable de Bourbon. 

The length of the wall is about 3000 metres ; the height varies 
from 15 to 22 metres; the most exposed angles are protected by 
round-towers, two of which are still in existence, and form a con- 
spicuous landmark of the Vatican landscape. The woi'k does 
credit to Leo IV., considering the poverty of the means at his 
disposal. Two inscriptions in the arch which spans the Via di 
Porta Angelica give important details of the scheme adopted to 
obtain speedy work and cheap labor. 

The first says : " In the time of our Lord the Pope Leo IV., the 
Militia Saltisina has built these two towers and the intermediate 
wall (pcigina) ;'^ the other, likewise: "In the time of our Lord 
the Pope Leo IV., the Militia Capracorum has built this tower and 
the wall which connects it with the next." It appears from these 
inscriptions that the citizens of Rome being unequal to the task 
of completing the fortification in the required time, the colonists 
of the domus cultce (fortified farms of the Campagna) were called 
upon to take a share in the work. Each section of the walls was 
assigned to a company of soldier workmen ; and here we find the 
mention of two : the company from Capracorum, that is to say 
from Veil (Isola Fai'uese), whose silent ruins had been recalled to 
life by Hadrian I. ; and the company from Saltisina, a colony on 
the road to Ardea, fifteen miles from Rome. Both of them declare 
tliat they have finished their special part of the construction 
under the direction of a certain Agatho, who seems to have been 
the designer and chief engineer of the walls. The new city was 
solemnly styled Civitas Leoniana. and tables inscribed with its 
name were fixed on each gate. 

Other records of this work have been collected by De Rossi in 
his memoir entitled " Le prime raccolte di antiche iscrizioni " 
(Giornale arcadico, 1850). See also " Inscriptiones christianse 
Urbis Romfe," vol. ii. pp. 324-326. 

There were three gates and two jiosterns in Leopolis. The 
first, called Porta S. Petri, opened on the ^Elian bridge under the 
bastions of the Castle (S. Angelo). The second, called Posterula 



S. Angeli, corresponds approximately witli the present Porta Cas- 
tello. The third, called Sancti Peregrini (near the Angelica of 
Pins IV.)) opened nnder the pope's residence towards the Via Tri- 
umphalis. The i'onrth, Porta in Tnrrione, corresponds with the 
Porta Cavalleggeri of the present day. The fifth, named Poste- 
rula Saxonum, was transformed by A. da Sangallo into the monu- 
mental Porta di Santo Spirito. 

Fig. 34. — Tower of Leo IV. in the Vatican Gardens. 


Bastions of Pius IV. in the fore- 

JoHANXiPOLis. — John VIII. in 880 did for S. Paul's what Leo 
IV. had done for S. Peter's, with this difference, that while the 
Vatican Basilica and the Borgo A^ecchio were included in the city, 
the Basilica Ostiensis remained a detached fort, communicating 
with the city by means of a portico over a mile long. We must 
acknowledge that the Romans did not show the same zeal and 
reverence towards the two Apostles. S. Paul's tomb was allowed 
to be profaned and to remain abandoned for over ten years, until 


the poutificate of Benedict III. (855-858), who " sepulchrum, quod 
a Sarracenis destructum fuerat, perornavit." The fortifications 
were begun only in or about 880, and consisted of walls and tow- 
ers, like those of Borghetto, Castel Savello, etc., including a con- 
siderable space of ground on either side of the road to Ostia, and 
on the left bank of the Tiber. An inscription in seven distichs, 
above the gate facing Rome, contained the following words : — 


The fortress was of considerable strength, as we can argue from 
the vigorous defense which Stefano Corsi made in it against Pope 
Paschal II. in 1099. A document of 1074 sjieaks of the castellum 
S. Pauli quod vacatur lohannipolis as still in good condition ; but 
the so-called Anonymus Magiiabecchianus, who wrote between 
1410 and 1415, says that it had disappeared long before his time. 
I have gone over the ground covered by Johannipolis many times, 
without finding a trace of the fortifications, except perhaps on 
the river-side, where I saw in 1890 ruins of what appeared to be a 

LiTERATUKK. — Muratori, Antiqq. med. mv!, vol. ii. dis!<. xxvi. p. 40.3. — 
Gio. Battista de Rossi, /«sc?-. christ. Urbis RoiruB, vol. ii. p. 326. — Rodolfo 
Lanciani, Leopolis and Johannipolis, the Esquiliiie, .June, 1892. — Louis Du- 
chesne, Liber pontificnlis, vol. ii. p. 298. — Giuseppe Tommasetti, Archivio 
storia patria, a. 1896, fasc. i. 

Laurentiopolis. — A second detached fort was built about the 
same time for the protection of the basilica of S. Lorenzo fuori le 
Mura, but no historical document mentions the fact. S. Lawrence 
was held by the Romans almost in the same veneration as the two 
Apostles, and a portico was built for the convenience of pilgrims 
from the Porta Tiburtina to liis grave, exactly like those which 
led from the J^^lian bridge to S. Peter's and from the Porta Osti- 
ensis to S. Paul's. A document of the time of Urban VIII. 
(1623-44), discovered by Armellini, says : " There are yet con- 
siderable remains of the wall which once surrounded the basilica 
of S. Lorenzo like a castle ; they are better preserved on the side 
of the Via Tiburtina." Laurentiopolis has now completely dis- 
appeared, but I am able to reproduce here a sketch of its fortifi- 
cations drawn about 1534 by Martin Heemskerk. 

XXm. The Fortifications of Paul III., Pius IV., and 
Urban VIII. — The horrors which Rome suffered at the time of the 
Sacco del Borbone, in 1527, were still fresh in the memories of the 


Court and of the population when Cardinal Farnese was elected 
pope with the title of Paul III. One of the first thoughts of 
this great and generous man was to secure the city from a repe- 
tition of the occurrence, and Antonio da Sangallo was commis- 
sioned to draw up a plan for the fortifications. The survey he 
made of the ground and the sketches of his plan of defense are 
preserved in the I'ffizi at Florence. (T)i^segni 301, 1015, 1019, 1481, 
1514, etc.) These drawings show liis proposal to reduce the cir- 
cuit of the walls (on the left bank) by one third at least, in- 

s,t> ,: 

' 1 1 'mt^ ^ 


43iiirr'^' i/S^'i. t^**^ 

Fig. 35. — The Fortifications of Laurentiopolis. By M. Heemskerk. 

closing at the same time in the line of defenses the Borgo Vati- 
cano, which was very inefiiciently protected by the crumbling 
walls of Leo IV. Bastions with double wings were to be raised 
at intervals of 500 metres, the centres of defense being the castle 
of S. Angelo for the right bank and the Lateran for the left. 

The works were begun at once with great determination, but, 
as time passed and the recollections of Bourbon's atrocities faded 
quietly away, tliey were given np altogetlier. There remain as 
specimens of Antonio da Sangallo's engineering skill — (1) the 
bastione di Belvedere ; (2) the bastion of the Priorato or Aven- 
tino ; (8) the bastion of the Yigna Cavalieri or Antoui(ni)ano ; 
(4) the foundations of a third l)astiou under S. Saba. Many 
plans of Rome of the time of Paid IV. give the whole system of 
defenses as finished ; others represent the earthworks thrown up 


in haste at tlie approach of the duke of Alva. The best of all 
was engraved in 1557 by Lafreri, under the title : " Recens . . . 
topograpliia cum vallis, fossis, et aggeribus ceeterisque qute ad 
hostiuni impediend(as) irruptiones per universum urb(is) ani- 
bitum . . . lieri curavit raul(us) II II. dum bello parthenop(eio) 
premeretur." Pius IV. fortified the Borgo Nuovo in 1562. 

Urban VIII., fearing the hostile action of the duke of Parma, 
began in 1642 a new^ line of walls on the ridge of the Janiculum, 
which are still kept in repair for military purposes. They start 
from the Porta Tvirrionis of Leo IV. (Cavalleggeri), and reach the 
Tiber at liipa Grande. Among the works of art discovered in 
building these bastions, Bartoli mentions " many statues, one of 
which, of bronze, is now in the Barberini palace, a bisellium or 
magistrate's chair of bronze inlaid with silver, and several objects 
of curiosity." The Ijronze statue represents Septimius Severus, 
and was probably set up in the garden of his son Septinnus Geta. 
It was lately in the possession of Prince Sciarra, and must have 
shared the fate of the rest of his valuable collections. Urban 
VIII. built but one gate, the Porta S. Pancrazio, ruined by the 
French guns in 1849. The scarce engraving of the time, repro- 
duced on the opposite page, shows the entry of the invaders on July 
4th of that year. 

Referknces. — Vincenzo de Marchi, ArchittUura militnre, p. 2 A, ed. 
1590. — Maggi, FortifrnzUme, p. 115, Venice, 1564. — Scamozzi, ArchUettura 
univermle, p. 108, Venice, 1615. — Alberto Gnglielmotti, Storia delle fortifi- 
cazioni della gpinr/f/ia romnna, viii. 2, p. 320. — Mario Borgatti, Le. mum di 
Roma, in Rivista di Artiglieria e Genio, 1890, p. 391. — Christian Huelsen, 
Mittheilunr/en, 1894, p. 328. 

XXIV. Modern Fortifications. — Eighteen outlying forts 
and batteries have been raised by the Italian government for 
the protection of the capital of the kingdom against a coup de 
main from the sea. They follow each other in this order, going 
from left to right : T. Monte Antemne ; II. Batteria Xomentana ; 
III. Pratalata ; IV. Tiburtino ; V. Prenestino ; VI. Tusculano ; 

VII. Porta Furba ; VIII. Appia Pignattelli ; IX. Appia Antica ; 
X. Ardeatino; XI. Ostiense; XIL Portuense; XIII. Bravetta 
(Villa Troiani) ; XIV. Aurelia Antica; XV. Boccea, on the Via 
Cornelia; XVT. Casal Braschi, on the Via Traiana: XVII. Trion- 
fale; XVIII. Monte Mario. Xo objects or ruins of archfeological 
interest have been discovered in building forts numbers III, V, 

VIII, XVI, and XVII ; the construction of the others has given 
occasion for valual)le finds. They are described most carefully in 
the " Notizie degli Scavi " from 1876 to 1884. 



XXV. The Fourteen Regions of Augustus. — Whoever 
undertakes to separate into a certain number of wards a city, 
not new or young, but many centuries old, and already divided 
roughly by the undulations of tJie ground, by popular habits, by 
relationship of neighborhood, must, if he wants to succeed, pay 
attention to all these elements. Augustus, in attempting this 
reform between 10 and 4 b. c, must have felt embarrassed in 
the selection of fundamental lines, because the city had no cardo 

Fig. 3G. — The French Array entering the Porta S. I'aucrazio, July 4, 1849. 

or decumamis, and its plan was "magis occupataj urbis quam 
divisai similis." He selected as a cardo or meridian a line which 
started from the lianks of the Almo, beyond the first milestone 
of the Appian Way, followed northwards this way to tlie Porta 
Capena, and thence the east side of the Circus ]\Iaximus (Via de' 
Cerchi), the Vicus Tuscus (di S. Teodoro), the Clivus Argenta- 
rius (di Marforio), and the Via Flaminia (Corso) to the first 
milestone. On this basis (ancient maps and geodetic operations 
in general started from the south instead of the north) he divided 
the ground on the left bank of the river into thirteen wards or 
refjiones, and made the fourteenth out of the Trastevere. The 
elements of the division are — (1) The meridian line just alluded 


to ; (2) the Palatine hill, selected as a centre ; (3) the line of the 
Servian walls ; (4) the main thoroughfares leading from the centre 
of the city to the gates of Servius. However, as in the Augustan 
age the city had extended far beyond the line of the Servian walls, 
and populous suburbs had sprung up along the main consular 
roads, six regions were established " extra muros " (I, V, VII, IX, 
XII, XIV), eight "intra muros" (II, III, IV, VI, VIII, X, XI, 
XIII). 1 This simple and practical operation is illustrated by the 
sketch-map on the opposite page. 

In Constantine's time the fourteen regions bore the names of 
I. Porta Capena, II. Cfelimontium, III. Isis et Serapis, IV. 
Templum Pacis, V. Esquilia;, VI. Alta Semita, VII. Via Lata, 
VIII. Forum Romanum, IX. Circus Flaminius, X. Palatinum, XI. 
Circus Maximus, XII. Piscina Publica, XIII. Aventinus, XIV. 
Transtiberim. Some of these names cannot be original, because 
at the time of Augustus there was no temple of Isis and Serapis 
on the Oppian, no temple of Peace near the Carinae, and probably 
no Via Lata at the foot of the Quirinal. The original wards were 
probably distinguished by a number from I to XIV, counted from 
right to left. 

We have two documents on the statistics of each region, the 
Notitia and the Curiosum, about which the reader may consult 
Preller's " Regionen " mentioned below, and Jordan, " Topogra- 
phic," vol. ii. (Untersuchungen liber die Beschreibung der XIV 
Regionen), pp. 1-312 and pp. 539-582. 

Both documents are of the fourtli century, and therefore their 
statistics cannot l)e made use of in speaking of the Augustan 
reform ; still they may help us in a great measure, because many 
regions bounded by fixed barriei*s, like the Tiber and the Servian 
walls, could not expand with the increase of the population like 
those " extra muros." Regions II, III, IV, VI, VIII, X, XI of 
the fourth century, fettered since their first institution by such 
immovable boundaries, are essentially the same as in the first cen- 
tury. The fact which strikes us most forcibly in examining their 
statistics is the effort made by the surveying officers of Augustus 
to equalize the divisions. They adopted as an average measure 
for each ward a circuit of 12,000 to 12,500 feet (12,270), with the 
exception of the sixth, to which, for local reasons,^ was given a 

1 Claudius afterwards (a. d. 47) doubled the extent of the thirteenth, taking 
in the plains of Testaccio, with their quays, wliarves, arsenals, granaries, 
warehouses, sheds, corn-exchanges, etc. 

2 The great projecting buttress of the Servian walls in the gardens of 



circuit of 15,700 feet. The others agree so well that there are 
only 150 feet of difference between the second and the third, 07 









between the fourth and the eighth, 10 between the tenth and tlie 
eleventh, as sjiown in the following table: — 








1-2, aoo 



































Not less remarkable is the uniformity in the number of tene- 
ment-houses (^insuke). The third and fourth regions have each 
2757 insular ; the difference between the sixth and the eighth is 
only 77 ; between the third and the tenth 65. As far as palaces 
(domus) are concerned, it is obvious that the surveying-officers 
could not even approximately assign an equal number to each 
ward, and therefore we find a difference of 86 between the maxi- 
mum and the minimum. In spite of that, the fourth, tenth, and 
eleventh have the same number (88-89) of palaces; the second, 
sixth, and eighth almost the same (127-146). These statistics 
help us to determine which parts of the city were the favorite ones 
with the aristocracy. The sixth comes foremost, with 1 palace 
to -every 23 houses ; last comes the third, with 1 to 45. These 
results agree very well with the results of our excavations. How- 
ever, all is not gold that glitters. The Curiosum and the Notitia 
do not deserve the blind and implicit faith which has been placed 
in them by topographers, and we have reason to believe their 
statistics either incori'ect originally or made so by copyists. I cite 
one or two instances. We may perhaps be mistaken in attributing 
to the word damns the meaning of palace, and to the word insula the 
meaning of tenement-house, and in this case their true significance 
remains to be found out.^ But if their meaning is certain,^ how 
can we crowd into the Palatine hill 2692 tenement-houses and 89 
private palaces, when we know that the palaces of the Ca3sars 
alone occupied nine tenths of its surface? Again, we may believe 
to a certain extent that the geodetic experts of Augustus, turning 
their compass over and over again on the map of the city, could 
have found a circuit line of nearly equal length for each ward ; 
but how is it possible that they could have placed exactly 2757 
tenement-houses within the third and the fourth, and 2487 within 
the twelfth and the fourteenth, although these i-egions are so 
different in many other respects? It is impossible, therefore, to 
accept the statistics, as has been done up to the present day, some 
of their inaccuracies being patent. They assign, for instance, to 

1 References (for insulce and domus). — Pietro Visconti, Atti Accad. Ar- 
cheol. vol. xiii. p. 254. — Francesco Bianchini, Columhar. Livke, p. 49. — 
Gaetano Marini, ArvaU,Y). 399. — Otto Richter, Insula (in Hermes, 1885, p. 91). 
— Fricdlander, Sittenyeschichte Roms, vol. i. ]). 12. — Eyssenhardt, Romlsch 
und Romdnlsch, p. 92. — Pohlmann, THe Ueberrolkerung der antiken Gross- 
stddte. Leipsic, 1884. — Attilio de Marclii, Ricerche intorno (die insidie. 
Milan, 1891. 

2 Cf. the decisive passage of Tacitus, Ann. xv. 41: Domorum t't insularum 
et templorum, qux amissa sunt, numeruni inire hand proniptuni fiiit. 



the tenth or Pahitiiie region a cii'cuit of 3418 metres (11,510 feet). 
I have measured it twice over in designing Sheets xxix. and xxxv. 
of my " Forma Urbis," detaining an average length of 2080. 
There is an exaggeration of 1:338 metres. 

A remarkable study has just been published on this question by 
Huelsen in Bull. arch, com., 1894, p. 312. According to his cal- 
culations the Coliseum could accommodate only from 40,000 to 
45,000 seated spectators, the Theatre of INIarcellus from 9000 to 
10,000, the Circus Maximus about 150,000. These figures are very 
far from tlie 87,000 places (Jac(i) which the catalogues attribute 
to the first, from the 17,580 given to the second, from the 385,000 
given to the third. I bring this chapter to a close with the statis- 
tics of the regions " extra muros : " — 













I."), 000 





1 4, .')()() 









X I! . 

1-2, 000 














Comparing the two tables, we find that the aristocratic quarter 
par excellence was the thirteenth (Aventine), with 1 palace in 19, followed closely by the ninth (Circus Flaminius), with 1 
in 20. Last comes the third (Lsis et Serapis), with 1 in 46. The 
patricians evidently preferred the quarters more distant from the 

LiTEKATiiRK. — Heinricli .Jordan, Topngrnphie, vol. ii. p. 72. — T-iuhvi^ 
Prt'ller, Dit Reffionen d. St. Rom. .Jciia, 1840. — AVilhelni Ilenzeii, Corpitx 
/user. Lnt., vol. vi. p. 80, ad n. 454. — (}. Hattista de Rossi, Piante di R. 
anteriori al sec. XVI. p. 39. — .Toachini Marquardt, Staat.trerwaltunf/, iii. pp. 
204, 205. — (Jiusejipe Gatti, Bull. arch, corn., vol. xvi. p. 224. — Rodolfo Lan- 
ciani, Ricerche stillc XIV ref/ioni : ibid. vol. xviii. p. 115. 

XXVI. TiiK PopuLATiox OF AxfiF.NT RoME. — There is no 
instance in the history of the world of so ra]iid and magnificent a 
growth as that of Rome from its first foundation on the Palatine 


by a mere handful of shepherds. Whether by wisdom or by 
power or by valor, they were destined from the beginning to 
become the rulers of the world. And even now the civilized 
nations are governed by their laws, travel by their roads, and 
speak or understand their language. During the twenty-six cen- 
turies of its existence the population of Rome has had much to 
suffer — changing customs, habits, opinions, forms of government, 
and religion. No other city has been besieged, taken, robbed, and 
burnt so often, and yet the vitality of the root could never be im- 
paired. Even in the worst period of the Middle Ages, when tem- 
porarily dethroned by Avignon, Rome and its name never lost 
tlieir influence and prestige, but while in the first centuries of the 
Republic the reality was in advance of reputation, at the end of 
the Middle Ages reputation was ahead of true facts. 

Roman history is represented with astonishing precision by the 
fluctuations in the number of its inhabitants, because men rush 
where they can find food, work, luxury, health, power, fame, se- 
ciu'ity, and fly when such advantages are difficult or impossible to 
obtain. Political power alone, without the comforts of life, is 
not sufficient to stimulate immigration into a city : Rome was at 
its lowest under the most powerful of medijeval popes. Innocent 

Three attempts have been made lately to estimate the number 
of the inhabitants of ancient Rome : one by Pietro Castigiione, 
" Delia popolazione di Roma dall' origine sino ai nostri tempi " 
(Monografia di Roma, vol. ii. p. 187) ; the second by myself, in a 
memoir on the " Vicende edilizie di Roma antica," published in 
the same work, vol. i. p. 1 ; the third by Prof. Julius Beloch, " Ex- 
trait du Bulletin de I'lnstitut international de Statistique," Rome, 
Botta, 1S86. 

The question is worth investigation, on account of the amazing 
estimates made by older writers. Lipsius mentions 4,000,000, 
Vossius 14,000,000 ! Gibbon gives the city 1,200,000 souls at the 
time of Constantine, and although his calculations rest on no sci- 
entific basis, yet his exquisite historical intuition made him strike 
almost the right figure. Bunsen's standard measure — the number 
of those to whom grain was gratuitously distributed under Au- 
gustus — is the right one, but he is greatly mistaken in reckoning 
the number of slaves. At all events his statement — 1,;)00,000 as a 
mini nmm, '2,000,000 as a maximum — has been accepted by Ger- 
man writers : by Nietersheim (1,500,000), IMarquardt (l,Go6,000), 
Friedlander (1,000,000 for the first, 2,000,000 for the second cen- 


tury), and others. Again, those who have taken as a basis the 
area of the city inclosed by walls (nine million square metres), 
compared with the density of population in modern capitals, 
have fallen into the other extreme. Dureau de la Malle assigns 
to fourteen wards of the imperial city a population of 562,000, 
Castiglione assigns 584,000. The results attained by Beloch are 
expressed in the closing paragraph of his memoir as follows : 
" Taking into consideration the number of those who had a right 
to the free distribution of grain at the beginning of the Empire, 
the popnlation of Rome, of the Campagna, and of some of 
the surrounding hills must have amounted to from 950,000 to 
1,035,000 souls; that of the city alone from 760,000 to 920,000. 
Again, calculating the habitable space within the walls of Au- 
relian, we have found out for the city alone a popidation of from 
800,000 to 850,000 souls. The approximation of these figures 
reached by different ways shows that we cannot stray very far 
from the truth if we adopt for Rome and the Campagna the mim- 
ber of about 1,000,000, for Rome inclosed by walls that of 800,000. 
However modest the number may seem, compared with former 
ideas, we must remember that it was never reached by a modern 
capital up to the beginning of the present century." 

From the end of the third century downwards the population 
diminished with appalling rapidity. Castiglione says that in ;];55 
B. c. it was reduced to ;500,(H)(), but his estinuite is evidently too 
low. Pillage after pillage, barbarian inroads, famine, insecurity, 
bad government or no government at all, earthquakes, and inun- 
dations did the rest ; and we are told that in the year 1377, on the 
return of the popes from Avignon, there were only 17,000 survi- 
vors in tlie ruinous waste.' Whether the figure be exact or not, 
these few men who held firm and faithful to their native soil. de- 
serve the gratitude of mankind. Without them, the site of Rome 
would now be pointed out to the inquiring stranger like that of 
Veil, of Fidente, of Ostia, and of Tusculum. There are three 
works on Roman statistics of the sixteentli and seventeenth cen- 
turies full of new and interesting information. 

Mariano Arniellini, Un cenmnento (Jella cilta di Rinnn softo il jioiitifimU) di 
Leone X. Rome, 1882. — Domenico Giioli, Dcxcri/ilio urbis, o censimento delia 
popolazione di Roma arnnfi il nacco borboniro. Koim', 1804. — Fraiifesco Cera- 
soli, Censimento della 2>oj)olazione di Roma dalP anno 1000 nl 1739. Koine, 

Here are a few facts. In Pope Leo X.'s time the number of 
1 Compare Domenico Gnoli, Descriptio urbis. 



the cortesane was equal to about one third of the total of single 
women or widows within the walls of the city. Their luimber 
had diminished to 604 in 1600, to rise up again steadily until 
the maximum of 1295 is reached in 1639. A century later, iir 
1739, they were reduced to 100 (?). 

In 1527, the population being 55,035, some of the cardinals had 
the following retinue of servants and officers (corte cardinalizia) : 
Farnese, 306 jiersons ; Cesarini, 275 ; Orsini, 200 ; del Monte, 200 ; 
and so on in decreasing numbers, until we reach the figure of 60 
for Cardinal Numalio, and 45 for de Vio. 

In 1639, in a population of 114,256 souls, there were 24 bishops, 
1786 priests, 3539 monks, 2196 nuns, '2lSi) fainif/liari oi cardinals, 
— a clerical nucleus over 10,000 strong. There were 975 regis- 
tered beggars, 13 Moorish slaves. Of 88,144 persons capable of 
satisfying the Pascal precept 77,471 took the lu^ly communion. 
There were only 238 inmates of public prisons. 

At the beginning of this century the population numbered 
153,004 souls. The French invasions and the Napoleonic wars 
brought a decline, which culminated in 1812 with 117,882 in- 
habitants. But the ascending movement began again witli tlie 
Peace of Vienna, and has continued uninterruptedly to the present 
day. When Rome became the capital of Italy in 1780, tliere 
were 226,022 inhabitants; the Jiumber has doubled since, as sliown 
by this table : — 






of Births. 




25 lier 1000 






23 ' ' 


2 225 

XXVII. The Map of Rome engraa^ed ox Marble under 
Severus and Caracalla. — Under the pontificate of Pius IV. 
(1559-65), while the architect Giovanni Antonio Dosio da San 
Geminiano was excavating at the foot of the back wall of the 

' Including the Campagna and the floating population. 


church of SS. Cosma e Damiano, he found ninety-two pieces of 
marble slabs, upon which was engraved the map of the city, re- 
stored and rebuilt by Severus and Caracalla after the fire of Corn- 
modus. A few of the fragments were still fixed against the 
wall (Fea, Miscell., lii. n. a), but the greater part had fallen on 
the pavement of the Forum Pacis, each slab being broken into 
many pieces. Had the discoverer taken care to collect them care- 
fully, and to join the fragments of each slab there and then, the 
value of the discovery would have been inestimable; but we have 
reason to believe that tliey were tiirown negligently into baskets 
and removed to the palace of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. Here 
the pieces were sorted even more negligently, the larger and more 
valuable were exhibited in the museum, the smaller bits were 
thrown away in the cellars of the palace. Some years later a 
mason made use of them in restoring the wall of the garden on 
the river-side. Many of them were rediscovered in 1888 when 
that garden wall was demolished to make room for the Tiber 
embankment. (See Notizie degli Scavi, 1888, pp. .301, 437, 569.) 
Pope Benedict XIV., to whose liberality the Capitoline museum 
owes so many treasures, asked King Charles III. of Naples, the 
heir to the Farnese estate, to ])resent the " Forma Urbis " to the 
city. The reipu'st was complied with, and the fragments were 
arranged in a somewhat disorderly manner on each side of the 
staircase of the museum. The star which marks some of the 
pieces tells another tale in the odyssey of the precious relics : 
those pieces, having been lost in the journey from the Farnese 
palace to the Capitol, were reproduced from original drawings in 
Cod. vatic. 3839. 

In the year 1867 Augusto Castellani and Effisio Tocco tried 
fresh excavations in the garden of SS. Cosma e Damiano, and 
they were rewarded by the find of the celebrated jiiece containing 
the plan of the Porticus Livia; (Fig- '58). In 18S'2 another piece, 
containing the plan of the Vicus Vesta*, was discovered under my 
sujiervision ; a third of no im})ortance in 1884. 

Lastly, in 1890 the state undertook to make a final and exhaus- 
tive search at the foot of the wall of the Templum Sacraj Ur- 
bis, which led to no result, for reasons -which it would be out of 
place to discuss. The origin of the plan may be briefly described 
as follows : — 

The last census of Rome, taken in strict accordance witli the 
old rules, was beguii by Vespasian in a. d. 73, and finished two 
years later. The Flavian dynastj% to use the expression of Sue- 


tonius, had found the capital of the Empire " deformis veteribus 
incentliis [the five of Nero] atque ruiniti [the disasters caused by 
the factiou of Vitellius]."' A'espasian reorganized the city from 
the material as well as from an administrative point of view : the 
lands usurped by Nero for his Golden House were given back 
to the people ; the burnt quarters rebuilt, on a new piano rcgolatore ; 
the limits of the metropolitan district enlarged ; public projjerty on 
the line of the Tiber, of the aqueducts, of the pomerium was re- 
deemed from the encroachments of private individuals ; a new map 
of the city was drawn, and the cadastre of public and private 
property revised. These documents were deposited in a fireproof 
building, an oblong hall 42 metres long, 25 metres wide, constructed 
expressly on the west side of the Forum Pacis, between it and the 
Sacra Via. On the epistyle, above the main entrance, the follow- 
ing words were engraved : " [This building has been raised by] 
Vespasian in his eighth consulshiji [a. d. 78]." The map of the 
city, drawn in accordance with the last official survey and the re- 
sults of the census, was exhibited on the side of the hall facing the 
Forum of Peace. We do not know whether it was simply drawn 
in colors on plaster, like the celebrated maps of Agrippa in the 
Portico of Vipsania PoUa, or engraved on marble. 

The city was again half destroyed by fire in the year 191, under 
Commodus, the centre of the conflagration being precisely the 
neighborhood of these archives. The house of the Vestals, the 
jewelers' shops on the Sacra Via, the imperial warehouses for 
Eastern spices (horrea piperataria), and the Forum and Temple 
of Peace were leveled to the ground. The archives, surrounded 
by this mighty blaze on every side, must have been turned into an 
oven in spite of their fireproof inclosure, their bronze roof melted, 
their contents injured by heat or by water. 

Septimius Severus and his son Caracalla undertook, with the 
reconstruction of the city, the reestablishment of the archives of 
the cadastre, and, in memory of their work (which was begun in 
A. D. 193 and completed in 211), they caused a new and revised 
edition of the plan of the city to be engraved in marble and 
exhibited in the same place, that is to say, on the front of the 
building facing the Forum of Peace. The building itself, mag- 
nificently restored and decorated in opus sectile (a kind of Floren- 
tine mosaic), was dedicated under the name of Templum Sacrte 
Urbis. It exists still in a good state of preservation, thanks to 
Pope Felix IV., who, in 526, turned it into a church, under the 
invocation of SS. Cosma e Damiano. The wall, on the marble 



facing of which the plan of Rome was engraved, measures twenty- 
two metres in length, fifteen metres in height, and is remarkably 

Fig. 38. — The Fragment of the Marble Plan discovered by Castellani and Tocco in 18C7. 

well preserved. There is a good drawing of it in Jordan's " For- 
ma Urbis Romae," plate xxxi. fig. 1. 


The orientation or meridian line of the phiii seems to have been 
directed from the southwest to the northeast. Tlie scale, save a 
few excejptions, seems to be 1 : 250. 

References. — Bernardo Gamucci, Antickila di Roma, ed. 1580, p. 36. — 
Pietro Bellori, Fi-cirjm. vestif/ii U. R. Home, 1073 (2d edition, 1773). — Effisio 
Tocco, Annul. Inst., 1807, p. 409. — Trendelenburg, Annul. Inst., 1872,]). 75. — 
Ik'inrich .Jordan, Forma Urhis Romce Regionum XIV. Berlin, Weidniann, 
1874. — Anton Elter, Be Forma U. R. dvque orbis antiqui facie. Bonn, J8!)l. 
— Christian Hiielsen, Mittheil. des Archaeol. Instituts, 1889, p. 79; and Bull. 
arch, com., 1893, p. 130. — Otto Richter, Gottingcn gelehrten Anzcirien, 1892, p. 
130; and Toj>or/raphie der Stadt Rom, 1889, j). 3.— Gio. Battista I'ininesi, 
Anfichitd romane, vol. i. tav. 2-6. 

XXVIII. The Burial of Rome. — The question most often 
asked by persons not well acquainted with the details of the down- 
fall of Imperial Rome is, " How came the city to be buried under 
a bed of earth to a dejith which ranges from five to sixty-five 
feet?" Tlie question is more easily put than answered. The 
accumulation of modern soil depends upon so many causes, great 
and small, that it is very difficult to bring them all together and 
set them before the student in the proper light. 

To begin with, I will relate a personal experience which took 
place in 1883-84. during the excavations made by my late friend 
Luigi Boccanera, in the villa of Q. Voconius Pollio at Marino, the 
ancient Castrimcenium. AVe had been wishing for years to try an 
excavation in virgin soil, where no one should have disturbed the 
strata of the ruins corresponding to the pages of history. Here 
all chances were in our favor, because the Villa Voconiana, so rich 
in works of art, had not been destroyed by fire, or by earthquake, 
or by the violence of man, but had been left to decay by itself, 
piece by piece and atom by atom. The palace, moreover, contained 
but one floor, the ground floor, no suspicion of staircases leading 
to upper stories having been found anywhere. Now, as the posi- 
tion of the building was such that the strata of its ruins could 
not have been altered by the action ot water or atmospheric forces, 
and the volume of the same ruins could not have been either aug- 
mented or diminished, it was easy to calculate, with almost mathe- 
matical precision, Avhat is the material prodiict of the crumbling 
of a Roman house. 

The results of the careful calculation are these. A noble Roman 
house, one story high, produces a stratum of loose material and 
rubbish one metre, eighty-five centimetres high ; or, in other words, 
a building about ten metres high, crumbling down under the cir- 


cunistances wliicli caused the ruin of the villa of Voconius PoUio, 
produces 1.85 cuV)ic metres for each sqiuire metre of surface. 

Now if a building of very modest proportions lias created such 
a volume of ruins, it is easy to inuigine what must have been the 
results of the destruction of the private and public monuments of 
ancient Rome. 

At the beginning- of the fourth century after Clirist, Rome, as 
we have just seen, contained ■10,002 tenement-houses, 1790 palaces, 
not to speak of a thousand public buildings like thermaj, temples, 
basilicas, theatres, amphitheatres, circuses, porticoes, etc. The 
height of these editices was always considerable, sometimes exces- 
sive. Strabo mentions a law made by Augustus against the raising 
of private houses above seventy feet. Trajan tried to reduce the 
maximum to sixty feet. Tertullian describes the liouse of a Feli- 
cles as reaching the sky. Houses built in the phiin of the Cii'cus 
Flaminius against the Capitoline hill reached the platform of the 
Temple of Jupiter, and enabled tlie followers of Vespasian to 
take the place by storm from tlie Vitellians. The palace of Sep- 
timius Severus at the Septizonium towered fully seventy meti'es 
above the arena of the Circus Maximus ; the pediment of the 
Temple of the Sun rose eighty metres above the Campus Martius. 
Considering that hardly the ten thousandtli ])ortion of this mass 
of buildings has escaped destruction, all the rest liaving crumbled 
into dust and rubbish, we cannot wonder that ancient Rome should 
now lie buried so deep. If the Foruju of Trajan, excavated by Pius 
VII. in the heart of the nuxlern city, was not cleaned or swept 
once a week, as is the case now, at the end of each year it would 
be covered by an inch of dust, by one hundred inches at the end of 
a century ; and I speak of matter accumulated there simply by the 
action of rain and wind. But if the Forum of Trajan should be 
selected by the living generation as a receptacle for the daily refuse 
of the city, its disappearance would take place in a few years : and 
this has been the case with the Forum Romanum, the Coliseum, 
the Forum Augustum, the Palatine, the Vicus Patricius, and so on. 
At all events, the increase of the Roman soil begins witli the age 
of the Tarquins, and with the drainage and filling up of the Vela- 
bra. An inscription discovered at the first milestone of the Appian 
AVay (Corpus, vol. vi. n. 1270) describes how the steep incline 
leading from the river Almo to the Temple of INIars had been made 
easy by the removal of large masses of earth. The ruins of the 
buildings destroyed by the great fire described by Livy (xxiv. 47) 
were leveled on the spot, and the pavement of the Forum Boarium 


and of the surrounding streets was at once raised several feet. 
Horace (Sat. i. 8; v. 15) describes how Augustus and Maecenas 
caused the burial-grounds of the Esquiiine to be covered with 
oreat masses of earth, and a public park laid out on their site. 
While building in 1877 the sewer of the Coliseum along the Via 
di S. Gregorio, we discovered the city of the time of Nero buried 
under the ruins of the fire of a. d, 65. Here also the level of the 
streets was raised at once several feet. Frontinus (i. 18) says that 
the seven hills had gained in altitude : " colles excreverunt rudere." 

The 700,000 or 800,000 cubic metres of earth and rock removed 
by Trajan to make room for his forum were laid over the public 
cemetery between the Via Pinciana and the Via Salaria (Salaria 
Vetus and Nova). The batlis of Trajan and Titus are founded on 
the remains of the Golden House of Nero ; the baths of Caracalla 
on the remains of many edifices, of w^iich the engraving on the 
next page (Fig. 39) represents a small section. 

Diocletian began the construction of his own thermfe by demol- 
ishing two temples and many other public or private buildings to 
the extent of 136,000 square metres. The products of the demoli- 
tion were heaped up in a hillock 20 metres high in the neighbor- 
hood of the present railway station. The threshold of the arch 
built by Augustus over the Via Tiburtina for the transit of the 
Marcia, Tepula, and Julia lies three metres below the threshold of 
the gate (Porta S. Lorenzo) built by Arcadius and Honorius in 
402 (Fig. 31). These figures give us a yearly average of 1\ milli- 
metres of rise for the surrounding district, during the 406 years 
which elapsed between Augustus and Honorius. The inscriptions 
engraved on the same gate of S. Lorenzo describe, among the 
works undertaken by Honorius toward the strengthening of the 
fortifications of Rome, the removal of the ruljbish accumulated 
along the line of the walls (" egestis immensis ruderibus;" see 
p. 73). 

I have sometimes discovered four different buildings lying one 
under the other. The mediaeval church of S. Clement was built 
in 1099 by Paschal IL above the remains of another basilica built 
seven and a half centuries earlier. This latter rests upon the 
walls of a noble patrician house of the second century after Christ, 
under w'hich the remains of an uirknown Republican building are 
to be seen. 

When the new Via Nazionale was cut in 1877 across the Aldo- 
brandini and Rospigliosi gardens, on the Quirinal hill, we met, 
first, with the remains of the Baths of Constantine ; then with the 



remains of the house of CLaudius Claudianus ; thirdly, with the 
house of Avidius (Quietus ; and histly, with some coustructions of 
early reticulated work. 

Fig. 39. — The Remains of a Private House discovered under the Baths of Caracalla by 
G. B. Guidi, ISOT. 

These proofs, which T have quoted at random from monuments 
and writers, show that before the fall of the Empire the ground 


rose in the same way on the hills and on the plains. However, 
after the barbarian invasions, twelve out of the fourteen quarters 
(7-eyiones) of the city having been abandoned and turned into 
farms and orchards, the rise of the hills diminished, and that of 
the valleys and plains increased, at a prodigious rate ; a fact which 
can be explained, to some extent, by the natural fall of materials 
from the heiglits, and by the action of atmospheric forces. The 
greatest difference between ancient and modern levels which I 
have yet ascertained in Rome is 72 feet. It was found in ex- 
cavating the inner courtyard of the house of the Vestals at the 
foot of the Palatine hill. The foundations of the northeast 
corner of the new Treasury buildings were sunk in 1874 to a dei:)th 
of 41 feet, before the stratum of debris was passed through. The 
foundations of the house which forms the corner of the Via 
Cavour and the Piazza dell' Esquilino were sunk likewise to a 
depth of 53 feet. At that level the remains of some baths, built 
by Njeratius Cerialis, were discovered, with statues, busts, bronzes, 
inscriptions, etc. 

The rise of the hills after the fall of the Empire was absolutely 
artificial. I mean to say that if there was a rise in the level of 
the soil, it was the work of man, and as a consequence of the 
building of palaces, churches, and villas. I shall here quote a 
curious illustration of the theory I am trying to explain. The 
soil which covers (or rather covered) the northern half of the pal- 
ace of the CcBsars, and more especially the palaces of Germanicus, 
Tiberius, Caligula, and Domitian, has not been created wholly by 
the crumbling or destruction of those palaces, but is mostly soil 
removed from the low lands of the Campus Martius to the top of 
the I'alatine hill by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, when digging 
the foundations for his palace and for the church of the Gesix. 
After remaining there for nearly three centuries, the great mass 
of material has again been removed, and carted away into the 
valley between the Aventine hill and the cliurch of S. Balbina, in 
order that the remains of the Impe-ial buildings should be laid 
bare. The district stretching between the Porta Pia and the 
Porta Salaria has been lately raised to a considerable height with 
the soil extracted from the foundations of the Treasury buildings 
and of the royal mews. Without quoting any more instances, I 
wish only to observe that, if these cases were not known, how 
could we explain the unexpected rise of the places above named, 
on the Quirinal and on the Aventine? 

AVhen we consider that the archa-ological stratum, the forma- 


tion of wliicli I have tried to describe, is at least nine square miles 
in extent, we wonder liow it has been possible to excavate, and 
search, and actually sift it, since the Renaissance of classical 
studies. Yet this has actually been done. 

During my long experience of Roman excavations, and especially 
since the building of the new city began in 1871, about four square 
miles have been turned up. Leaving out of consideration works 
of art and objects of archaeological interest, found scattered here 
and there in small secluded spots — mere crumbs fallen from the 
banqueting - tables of former excavators — I have found thi-ee 
places only of any considerable extent, which had absolutely es- 
caped investigation. 

The fii"st is the district now occupied by the Central Railway 
Station, on the border line between the Quirinal and Viminal 
hills, excavated during 1871 and 1872. It was occupied in classic 
times by a cluster of private houses built in the so-called Poinpeian 
style. It seems that, being threatened by a conflagration, their 
inhabitants had collected hurriedly all their valuables and most 
precious works of art, and heaped them up in confusion in a hall 
opening on a side street, which they considered as a comparatively 
safe place. The roof of the hall, however, caught fire, and in its 
fall carried down the walls in such a way as to shelter the heap 
of bronzes and marbles placed in the middle of the pavement. 
We discovered the place in February, 1871, and were able to re- 
move to the Capitoline Museum the artistic bronze furniture of 
two or three Roman houses, the marketable value of which was 
calculated at about £6000. 

The secotul virgin spot was discovered on Christmas Eve, 1874, 
near the southwest corner of tlie Piazza Vittorio Emmanuele, on 
the site of the llorti Lamiani (gardens of ^Elius Lamia), which 
had been incorporated by Caligula into the Imperial domain. 
During the previous days we had been excavating a portico, 200 
feet long, with a single line of fluted columns of giallo antico 
(yellow Numidian marble) resting on pedestals of gilded marble. 
The pavement of the portico was inlaid with Oriental alabaster, 
and the walls were covered with slabs of a certain kind of slate, 
inlaid with festoons and groups of birds and other delicate de- 
signs in gold leaf. At the foot of the wall, but concealed from 
view, ran a water-pipe, with tiny jets, two feet distant one from the 
other, which were evidently used to keep the place cool in summer. 
At the northern extremity of the portico the floor sank into a 
kind of chasm, at the bottom of which we discovered, during that 


memorable eve, a bust of Commocliis, under the attributes of 
Hercules, the most elaborate piece of work which has been found 
in Rome in our time ; another bust of the same Emperor, of 
smaller size ; a statue of the muse Polyhymnia ; a statue of the 
muse Erato ; a statue of the Venus (Lamiana) ; two statues of 
Tritons ; a bust of Diana ; and several other works of art, such 
as legs, arras, and heads formerly set into bronze draperies. (See 
Book IV. § xxiv.) 

The third and last spot which we have been the first to investi- 
gate since the early Renaissance is the southern half of the house 
of the Vestals. However, as I have given a minute account of 
this charming discovery in chapter vi. of my " Ancient Rome," it 
is needless to enlarge upon it here. 

I must mention two particulars which explain to some extent 
our success in bringing to light, almost daily, new monuments 
and works of art and curiosity. The first is, that the pioneers 
of archaeological research, that is to say, the excavators who pre- 
ceded us, have stopped in many cases at the wrong level. Find- 
ing mosaic and marble pavements, or pavements of streets and 
squares, they thought they had reached the end of their under- 
taking, and turned their energy in other directions. From what I 
have said about the superposition of Roman buildings, it is easy 
to see how wrong they were. Here also I must be allowed to quote 
a personal experience. Tn 1879, when the new boulevard connect- 
ing the Piazza Vittorio Emmanuele with the Porta Maggiore was 
cut (Viale Principe Eugenio), we discovered a portion of the 
palace of Licinius Gallienus, already excavated by Francesco 
Belardi and Giovanni Battista Piranesi more than a century be- 
fore. These two men, having gone as far down as the level of 
the drains running under the pavements, considered their task 
finished, and all hope of further discoveries vanished ; and yet 
under those pavements and those drains lay buried at a great 
depth nine columbaria, particularly rich in cinerary urns, inscrip- 
tions, and objects of value. The columbaria are designed and 
their contents illustrated in the Bull. arch, com., 1880, p. 51, pis. 

"I '-'• 

The second remark refers to the foundation walls built with 
fragments of statuary, to which very little attention was paid by 
early excavators. The value of this mine may be estimated from 
the following facts. In 1874 a bath was discovered near the 
church of SS. Pietro e Marcellino, from the foundations of which 
we extracted 95 statues, busts, torsos, basins of fountains, pieces 


of columns, and l)as-reliefs. In December, 1873, the group of Her- 
cules capturing the mares of Diomedes, now in the Palazzo dei 
Conservatori, was found broken in 72 pieces in a wall near S. 
JMatteo in Merulana. Three thousand fragments of sculptured 
mai'bles, and 130 inscriptions or pieces of inscriptions were discov- 
ered likewise in 1873 in the substructures of the gardens of Prse- 
textatus on the Esquiline. Consult " Monografia archeologica," 
Rome, 1878, vol. i. p. 40. 



I. Hints to Visitors. — The Palatine hill is the j^roperty of 
the Italian nation, with the exception of the southeast corner, 
which belongs to the Barberini. The first portion rescued from 
private hands was the Vigna Nusiner, which the crown of Russia 
gave up to Pius IX. in 1851 in exchange for some works of art. 
The same pope purchased the Vigna Butirroni in 1852, the Vigna 
del Collegio Inglese, formerly Ronconi, in 1862, and the Vigna de' 
Benfratelli in 1866. In 1860 Napoleon III. bought the Farnese 
gardens from the house of Naples, and began regular excavations 
under the management of the late Comm. Pietro Rosa. After 
the fall of Napoleon in 1870, the national government redeemed 
this portion of the hill, and took possession of the convents of 
S. Bonaventura and the Visitation (Villa IMills) and of their gar- 
dens. The latter convent is still inhabited by the nuns, while 
that of S. Bonaventura is partially occupied by the Guardie degli 

The Palatine is under the management of the ]\Iinister of 
Public Instruction, represented by a local board, or Ufficio degii 
Scavi. The excavations may be visited every day : entrance fee, 
one lira, which is not charged on Sundays. Artists, professors, and 
students of archaeology are exempted from the fee, on application 
to the Ufficio degli Scavi. The restrictions on photographing 
are most complicated, the heads of tlie various boards having dif- 
ferent views on the subject. 

The Palatine cannot possibly be studied in one day : two days 
at least are required to become acquainted, in a certain degree, 
with the labyrinth of ruins. A modest literary preparation is 
needed, to lessen the difficulties of the task, and also a know- 
ledge of the main lines of the map of the hill. Many students 
on their first attempt come away more discouraged by the intri- 
cacies of the topography of the Palatine than pleased with the 


beauty of its ruins. They have been hurried through so nuiiiy 
palaces, — those of Augustus, Tiberius, Caliguhi, Doiuitian, Seve- 
rus, — they have crossed so )nany luills, cryptoporticoes, stadiums, 
galleries, basilicas, passages, cellars, etc., that they feel sometimes 
inclined to give the thing up as liopeless. Yet the fundamental 
lines of the residence of the Cajsars are simple, and can be under- 
stood and remembered even by non-professional men. The main 
points are these : — 

I. The Palatine hill originally was almost square in shape, each 
side measuring about 4.30 metres in length. The addition of the 
palace of Septiraius Severus at the southern corner, raised on an 
artiticial platform, the foundations of which are level with the 
bottom of the valley, altered the shape from square to trapezoid. 
The fall of the Imperial buildings and the work of human hands 
have changed the abrupt cliffs into slopes, and given the whole 
place a new aspect. Vegetation and cultivation have done the 
rest, by uprooting and crushing and splitting enormous masses of 
masonry, which, mixed with earth brought from afar, and leveled 
into flower or vegetable beds, have covered the rocky foundation 
of the hill with a layer of rubl)ish from to 67 feet thick. They 
have hidden from view some of its historical features ; for instance, 
the valley between the Velia (by the Arch of Titus) and the Circus 
IMaximus, by which the Palatine was divided into two summits — 
the Cermalus on the noith, the Palatium on the south. In its 
present form the hill measures 2080 metres in circumference, and 
is 51.20 metres above the sea ' and 32 above the level of modern 

II. The platform of the hill was entirely occupied by the palaces 
of the Cfesars, with the exception of a space 175 metres long and 
106 wide, at the west corner (above S. Anastasia), whei-e some relics 
of Kingly Rome were preserved down to the fall of the Empire. 

III. The Palatine was selected for the Imperial residence by 
Augustus, who built over the space now called the Villa Mills 
(convent and garden della Visitazione — Domus Augustana). 

IV. Tilierius, born probably in the house afterwards owned by 
Germanicus, and still existing in good condition, built a new wing, 
the Domus Tiberiana. in the centre of the Cermalus, connecting 
it with that of Augustus by means of underground passages which 
are still visible (Orti Farnesiani). 

V. Caligula extended the house of Tiberius over the remaining 
portion of the Cermalus in the direction of the Forum (Orti Far- 
nesiani — Domus Caiana). 

1 Bv S. Bonavenfura. 


VI. Nero occupied the southeast corner (Villa Barberini) over- 
looking his artificial lake. After his death and after the suppres- 
sion of his Golden House, the plot of ground was converted by 
Domitian into the gardens of Adonis (Horti Adonea). 

The Flavians began to give a unity of plan and architecture to 
the existing sections of the palace, raising new structures in the 
free spaces by which they were separated. The valley across the 
hill was filled up to the level of the platform of the Cermalus, 
and upon it were built the state apartments (^des Publica^). 
The house of Augustus, destroyed by the fire of Titus, was rebuilt 
in harmony with its surroundings ; a Stadium ' (Vigna Ronconi, 
del Collegio Inglese) and a garden, Horti Adonea (Vigna Bar- 
berini), were added. 

Hadrian and Antoninus satisfied themselves with keei^ing the 
property in repair, as proved by the bricks inscribed with the 
names of their kilns, which are found everywhere. Hadrian's 
principal work — as far as we know — is the Exhedra of the 
Stadium (Vigna Ronconi, del Collegio Inglese). 

Septimius Severus, after repairing the damages of the fire of 
Commodus (191) added an immense range of buildings on the 
edge of the hill facing the Ctelian and the Appian Way. A 
section was occupied by the Imperial Thermae, called in later 
documents Balneum Imperatoris, while the front of the palace, 
decorated with many rows of columns, received the name of Sep- 
tizonium (Vigna del Collegio Inglese). The same Emperors 
brought a large volume of water from the Cfelian, crossing the in- 
tervening valley with a viaduct 36 metres high and :J00 metres long, 
remains of which are seen in the Vigna de' Benfratelli. The 
channel ended with a' reservoir or piscina on the site of S. Bona- 
ventura. Other additions are attributed to Severus Alexander and 
Heliogabalus (Diajtje Mammseiana, Templum Heliogabali, etc.), 
which have not yet been identified with any of the existing 

Such is the classic topography ot the hill in its main lines. 
With the help of the plans annexed (Figs. 40, 41) the visitor 
hardly needs that of a cicerone or of a f/uardin degli scavi to 
make himself at home on the Palatine, or to find his way through 
th6 ruins and investigate each section, either by itself or in its rela- 
tion to the other wings of the ^Edes Imperatoripe. 

I must confess, however, that it is impossible to suggest to the 
student any itinerary which shall combine the topographical and 
1 Oil the correctness of this denomination see § xxi. 







•^ *=i a w -1 3 



chronological interest of the buildings. These are scattered over 
the hill in a desultory way. Once across the entrance gate, for 
instance, the visitor is confronted by three monuments, the Mu- 
rus Romuli, the Templum Divi Augusti, and the chui'ch of S. 
Teodoro, separated by a gap of seven and fourteen centuries re- 
spectively. The area containing the hut of Romulus is siuTounded 
by buildings of the first century of our era. It is impossible to 
cross over from the Domus Augustana to the Tiberiana, as re- 
quired by chronology, without crossing the oiKiav Aofxinavov, which 
is three quarters of a century later. These things being so, I have 
given preference to the chronological order ; in other words, my 
description is written for the use of visitors not pressed for time, 
who can devote three or four days at least to the systematic and 
rational study of the Palatine. Those who have no leisure can 
adopt the following itinerary, the best I can suggest, taking the 
various sides of the problem into consideration : — 

Ut (/((^ — Walls (if Roimilus, de- 
scribed § viii. 

Altar of Aiiis Locutius, § ix. 

Steps of Caciis, § x. 

Hut of Romulus, § xi. 

Temple of the great Mother of 
the Gods, § xiii. 

Paternal house of Tiberius (and 
Germanieus) § xvii. 

House of Tiberius, § xvi. 

House of Caligula, S xviii. 

'2cl day — Temple of Augustus, 

§ iv. 
Clivus Victoria', § vi. 
Palace of Domitian, § xix. 
Palace of Augustus, § xv. 
So-called Stadium, § xxii. 
Palace of Septimius Severus, 

§ xxiii. 
House of Gelotius, § xxvi. 
S. Teodoro, § vji. 

The visitor must bear in mind one fundamental rule : that 
many of the existing ruins belong to the substructures, and cel- 
lars, and underground rooms built for but one purpose, — to level 
the undulating surface of the hill, and to extend and protract the 
level platform over the slopes, and even over the plain below, as is 
the case with the Palace of Severus and the Septizonium. Tlieir 
plan is most irregular ; they have no light and very little ventila- 
tion ; architecturally speaking they count for nothing. This is 
the reason why existing maps of the Palatine are so difficult to 
understand : we find marked in them with the same degree of im- 
portance apartments of state and crypts which were destined 
never to be seen. I have tried to remedy this defect in Sheets 
xxix. and xxxv. of the " Forma I'rbis,"' where the apartments 
alone are depicted in full, while the substructiu-es are simply 
traced in outline. 


SiJecial permission is required to visit the Palace of Augustus 
(see § xv). The Convent of the Visitation and its grounds are 
practically inaccessible. The Vigna Barberini and the chapel of 
S. Sebastian are opened on payment of a fee (see § xxxiii). 

The Palatine during the winter months ought to be visited in 
the morning ; during the spring and autumn in the afternoon. 
There is always a great, and sometimes a dangerous, difference of 
temperature between the sunny and the shady side of the ruins. 
The Palatine, with its groves of ilexes and green lawns and glori- 
ous views, affords a delightful promenade even to those who are 
not attracted by archasological interests. 

General References. — Carlo Fea, Miscellanea antiquaria, vol. i. p. 86, 
n. 7G ; p. 87, ii. 77 ; p. 223, n. 5, 6, 7. — Francesco Biauchini, Jl palazzo dei 
Cenari, opera postunia. Verona, 1738. — Luigi Kossiui, I sette colli. Rome, 
1827. — Constantino Thon and Vincenzo Ballanti, II palazzo dei Cesari. 
Rome, 1828. — De Agostini and Broiiferio, // 7>a/a2zo dei Cesari. Vercelli, 
1871. — Ipi>olito Ruspoli, Avanzi e ricordi del monte Palatino. Rome, 1846. — 
Fabio (iori, Gli edijizi palatini dopo (/li nltimi scavi. Rome, 1807. — Heinrich 
Jordan, I)ie Kaiseipalciste in Rom. Berlin, 1868. — Wilhelm Henzen, Annali 
dell' Jnstit'uto, 1865, p. 346 ; 1866, p. 161. — Pietro Rosa, Relazione sulle sco- 
perte archeoloyiche neyli unni 1871-72, p. 75 ; and also Plan et peintures de la 
maison de Tihere, mai, 1869. — Viseonti and Lanciani, Guida del Palatino, con 
plant a delineata da A. ZangoUni. Rome, Boeea, 1873-93. — A. Preuner, I)as 
Pdlatiinn in alten Rom. Greifswald, 1875. — Gaston B(jissier, Promenades ar- 
cheolof/iqves. Paris, 1882. — Constantino Maes, Tojiograjia storica del Palatino. 
Rome, 1883 (unfinished). — ^Deglane, Le palais des Cesars (in Gazette archeo- 
logique, 1888, pp.124, 145, 211). — Otto Richter, Die dlteste Wolinsiitte des Ro- 
misclien Volkes. Rome, Berlin, 1891. — John Henr^' Middleton, The Remains 
of Ancient Rome, vol. i. chap. iv. \). 158. — Rodolfo Lanciani, II palazzo mag- 
giore (in Mittheihmgen, 1894, p. 1). Forma Urhis Romxe, plates xxix., xxxv. ; 
and Ancient Rome, chap. v. p. 106. — Christian Huelsen, Untersuchungen zur 
topographie des Palatins (in Mittheihmgen, 1895, p. 3). 

TT. The Origin of the Palatine City. — Two discoveries 
have illustrated from a new point of view the origin of Palatine 
Rome, that of the city of Antemn?e, and that of the Terramara di 

According to tradition ^ Antemnte was a flourishing settlement 
when a colony of Alban shepherds occupied the Palatine. The 
distance between the two places being less than four miles, and 
their bartering trade very active, as they were located on the same 
(left) bank of the Tiber and on the same road (Salaria Vetus), we 

1 Antonio Nibby, Analisi dei dintorni di Roma, vol. i. p. 161. — Dennis, 
Cities and Cemeteries of Etrnria, vol. i. p. 44. — William Gell, Topography of 
Rome, p. 64. — Smith's Diction, geograph., vol. i. p. 139. 


may assume that manners, habits, stage of civilization, etc., were 
about the same in Rome and Antemu;\?. Antemna; died a sudden 
death a few years after the foundation of Rome. It is evident, 
therefore, that a search made on the site of tlie former corresponds 
practically to a search made in the lower strata of Kingly Palatine. 
The search w^as made in LSS2-8;J, while the hill %vas crowned by a 
fort.^ The facts ascertained were these (see Fig. 42). 

The city occupied the platform of the hill, protected by cliffs 
or rivers (ante amnes) on every side, except where a neck or isth- 
mus connected it with the tableland (Monti Parioli, Villa Ada). 
The natural strength of the site had been increased by a wall 
built of blocks of local stone, each two feet (0.59 metre) high and 
three (0.89) long. There were three gates, one leading to the river 
to the springs, one to the highroad (Salaria), the third to the 
cemetery and pasture-lands. The Antemnates lived in round or 
square huts, witli a framework of timber and a thatched roof, the 
site of which is nmrked by a hard-trodden, coal-colored floor within 
a ring of I'ough stones. Their public buildings, like the temple 
and the curia, were of better style, and probably all of stone. 
The cattle were driven at night into the inclosures or sheepfolds 
adjoining each hut. The area inclosed by walls was therefore 
much larger than was required by the number of inhabitants. 

In times of peace the Antemnates di'ank from the springs at 
the foot of the hill ; for times of war they had provided them- 
selves with cisterns and wells under shelter of the fortifications. 
One of tlie wells still in use is 54 feet deep ; and one of the cis- 
terns, covered by a triangular roof (destroyed 1883), could hold 
5000 gallons of water (see Fig. 4o). 

The civilization of the Antemnates when their city ceased to 
exist was in the '• bronze " stage. One third of their pottery and 
domestic ware was of local make, and baked in an open fire ; the 
rest was of Etruscan importation. There were traces of the 
stone period, such as arrow-heads and lance-spears of polished 
flint, clay beads, and fragments of the roughest kind of pottery. 

This description answers word for word to that of the city on 
the Palatine. Here again we have the isolated hill pi'otected by 
cliffs, by water, and by a circuit of walls ; the neck of the Velia 
connecting it with the tableland of the Esquiline ; the gate lead- 
ing to the river and springs (j-omanuki), tliat leading to the pas- 
ture fields and cemeteries (»n<r/o;//rt),and a third descending to the 
Vallis Murtia ; the wells and cisterns within the fortifications ; 

1 Notkk degli Scai-i, 1882, p. 415 ; 188.'5, p. 10 ; 1886, p. 24 ; 1887, p. fi4. 


and other sxich cliaracteristics of the age. The description we 
have of the Casa Romuli, kept in its prehistoric simplicity as late 
as the fourth century after Christ, shows that the Romans, like the 
Antemnates, lived in straw huts ; and furthermore, the discoveries 
made in the cemeteries of the Viminal and of the Esquiline prove 

Xcvft-C o^ or-ovAA-fc^ 

Fig. 43. — Reservoir at AntenniB. 

that their civilization was in the " bronze " stage. (See Ancient 
Rome, chap. ii. p. 26). Roman archaic pottery was half of local 
(or All)an) make, half of Etruscan importation. ^ Cattle were 
driven in at night, each family being provided with an ugellua and 
a sheepfold. 

What has been said about Rome and Antemna? must be ai^jjlied 
to other contemporary settlements like Collatia, Fidense, Labicum, 
Ardea, Gabii, Veil, etc., the sites of which, excepting that of Veii, 
have not yet been scientifically investigated. They were all 
organized on the same system : their walls inclosed an area ten 
times as large as that required by the number of inhabitants, 
becanse they shared it with their flocks, and each hut had its own 
sheepfold and orchard. The highest and strongest point within 
the walls was occupied by the citadel, containing the temple, the 
curia, the ajrarium, and the reservoir for rain-water. After the Ro- 
man conquest the scanty surviving population was concentrated on 
the site of the citadel, and the rest of the city cut up into farms 
and allotted to Roman colonists. The Roman municipia of Veii 

1 Tlie ajTliaic KeinirjAia {liscovt'red in tlie cemeteries of Kintjly Rome were re- 
moved in Septemher, 1895, from liall No. H. of the Museo Mnnieipale al Celio 
to two rooms of the I'alazzo dei Conservator!, wliere the want of light and 
space makes their examination almost impossible. 


(Piazza d' Aniii), of Fidenaj (]\lonte di Villa Spada), of Gabii 
(farmhouse of Castiglione) are all that mark the place of the 
respective citadels of the time of the independence, while the area 
once inclosed by the city walls was put into cultivation. For this 
reason it is almost impossible to recognize the site of the huts and 
the extent of the piece of ground pertaining to each of them ; 
in other words, to decide whether the old Sabine, Etruscan, and 
Latin cities in the lower valley of the Tiber had a cardo and a 
decumamis, and were planned, according to the principles of the 
agrimetutlo, in square plots or heredia. 

My opinion is that they were not. In the excavations made in 
1889 within tlie walls of Veii,^ I have seen traces of primitive 
habitations which were not "oriented," and the same thing was 
observed at Antemnaj. It is to be regretted that no proper search 
has yet been made in the lower strata of the Palatine, where the 
excavations stop generally at the wrong level, leaving most, of 
the problems unsolved;'^ but I believe that the shepherds who 
occupied the hill in 7o'-i n. c. had no idea whatever of gromatic or 
astronomical rules of their own, so that the sulcua primi(/<iilus had 
to be traced according to a foreign rite. Rome and its neighbor- 
ing settlements on eitlier side of tlie " Rumou " must luive looked 
like tlie temporaiy villages which the peasants of the present day 
build in tlie Pomptiue marshes or in the Agro Romano, when they 
come down from their mountains for the cultivation of the maize- 
fields. The prototy))e of these prehistoric contemporary settle- 
ments is the village constructed every autumn on the borders of 
the (now drained) lake of Gabii, at the twelfth milestone on the 
Via Pra>nestina, and inhabited by a half-savage tribe of two 
hundred mountaineers. I never fail to take our students to this 
remarkable village during the university term, to give them an 
object-lesson more impressive than any which can be found in the 
whole of the Canipagua. 

The populations of the Terramare,^ on the contrary, seem to 

1 Described in Not'tzie. Jer/li Scavi, 1889, pp. 10, 29, GO, 15-t, 238. 

2 GoettVmg (Geschich 1 1' der Riiiaiitch. Shidtsveru-., ])p. 49, 202, 235) believes 
the Sacra Via to have bet-n the (lecumaiiit.'i marking tiic boundary between the 
Sabine and tlie Roman city; but the Sacra Via of those days was but a iriud- 
in;! path oiitsidv the PahUine, to whioli alone my considerations refer. 

3 The name Terramnrn is a corruption of that of Terra mama, given till 
1862 to the special kind of earth, rich in organic qualities, which the peasants 
of upper Italy dug from prehistoric stations, and used as a fertilizer. When 
Pigorini and Strobel began their study of these stations they adopted the 
corrupted name " Terraniara " in preference to "Terra niarna," to avoid the 
confusion which the epithet "marl" might produce in scientific treatises. 



have been faiuiliHr with the principles of the ai/rimctatin. The 
startling discoveries made by Pigorini in the terramara at Cas- 
tellazzo di Fontanellato, in the province of Parma, are described 
in the following papers : — 

Nolizie dcfjll Scam, 1889, p. 355; 1891, p. 304; 1892, p. 450; 1895, p. 9.— 
Monumenti inedili Accademia Lincei, vol. i. (1889), ]). 123. — Bullettino di 
paleoelnolo(/in iUdinna, vol. xix. (1893), tav. viii. — Friedricli von Duliii, Ntue 
Heidelberi/er Jahrbiichtr, vol. iv. (1894), p. 143. 

Fig. 46. — Plan of the Terramara di Foutanellato. 

This primitive settlement of immigrants in the " Poebene " ^ 
forms an oblong 280 metres wide between the parallel sides, 480 
metres long, and covers an area of lOi hectares (195,525 square 
metres). Its fortified inclosiu-e comprises a ditch (A) 100 Roman 
feet wide, 12 deep (oOX'^-50 metres), and an affger or embankment 
(B) formed with the earth excavated from the ditch, sloping 
towards the water and supported by a perpendicular palisade (C) 
on the inner side. The adoption of a trapezoid form in the Ter- 
ramare, instead of the square or parallelogram, is explained by 
1 The valley of the Po and of its affluents. 


the fact that the sharp coi-ner (D) always faces the river (E), from 
which the supply of water for the ditcli is derived, so as to divide 
it into two equal streams, which meet again at the outlet (F). 
There was but one gate, approached by a bridge 30 metres wide 
(G), the axis of which is in a line with the cai-do or high street 
(H, I), cutting the village in two halves. The quarter (K) west 
of the high street was entirely occupied by huts built on palisades ; 
on the opposite side we find the central portion occupied by a 
square of solid gi-ound (L) 100 metres long and 50 wide, protected 
by a ditch 30 metres wide and 6 deep, and approached by a bridge 
(M) on the line of the decumanus. This foi'tified terrace represents 
the lemplum in the primitive sense of the word, or, to use the 
expression of Helbig, the fundamental idea of the arx of Italian 
towns and of the prcetorhmi of Roman camps. There were two 
cemeteries outside the fortifications (N, O), also inclosed by a ditch 
and made accessible by a bridge. The cremated remains of the 
Terramaricoli were kept in clay urns, placed in rows on a wooden 
platform supported by palisades. • 

If the reader refer to the map of the Palatine, Fig. 44, he will 
find that nature had done for early Rome nearly all the work 
that human labor and ingenuity had done at Fontanellato. Tlie 
marshes of the two Velabra and the pond, which Nero transformed 
afterwards into the lake of the Golden House, represent the water 
defenses ; the neck of the Velia i-epresents the bridge ; the cliffs 
answer for the embankment. Other points of resemblance are the 
square form, the angle facing the stream (Nodinus?) which fed 
the greater Velabrum, and the area of about seventeen hectares. 
The Romans, however, did not wait long to make themselves fa- 
miliar witii the at/rimctatio and to adopt the pes (.297 metres), 
wiili its multiples and fractions, as the standard national measure. 
When Servius Tullius built the great agger for the protection of 
the city on the east side, he simply copied in the minutest details 
the fortifications of the Terramare. The agger of Servius com- 
prises a ditch exactly one hundred pedes wide and thirty deep ; an 
embankment made with the earth of the ditch, sloping towards the 
city and supported by a wall on the outside. The three gates, Col- 
lina, Viminalis, and Esquilina, were approached by bridges. The 
ground on the other side of the ditch was occupied by cemeteries. 

The history of the Palatine, from the foundation of the city 

1 In the campaign of last summer (189.5) Pigorini discovered side streets 
parallel with the crn-du and the decwmanus. The Terramara, therefore, was 
divided into regular squares or parallelograms. 


to that of the Empire, is not known. At the time of Tarquinius 
Priscus (616-578) it was still honored by the kingly i-esidence, a 
casa of more elaborate construction than the ordinary citizens' 
huts, placed near the Porta Mugonia and the Temple of Jupiter 
Stator (Solinus, i. 24). The hill was not above the reach of fever, 
even after the drainage of the lesser Velabrum, accomplished by 
Tarquinius by means of the Cloaca Maxima, as the worship of the 
Dea Febria was never intermitted, and her temple and altar were 
not abandoned for centuries after. Beside the Fever's shrine, there 
were others to the Dea Virii^laca, a protectress of domestic peace ; 
to Orbona, the evil genius of blindness ; an altar to Aius Locutius 
(described § ix.) ; temples to Victory (§ vi.) ; to the great Mother 
of the Gods (§ xiii.) ; and to Jupiter I'ropugnator (§ xiv.). 

Towards the end of the Republic the Palatine became one of 
the most aristocratic quarters of the city, resorted to by the great 
orators, lawyers, and political men of the age on account of its 
proximity to the Curia, the Rostra, and the Forum. The follow- 
ing palatial residences are recorded in classic texts : — 

1. House of M. Fulvius Flaccus, destroyed by order of the senate, 
after his execution for his share in the conspiracy of the (iracchi. 
The sjiace left vacant, area Flacciana, was occupied soon after by a 
wing of the Porticus Catuli. 

2. House of Q. Lutatius Catulus, consul b. c. 102, with Marius, 
with whom he gained the victory over the Cimbri, near Vercelbv. 
With his share in the spoils of war he enlarged his house and con- 
nected it with a portico, the Porticus Catuli, where thirty-one flags 
taken from the enemy were exhibited. 

3. House of ]\I. Livius Drusus, tribute of the plebs in is. c. 91, 
the great i-eformer of social laws, whose murder by Q. Varius was 
immediately followed by the social w'ar, which his policy would 
have averted. The house was inherited by Crassus the orator, who, 
having ornamented its impluvium with four columns of Ilymettian 
marble, the first ever seen in Rome, was nicknamed the "Palatine 
Venus." Cicero bought it in December, 62, for a sum correspond- 
ing to $155,000. The peristyle was shaded by six marvelous lotus- 
trees, which perished one hundred and seventy years later in the 
fire of Nero. It passed afterwards into the hands of C. JNIarcius 
Censorinus, another great orator and Greek scholar ; of L. Corne- 
lius Sisenna, annalist historian, translator of the IMilesian tales of 
Aristides ; of A. Ca^cina Largus, probably the author of the book 
on the " Etrusca Disciplina;" and finally it was absorbed into 
Caligula's palace. 


4. House of Quintus Cicero, near the one of his brother Marcus, 
but lower down the slope of the hill. It was wrecked and burnt 
to the ground by Clodius. 

5. House of Clodius, the notorious enemy of Cicero, — composed 
of two portions : one belonging to Cicero himself, which he had 
bought at the time of the banishment of the orator ; one to C. 
Seius, which he had obtained by poisoning the owner on his refusal 
to sell. The domus Clodiana was nuignificent, and commanded a 
glorious view. 

6. House of M. ^milius Scaurus, stepson of Sulla, the dictator, 
perhaps the richest of all Palatine residences. When Cicero was 
restored to the possession of his own, he tried to take a revenge on 
the usurper Clodius by raising one or two floors so as to cut off the 
view of which his enemy was so proud. To avoid this danger 
Clodius purchased the palace of Scaurus for a sum of $4,425,000 (?), 
having already spent $655,000 on his owai. 

All these residences were in the district of the Clivus Victoria?, 
at the corner of the hill commanding the Forum, and must have 
disappeared when Caligula extended the Imjierial Palace as far as 
the Nova Via and the Temple of Castor and Pollux. 

7. The paternal house of Augustus, in the lane called the " Oxen- 
heads," at the east corner of the hill. (See § xv.) 

8. The liouse of Quintus Hortensius, first the rival, then the 
associate of Cicero ; a man of immense wealth, and endowed with 
a memory so retentive that he could repeat the auction-list back- 
wards on coming out of sale-rooms. He was also the first to in- 
clude peacocks in Roman dinner menus. Hortensius's residence 
was purchased by Augustus, and inclosed in the Imperial Palace 
together with 

9. The liouse of L. Sergius Catilina. Both were on the edge of 
the hill facing the Circus Maximus. 

It is now time for us to enter the precincts of the famous hill, 
and examine one by one the remains which bear evidence on so 
many points of the political and monumental history of the 
" queen of the world." 

III. ViGXA NusiNEK. — The strip of land between the north- 
western cliffs of the Cermalus and the Vic us Tuscus, by which we 
enter the excavations, is known to topographers by the name of 
Vigna Nusiner, and is represented in the following fragment of the 
marble plan of Rome, published by Trendelenburg in the " Archae- 


ologische Zeitung,"' LSTo, vol. xxxiii. p. o'J ; and by myself in the 
" Bull. com. arch.," vol. xiii. (1886), p. 159. (See Fig. 47.) 

The Clivus Victorise, cut in the live rock along the foot of the 
cliffs, bounds the triangular space on one side, the Templum Divi 
Augusti on the second, the Vicus Tiiscus on the third. The ground 
contains, besides, the Springs of Juturna, the Murus Romuli, the 
Altar of Aius Locutius (the Lupercal), and the church of, S. 
Teodoro. All these monuments and landnu\rks, excepting the 
temple and the church, belong to the earliest period of Roman 
history, so tliat we could not begin our visit to the Palatine in 
more regular order. 

The Vigna Nusiner has l)een excavated oftener than any other 
part of the Palatine, and yet we know very little about it for want 
of proper accounts. The Frangipani owned it at the end of the 
fifteenth century, together with a fortified house called " Lo Palazzo 
de Frigiapani." I have found two deeds in the records of that 
family : one dated January 21, 1510, by which the brothers Giam- 
battista and Marcello Frangipani give permission to the rector of 
the church of S. Lorenzo ai JVIonti to open cavain seu fossuram 
lapidum in their vineyard iiix/a stDictuin Theodoruin ; the second, 
dated October 23, 1535, relates to a controversy between Antonino 
Frangipani and Camilla Alberini over the produce of the excava- 
tions which a stone-cutter named (iiuliano was making at that time. 

In 154ft-15.5() tJie contractors for the sup]>ly of Iniilding materials 
to S. Peter's found the pavement of the Vicus Tuscus, the pedestal 
of the statue of Vortumnus, and the remains of a temple with 
columns, capitals, entablature, and a frieze ornamented with griffins 
and candelabra. The plunder was so considerable that no fresh 
excavations were attempted for a lapse of a century and a half. 
The land was turned into a kitchen-garden, famous for its arti- 
chokes. In a contract of ^larch 11, 16-10, the spring hai'vest of 
them is valued at 110 scudi. 

A new search was made in 1720, between the churches of S. 
Teodoro and S. Anastasia. It led to the discovery of a portico 
with pilasters of travertine (one of the three marked in the frag- 
ment of the marble plan), of pieces of columns, and of a row of 
rooms filled with objects of metal and scoria}, to which Venuti 
gives the name oi foiulerln /xilatina, or imperial brass-foundry. 

Giovanni Battista Visconti opened the ground for the fifth time 
at least ; but his progress was stopped by the house of Naples 
under the plea that he was undermining the walls that held up 
the Farnese gardens. 


111 June, 1845, the antiquarian Vescovali, acting on behalf of 
the Emperor of Russia, who had purchased the Vigna for the sake 
of excavating, discovered the remains of the Domiis Gelotiana 
(see § xxvi.) ; in December, 1846, he came upon those of the 
Murus Romuli ; and in April, 1847, upon the remains of a private 
house on the Vicus Tuscus, decorated with columns of porphyry 
and giallo antico. 

In 18G9 Pius IX. laid bare the pavement of the Clivus Victoriae 
and tlie alleged site of the Porta Romanula. The Italian govern- 
ment began the last and general excavation of the place in 1876 
(and again in 1884), but the work was soon given up without 

On entering the Palatine by the S. Teodoro gate we are 
confronted with the Augustseum on the left, with the Clivus 
Victoriae and the Fons Juturnae opposite the gate, with the chui-ch 
of S. Teodoro and the Murus Romuli on the right. 

IV. Templum divi Augusti (Temple of Augustus). — Tlie 
temple in honor of the deified founder of the Empire was begun 
by his widow Livia and by Tiberius, his adopted son, and com- 
pleted by Caligula. Domitian restored it after the fire of Titus. 
Pliny (xii. 19, 42) describes, among the curiosities of the place, 
a root of a cinnamon tree of great size placed by Livia on a 
golden plate, the sap of which was hardened into globules every 
year ; and also a famous picture of Hyacinthus by Nikias the 
Athenian, which Augustus had brought from Alexandria. The 
plan and design of the building are different fi-om the recognized 
type of a Roman temple, the front being on the long side of the 
parallelogram instead of the short. The shape seems special to 
the Augusta?a, perhaps on account of the large number of statues 
which had to be placed on the suggestum opposite the door, the 
deified Emperor being generally surrounded by other members 
of the family. The temple is mentioned in connection with 
Caligula's bridge, which is supposed to have crossed the valley of 
the Forum at a great height, so as to enable the young monarch 
to walk on a level from his palace to the Temple of Jupiter on the 
Capitol. The bridge never existed in the strict sense of the word. 
Caligula passed from roof to roof of the intermediate buildings, 
spanning the gaps of the streets with temporary wooden passages. 
Suetonius and Flavins Josephus mention among these buildings, 
first, the Templum divi Augusti, then the Basilica Julia. There 
is no doubt, therefore, that these noble ruins, placed between the 
Basilica and the Emperor's palace, belong to the Augusta3um. 


The back wall of the temple, the murus post cedem diri A ugusti ad 
Minervam, was used for the posting of state notices and imperial 
decrees. Two attendants of the Augustaeum are mentioned in 
epigi'aphic documents: a Bathyllus, fpr/Z/Hw.s' tcmpll diri, Angusti el 
divce Augustce quod est in Palatium (Corpus, vi. n. 4222), and a 


Fig. 48. — Plan of the Aiigustaeum. 

T. Flavins Onesimus, cedituus templi novi divi A ugusti (n. 8704). 
The temple has been excavated at least five times. I have found 
in the state archives an Act of October 2, 1526, by which Jacopo 
de' ]\Iuti gives back to a poor widow, Lucrezia Collino, the caution 
deposited by her before she began the excavations in the garden 
of S. Maria Liberatrice. 

Pirro Ligorio was able to draw the plan of the structure about 
1549, in consequence of the excavations described in Book III. 


§ xxi. (See Middleton, The Remains of Ancient Rome, vol. i. 
p. 275, fig. 35.) 

In 1702 a contractor named Andrea Bianchi gained permission 
from Sister Costanza di Santacroce, abbess of the monastery of 
Torre de' Specchi, to search for building materials within and 
near the temple. He found the church of S. Maria Antiqua, 
that is to say, tliat inner hall of the Augustajum which had been 
adapted to Cliristian worship at the end of the fourth century, 
and dedicated to the Virgin Marj% in opjiositiou to the worship 
of Vesta, the headquarters of which were on the other side of the 
street. There are two desci-ijitions of the find : one by Galletti in 
the Vatican Library (Chron. miscell. xxxiii.) ; another by Valesio 
in Cancellieri's '' Solenni possessi," p. 370. The church was level 
with the floor of the Augustpeum, and ended with an apse, with 
frescoes representing the Saviour and some saints, among which 
was prominent the figure of Paul T. (757-767), with the square 
nimbus and the legend Sanctisa. Paulus Romanus Papa. The fres- 
coes on the walls of the aisles represented scenes in the life of the 
Saviour, with texts from the Ciospel in Greek and Gothico-Latin 
letters. The figure of the crucifix sliowed the feet nailed apart. 
Benedict XIV. ordered the church to be roofed over and kept open 
for inspection, but the order was never executed. 

In 1735 Antonio Vanui excavated the plot of ground near the 
temple known as the Caprareccia. 

The last excavation took place in 1885. It was discovered then 
that the church of S. Maria Antiqua l)ehind the Augustseum had 
been put in communication with the Augusta^um itself, by cutting 
an irregular passage through the partition wall seven feet thick. 
The sides of the passage were covered with figures of saints painted 
in the eleventh century, with the name appended to each of them : 
those of the Eastern Church, led by Scs. Basilivs, on one side ; 
those of the Western, led by Scs. Benedictvs, on the other. 
The two images are connected with the Basilian and Benedictine 
brotherhoods and convents which at that time flourished on the 
Palatine (S. Cesario in Palatio and S. Sebastiano in Pallara). 

LiTERATURK. — PiiTO Ligorio, Bodleian MSS., fol. 33. — Henry Parker, The 
Foi'uin Romanum, London, 187li, plates 21 and 24. — Notizie degli Scavi, 1882, 
April, pi. 16. — Henry Middleton, The Remains of Ancient Rome, 2d ed., vol. 
i. p. 275, fig. 35. — Gio. Battista de Rossi, BuUetiino cristiano, 1885, p. 143.— 
Pagan and Christian Rome, p. 101. 

V. FoNS JuTURN.E (the Springs of Juturna). — The Temple of 
Augustus is built against the live rock of the Palatine, masses 


of which appear all along the Clivus Victorian, above and under 
the pavement of the street. Opposite the gate by which we have 
entered the excavations, and i-ight under the west wall of the 
temple, the rock is perforated witli wells and channels, cut for 
the purpose of reaching and regulating the springs with which 
the lower or quaternary clay strata are here saturated. This is 
the celebrated Fons Juturnte, placed by Dionysius, Ovid, Florus, 
etc., at the north corner of the Palatine, the waters of which, on 
reaching the plain, expanded into a deep pond (jn-ofunda palus) 
called the Lacus Curtius. Here the apparition of the Dioscuri 
took place, to announce to the Romans the victory of Lake Regil- 
lus : they were seen washing and watering their hoi'ses '• at the 
spring which made a pool near the Temple of Vesta," ^ between it 
and the temple raised to the celestial messengers themselves in 
memory of the event. The jiond was drained after the opening 
of the Cloaca IVIaxima, and the only trace left of it was a well 
and a puteal inscribed with the name of divtvr ; perhaps the 
very one now preserved in the Vatican Museum, Galleria Lapi- 
daria, No. 164. 

Although the accumulation of modern soil and ruins conceals 
these springs from view, they have never ceased to flow, and to 
find and force their w^ay towards the Cloaca Maxima. In Cres- 
cimbeni's " History of S. M. in Cosmedin," p. 14, we find this 
report by Angelo Maffei, dated September 25, 1715: "I remember 
to have seen, in my early youth, the ground open and sink into 
a chasm fifty cubits deej:* near the three columns [of Castor's 
temple], and a mass of water rush at the bottom of it." The 
accident, caused by the erosion of subterranean springs upon the 
earth, must have happened at other times, because this corner of 
the Palatine was known in Middle Ages under the name of " the 
Hell " (T Inferno) ; hence the name of the church above, S. Maria 
lUiera nos a poenis Inferni. The traditional adventure of Q. 
Curtius may have originated from a like phenomenon in the 
fourth century u. c. 

Another . powerful jet of water appeared in May, 1702, in the 
excavations of the church of S. Maria Antiqua mentioned above ; 
another in March, 1810, at the foot of the three columns of the 
Castores. In 181 S Carlo Fea found water all around the temple, 
to the depth of 8.84 metres under the pavement of the Vicus 
Tuscus. I remember myself having seen the same place suddenly 
inundated in January, 1871, when the excavations had come 
1 Plutarch, Curiol., 3; Dionysius, vi. l-'i, etc. 


accidentally in contact with one of the underground channels. 
The works were suspended for a week or tW'O, until the waters 
were given an outlet towards the Cloaca Maxima. 

References. — Rodolfo Lanciani, Bull. Ins!., 1871, p. 279; and / comen- 
tarii di Frontino intorno le acque e yli acquedottl. Rome, 1880, p. 13. — 
Giuseppe Tommasetti, Bull. Inst., 1871, p. 137. — Francis Nichols, The Roman 
Forum, p. 74, Loudon, 1877. 

VI. The Clivus Victoria. — The Porta Romanula, or " river 
gate " of the Palatine, could be approached from two sides : f i-om 
the Forum by a short cut, or steps, used by women in bringing 
lip their load of water from the pool of Juturna ; and from the 
Velabrum, by a carriage-road cut along the base of the cliff at a 
steep incline. The road is marked (IV) in the fragment of the 
marble plan. Fig. 47. It was named from an altar of Victory 
dating from the earliest days of the city, and transformed into a 
temple 293 b. c, by the consul Lucius Postumius. On April 4, 203, 
the meteoric stone from Pessinus, which the Romans called the 
Great Mother of the Gods, was deposited in this sanctuary, pend- 
ing the erection of the temple described in § xiii. Eleven years 
later Cato the Censor dedicated a shrine Victorke Virgini, by the 
side of the temple, and this is the last mention we find of it in 
the classics. The temple was discovered by Bianchini in 1728, on 
the edge of the hill above the road, inside a court or refievos, be- 
tween the palaces of Tiberius and Caligula. There were splendid 
fragments of its marlile decorations : a frieze ornamented with 
the emblems of a naval victory ; columns of giallo belonging to 
the peristyle, capitals, bases, the pedestal of a statue (the same 
one, probably, dedicated by Cato the Censor in 192) ; and two 
pieces of the inscription of the temple itself, which commemorate 
a restoration by Augustus : — 

imp . CAESAR . dIvI . F . aedein . r/cTORiAe . refec. 

These fragments were kept for a long time on the spot, near the 
Uccelliera ; in 183(3, however, they were dispersed: a few went 
to the Museo Xazionale, Xaples ; others to the Palazzo Farnese, 

On ascending the Clivus Victoriag from S. Teodoro towards the 
Porta Romanula, we pass on the right the remains of thirteen 
rooms, the w-alls of which were of opus qundratum, strengthened 
at a later period with opus laterltitim. These remains, dating 
from the last century of the Republic, are attributed to the Porti- 


cus Catuli. No trace is left of the private palaces of Catulus, 
Scaurus, Clodius, Cicero, etc., described in § ii. 

References. — Rodolfo Lanciani, II temino della Vittoria (in Bull. arch, 
com., 1883, p. 206). — Christian Huelsen, MittheiL, 1895, pp. 23, 269. 

VII. The Church of S. Teodoro. — This round structure 
belongs to the cycle of Byzantine cliurches and chapels by which 
the Palatine was surrounded after the fall of the Empire, and is 
dedicated to an officer who suffered martyrdom at Amasea in the 
Fontus during the persecution of Maximian. The present rotunda 
dates from the time of Nicholas V. (1447-55), except the apse 
and its mosaics, which seem to belong to the time of Hadrian I. 
(772-795). The level of the church, halfway between that of the 
Vicus Tuscus and that of the modern road, shows how rapid has 
been the rise of the soil in the last four centuries. The pieces of 
serpentine with which part of the court is paved M^ere discovered 
at the time of Clement XI. in the marble wharf of the Emporium 
at La Marmorata. 

VTTI. MuRUS RoMULi. — These venerable remains of the 
primitive fortifications, which we meet with on turning the west 
corner of the hill towards S. Anastasia, are built of blocks of 
local tufa, the work of Etruscan masons, as is shown by the way 
the stones are placed, lengthwise in one tier and crosswise in the 
next above. The tufa of the walls is characteristic of all works 
done in Rome before Servius Tullius, such as the fortifications of 
the Arx in the garden of the Aracoeli, and can easily be identified 
by means of the black scoriaj which it contains, the texture and 
softness of which resembles that of charred wood. This special 
tufa, hardly fit for building purposes, was quarried on the spot 
from the lautumke near the Temple of Jupiter Propugnator. 
Other quarries have been discovered in the very heart of the Capi- 
toline hill and at Fidenaj (Villa Spada, Via Salaria). 

The walls of the Palatine were discovered on January 26, 1847, 
but the government commissioners, Visconti, Canina, and Grifi, 
did not at once realize the importance of the find. They call 
them in their official report " a monument built of large blocks of 
tufa, forming two wings 20 palms long, with an arch cut in the 
live rock between them." The walls are visible at two other 
points, near the gardener's house and near the so-called Domus 
Gelotiana. Students wishing to get more information about 
these early fortifications of the Palatine may consult — 


Thomas Dyer, HUtvi >j of the City of Rome, Loudon, 1865, p. 14. — Rodolfo 
Lanciani, Sulle mura t parte di Sevvio (in Ann. Inst., 1871, p. 41). — Visconti 
and Lanciani, Guida del Palatino, Rome, 1873-93, p. 73. — Heinrich Jordan, 
Topographle, vol. i. p. 17-2. — Otto Richter, Ann. Inst., 1884, p. 189. 

Behind the wall and under the northwest corner of the hill 
there is a reservoir of water, a rough design of which is given by 
:Middleton. Formerly it was deep under ground, the water being 
drawn from above by means of a well of conical shape ; but a land- 
slip having carried away a portion of the cliff behind the wall, 
the reservoir can now be entered on a level. There is a basin or 
cavity right under the well towards which slope all the galleries 
of the cistern, so as to allow the besieged to draw the last di'op iu 
case of water-famine. 

IX. The Altar of Aius Locutius. — This remarkable altar 
was noticed by Nibby in 1838, on the spot where we see it 
standing now, on absolutely modern ground, thirty feet at least 
above the ancient level ; but, although not in .^itu, it must have 
been found not very far off. Xibby and Mommsen consider it as a 
restoration made in 125 b. c. of the one raised in the Infima Xova 
Via — in the "lower new street " — behind the Temple of Vesta, 
in memory of the mysterious voice which, in the stillness of night, 
warned the citizens of the approach of the Gauls. The voice was 
attributed to a local genius, whom the people named Aius Loquens 
or Locutius ; but, as Roman religion refrained from mentioning 
in public prayers the name and sex of unknown local genii, lest 
the ceremonies should be vitiated by a false invocation, or else 
the true ifame of these tutelary gods should be made known to the 
enemies of the commonwealth, so the altar raised in memory of 
the event bears the vague dedication — 

SEI • DEO • SEI • DEIVAE ■ SAC(rum) — 

"sacred to a Divinity, whether male or female." Servius de- 
scribes likewise a shield dedicated on the Capitol to the Genius 
of Rome with the legend — 


The altar of Locutius was i-estored by Caius Sextius Calvinvis, 
mentioned twice by Cicero as a candidate for the praetorship 
against Glaucias in 125 b. c. The monument cannot fail to im- 
press the student on account of its connection with one of the 
leading events in history, the capture and burning of Rome by 
the Gauls in ;390 b. c. 


Keferences. — Antonio Nibby, Analisi . . . del dlntorni di Roma, vol. i. 
p. 321. — Corpus Inscr. Lat., vol. i. n. 632, p. 185. — Pagan and Christian 
Rome, p. 72. — Carlo Pascal, Bull, com., 1894, p. 188. 

The corner of the hill above the Munis Romuli, towards which 
we are now ascending by a winding path shaded by ilexes, contains 


monuments dating from the early days of the city. I have said 
already that the Palatine was divided into two summits, the " hill 
of the Twins," or Cermalus, on the north ; the " hill of Pales," or 
Palatium, on the south. This last is entirely covered by Imperial 
buildings, which have swept away or concealed whatever monu- 
ments there were left of the Kingly and Republican ages, while 
on the Cermalus the later constructions have avoided the ground 
made sacred by tradition or by existing remains of bygone days. 
This historic space overlooking the Velabrum, left free by the 
Cffisars, measures 175 metres in length, and 106 metres in depth, 
and contains the steps of Cacus, the hut of Romulus, the old stone 
quarries, the Temple of the Great Mother of the Gods, and the 
Temple of Jupiter Propugnator. A section of the space is re- 
presented in Fig. 49 (on the opposite page). The background is 
formed by the arched substructures of the palace of Tiberius, the 
foreground by the steps of the Temple of Cybele, and by the 
foundations of the fifth chapel of the Argsei, which Yarro places 
apiul (edem Romuli. The space is strewn with architectural frag- 
ments from the temple of Cybele. 

X. ScAL^. Caci (Steps of Cacus). — We have seen before that 
the Palatine city could be entered from three sides : through the 
Porta Romanula from the northwest, by the Mugonia from the 
nortlieast, and hy the Steps of Cacus from the side of the Circus. 
At a very early date these steps took the place of a dangerous 
path connecting the primitive village with the spring and cave of 
Faun Lujaercus.^ They are called fiaOfiovs Ka\rjs aKTrjs (" the steps 
of the beautiful shoi'e ") by Plutarch, and Scahv Caci by Solinus. 
The first name owes its origin to the picturesque inlet formed by 
the waters of the greater Velabrum near the Lupei'cal ; the other 

1 The I^iipercal opened at the fodt of the cliffs hetween the Velabniiii and 
the Circus iMaximiis in the direction of S. Anastasia. Its entrance was once 
shaded by the Ficiis Riiniinalis, markinir the spot where tlie cradle containing? 
the infant twins had been washed asiiore by the flood. The meniorj' of the 
miracnlons event was perpetuated by a bronze group of Tuscan workmanship, 
representing the twins nursed by the wolf. This is probably the same as the 
one preserved in the Conservator! Palace and restored b}' Guglielmo della 
Porta (?), The Lupercal was discovered in the first half of the sixteenth cen- 
turj'. Ulisse Aldovrandi, quoted by Fea (AfisrelL, i. 206, n. 4), says; "There 
was a tenii)le of Neptune (of Faun Lupercus) built by the Arcadians near the 
('ircus Maxinuis, an<l I itelieve it to be the same chapel discovered lateh' 
under the cliffs of the Palatine, near S. Anastasia, all encrusted with marine 


to the hilt of a certain Cacus, a friend of Hercules, who lived near 
the Ara Maxima, on the shore of the same pool. The Scalse were 
shaded by the sacred cornelian tree, believed to be the spear of 
Romulus, which, being thrown by the hero from the opposite 
heights of the Aventine, had struck the ground with such force 
as to take root and grow up again into a beautiful tree. 

Two historical events are connected with the steps. First, 
their restoration by Caligula, in consequence of which the roots of 
the cornelian tree were cut off and the tree was killed ; secondly, 
the escape of Vitellius in December, 69, when, after the capture of 
the city by the generals of Vespasian, he fled " per aversam partem 
Palatii " to the Aventine. The steps have nearly all disappeared, 
but the walls of opus quadratum, hy which they were inclosed, and 
the pavement of the upper landing are tolerably well preserved. 
There was a gate at the top of the ascent, the site of which is 
marked l)y travertine jambs. 

Refekences. — Liidwig Preller, Die Regionen, p. 152. — Karl Bethmann, 
Btdl. Inst., ]852, p. 40. — Ampere, Histoire romainc a Rome, vol. i. p. 292. — 
Wecklein, Hermes, vol. vi. p. 193.— Otto Richter, Annali Inst., 1884, p. 189. 
— Wolfgang Helbig, Guide, vol. i. ii. 018, p. 459. 

XI. Casa Romuli (the hut of Romulus). — Tradition tells us 
that at the top of the steps just described there was the hut of 
Faustulus the shepherd, in which Romulus and Remus had found 
shelter and food and received their early education. History 
shows that down to the middle of the fourth century after Christ 
the hut had been preserved in its primitive shape by the periodi- 
cal renewal of its thatched roof and wooden framework. The 
foundations of this " memorial " are still in existence. They are 
made of blocks of yellowish granular tufa, and form a parallelo- 
gram ;30 feet long and 17 feet wide. When discovered in 1872, 
the parallelogram was perfect, but the quality of the tufa is so 
soft, and the blocks are so easily disintegrated by atmospheric 
agencies, that it will soon disappear, unless protected by a roof. 
The cut (Fig. 50) represents a prehistoric hut, modeled from nature 
by an Alban shepherd, about the time of the foundation of Rome. 
It was discovered in the necropolis of Alba Longa by Carnevali in 
1817, and it is now owned by Michele de Rossi. 

We might consider this clay hut-urn ^ as a perfect model uot 

1 References. — Michele-Stefano de Rossi, Annali Inst., 1871, p. 242, 
tav. v. — Pigorini and Lubbock, Notes on Hut-urns, p. 11. — Rodolfo Lan- 
ciani, Ancient Rome, chap. i. 



only of the Casa Romiili (also called Tiigurium Faustuli), but 
also of the other Casa Romuli on the Capitol, sacred to his memory 
as a hero and demi-god, of the focus of Vesta, of the chapels of 
the ArgiBi, and other such prehistoric dwellings, which are all 
described as vimine texti, stlpula tecti, and made de carina stramini- 
husque. Their type was never forgotten : in the inscriptions of 
Leila Marnia in Africa a tomb in the sliape of a casa or lugurium 
is called " Domus liomula." (See Corpus, viii. p. 112o.) 

Fig. 50. — Hut-urn from Alba Longa. 

The foundations of the Casa Romuli are surrounded by other 
remains of the Kingly period which cannot be identified. There 
is a square mass of stones, with a gutter around the base, which 
may possibly mark the site of the fifth sacrarium of the Arg?ei. 
(See Fig. 49.) 

References. — Scheidewin, P/((7o/o(7?<.«, vol. i. p. 82. — Liidwig Preller, Die 
Rerjlonen, p. 180. — Francesco Cipolla, Rlristct di Filolor/ia, 1878, p. 47. — Hein- 
rich .Jordan, Hermes, vii. p. 190; and Topographie, i. p. 292. — Theodor 
Mommsen, Hermes, xiii. p. ."i27. — (iio. Battista de Rossi, Pirinte, di Rnmn, 
p. 4. —Otto Richter, Topofiraphie, p. 100. — Notizie deyli Scavi, 1896, p. 291. 

XII. The Old Stoxe Quakkies. — An underground passage 


between the Temple of Jupiter Propugnator and the Palace of 
Domitian, which can be entered by a slope under the coffee-house 
of the Farnese Gardens, gives access to a network of tufa quarries 
extending over an acre. They cannot be explored now on account 
of their dangerous state, but I remember going over them in every 
direction when they were first discovered in 1867. The section 
which runs under the Temple of Jupiter is comparatively recent, 
and must have been excavated by a vignaiuolo before the laying 
out of the Farnese Gardens, or when these were again put under 
cultivation in the first half of the last century. The section ap- 
proaching the house of Germanicus and Tiberius is very ancient, 
perhaps contemporary with the first colonization of the hill. There 
is something impressive and solemn in the aspect of these old 
lautumice, which at a later period were turned into a water-tank. 
There were several wells communicating with the ground above, 
but only one is kept open, at the turn of the street called (prob- 
ably) " Victoria Germaniciana." The puteal or mouth of the well 
is of modern restoration ; the shaft is ancient and lined with slabs 
of Alban stone, with holes to make the descent into the reservoir 
easy. A conical heap of terra-cotta ex-votos was found at the 
bottom of this well. This find reminded us at the time of the 
passage of Frontinus : " In the present abundance of water (brought 
to Rome by eleven aqueducts) we have not forgotten the historical 
springs from which drank our foi'efathers " (fontium memoria cum 
sanctitate adhuc extat et colitur). Suetonius says that under Au- 
gustus all classes of citizens (omnes ordines) threw ex-votos into the 
well of Juturna. The Fontinalia, or Feast of Springs, was cele- 
brated in Rome on October 13th. (Another well was found July 
10, 1896.) 

There are in this public space of ground two more monuments, 
independent of the Palace of the Cpesars, which, although raised 
long after the Kingly period, must be described before we enter the 
Imperial grounds, — the Temple of the Great Mother of the Gods, 
and that of Jupiter Propugnator. 

XIII. ^Edes Magx.e Deum Matris (Temple of Cybele). — 
Livy (xxxvi. 35) relates that during the second Punic war in 206 
B. c. an embassy was sent by the senate to Pessinus, after consult- 
ing the Sibylline books, which brought back to Rome a famous 
relic, called (by Servius, Mn. vii. 188) the acux Matris Deum. 
This was a small meteoric stone of siliceous texture, brown in 
color, pyramidal in shape, set, instead of the face, in a silver 


statue of Cybele. Great was the veneration of tlie Romans for 
this image, and a temple was raised in its honor in 192 b. c, 
rebuilt by Augustus in A. d. 3, after a fire. The phrase " ajdem 
Matris Magna; in Palatio feci,'' which Augustus uses in his auto- 
biograj^hy, has been interpreted as if tlie temjale was in the oppo- 
site part of the hill called strictly " Palatium," but we must remem- 
ber that the autobiography was written long after the name had 
been assigned to tlie w'hole tenth region. i 

The most noticeable event in the laistory of the sanctuary is the 
sacrilege committed by Heliogabalus, who removed to his own 
private chapel the great object of popular worship. (See Ancient 
Rome, p. 127.) The description which Ilerodianus gives of it is 
identical with that of Servius. " The stone," he says, " is large, 
shaped as a cone, and black in color. People think it a stone 
fallen from heaven," etc. When Bianchini excavated in 1725-30 the 
imperi^;! chapel or lararium, he found " a stone nearly thi'ee feet 
high, conical in shape, of a deep brown color, like a piece pf lava, 
and ending in a sharp point." I have no doubt that it >vas the 
celebrated " needle of Cybele." No attention was paid to the find. 

The last mention we have of the Great Mother of the Gods 
belongs to the end of the fourth century, wlien Nicomachus Fla- 
vianus and a few surviving champions of polytheism tried to stir 
up the old popular superstitions. During the revolution against' 
Theodosius II., which ended witli the defeat of Eugeuius, Septem- 
ber 7 to 9, 392, Nicomachus and his followers indulged in the 
most faruitic display of long-forgotten pagan superstitions, like the 
Isia, the Floralia, the Lustrum, and the Megalesia, the mysterious 
worship of Cybele. After being baptized in blood, they carried 
through the main streets of the city the chariot of the goddess 
with lions of solid silver. 

It is not certain whether the temple, the scattered remains of 
which appear in Fig. 49, belongs to the Great INlother of the Gods, 
because its columns and entablature are of Alban stone (peperino) 
coated with stucco, and therefore cannot presumably be the work 
of Augustus, who used only marble. I do not dare to express any 
definite opinion on the subject, because thei'e are other circum- 
stances in favor of the supposition which must be taken into 
consideration. The first is the discovery made in January, 1872, 
near the pronaos of the temple, of a semi-colossal statue of the 
goddess (Fig. .il, p. 134). The statue is headless, but has been 
identified by means of the suppedaneum or footstool which the an- 
cients gave to Cybele as a symbol of the stability of the earth. 


The second is the discovery of several altars inscribed with her 
name, made at various times in this part of the Farnese Gardens. 
The one marked No. 496 in vol. vi. of the " Corpus Inscriptionum " 
was raised at the expense of three attendants of the temple, named 

Fig. 51. -Headless Statue of Cybele, found near her temple on the Palatine. 

Onesimus, Olympias, and Briseis. A second, No. 3702, came to 
light in 1873 near the south wall of the temple. See also the in- 
scription. No. .513, belonging to a statue offered to the g-oddess 
by Virius Marcarianus, and the fragment in " Notizie degli Scavi, 

1896, p. 186. .^ ^ ^ , - 

There are about sixty fragments of columns, capitals, entabia- 


tuiv, and pediment lying scattered in confusion, which, if properly 
put together in their former jiosition, as Huelsen has done in 
design (INlittheilungen, 1895, pp. 10-22), would make this temple 
one of the most beautiful ruins of the Palatine. The foundation- 
walls of the cella and pronaos are still intact. The statue itself is 
lying aside, in a slanting position. 

There is a valuable marble in the Capitoline museum connected 
with the history of the temple, viz., an altar with bas-reliefs repre- 
senting the ship on which the goddess came from Pessinus to 
Rome, and the Vestal Claudia Quinta hauling it up the Tiber, 
with her infula tied to the prow. There is written underneath : 
" Matri Deum et Xavi-Salvife voto suscepto, Claudia Synthyche 
d(ono) d(edit)." Maffei and Preller think that the surname of 
Navisalvia was given to the "\'estal Claudia because she had 
brought the ship safely to her moorings ; Orelli and ^Nlommsen 
attribute it to the ship herself (Navis Salvia), or rather to her pro- 
tecting genius (see Corpus, n. 495). The altar can be seen in the 
gallery of the Capitoline museum, where it is used as a pedestal to 
the statue No. 25 (Jupiter found at Antium). 

Greek and Greco-Roman artists have always given Cybele a 
type of majestic beauty. One of the finest representations of the 
merciful goddess, " who gave f ruitf ulness alike to men and beasts 
and vegetation," was discovered not long ago at FormitB (Mola di 
Gaeta), together with the reiiuiins of her temple of the Ionic 
order. The statue, which would have formed the pride of the 
Naples museum, has been allowed to migrate to foreign lands. 
When I stood before her the first time, and felt the influence of 
her wonderfid beauty, I easily understood why she remained a 
favorite deity to the very end of pagan worship in Rome. I am 
sure it will please my readers to become acquainted with this won- 
derful work of art known only to a privileged few (Fig. 52, p. 18f)). 

Rkkerences. — Francesco Caiicellieri, Le setfe cose J'atali, Rome, 1812, 
p. 22. — Visconti and Lanciani, Guida del Palatino, Rome, 1873, pp. 29, 134. — 
Theodor Mommsen, lies gestae divi Aufjusti, 2d ed. 1883, p. 82. — Christian 
Huelsen, llntersuckunf/en zur Topographie des Palatins (in IMittlieilimgen, 
1895, p. 3). — Ancient Rome, p. 126. 

XIV. ^Ede8 Iovis Propugnatokis IX Palatio (Temple of 
Jupiter Propugnator). — Between the house of Germanicus and 
the Nympha^um of the house of Domitian stands the platform of 
a temple, the mass of which is built of concrete with chips of tufa 
and silex, inclosed in a frame of opus quadratum. The temple, 


which is 44 metres long, and 25 wide, faces the southwest, but not 
a fragment of its decorations has escaped the cinquecento lime- 

Fig. 52. — The Cybele from Formise. 

burners. Probably it was octostyle peripteral, viz. surrounded by 
a colonnade which had 8 shafts in the front, 16 on the sides. 
Rosa, who discovered the platform in 1867, identifies it with the 


Temple of Jupiter Victor, a lueniorial buildiug of the victory 
gained by the Romans over the Samnites in 29-1 b. c. We prefer 
to see in it the Temple of Jupiter Propngnator, connected with 
the residence (schola colleyli) of a priesthood ranking in nobility 
with that of the Qiiindecemviri, of the Arvales, and other kin- 
dred religious corporations, of which the Emperor was a ile iure 
member. The remains of a building in opus quadratum of the 
late Republic, remarkably suited for the use of a scJiola, have 
actually been discovered side by side with the teniijle itself. 

Many fragments of the fasti cooptationum, or registers of the 
elections to this priesthood, have been found, not in .situ, however, 
but employed, after the prohibition of pagan worship, in the 
restoration of the pavements of the Basilica Julia and of the 
Senate-house. (See Corpus, n. 2004, 2009, etc.) They are all 
worded this way : " In the year nine hundred and forty-two of 
Rome," (a. d. 190) for instance, "under the consulships of the 
Emperor Commodus, for the sixth time, and of Petronius Septimi- 
anus, on the 1.5tli day of October, in the Temple of Jupiter Pro- 
pngnator on the Palatine, Lucius Attidius Cornelianus has been 
elected." Sometimes they add the name of the deceased member 
whose place was vacant : •' Claudius Paternus cooptatus in locum 
Attidi Corneliani vita functi " (a. d. 198). 

On the top of the steps of the temple there is a fragment of 
an altar inscribed with the words, " Domitius Calvinus, son of 
Marcus, high priest, consul for the second time and [victorious] 
general [has built or repaired or ornamented this building, or 
raised this monument] with the spoils of war." (See Ephemeris 
epigraphica, 1^72, p. 21").) 

Cneus Domitius Calvinus, consul in .53 and 40 B. c, is the 
gallant general of Julius Ca'sar who led the centre at the battle 
of Pharsalos. Later he cari-ied on a successful campaign in Spain, 
for which he was rewarded with the triumph in 86 b. c. With 
the spoils of war — aurum cornnarium — he restored the Regia by 
the house of the Vestals, as related by Dion Cassius (xlviii. 42). 
The altar, tlierefore, has nothing to do with the Temple of Jupiter 
Propugnator, having been found in January, 1868, at some distance 
from it, in the excavations of the Forum Palatinum. It ought to 
be put back in its place by the Regia. The four pieces of fluted 
stone columns placed by Rosa at the top of the stairs belong like- 
wise to another edifice, perhaps to the Temple of Cybele. Pirro 
Ligorio pretends to have seen a fragment of the colossal statue of 
the god, measuring eight feet from shoulder to shoulder. It was 


sold by Cristoforo Stati to a stone-cutter named Leonardo Cieco 
" per fame opere moderne." His statement (Bodleian MSS. p. 138) 
deserves no credit. 

Ekferences. — Corpus Inscr. Lat., vol. vi. p. 450, n. 2004-2009. — Adolf 
Becker, Topograpkie, p. 422. — Ludwig Preller, Rum. Mythologie, p. 177. 

XV. DoMus Augustan A (house of Augustus). — An irregular 
opening made in March, 1893, through the left wall of the Stadium 
(Fig. 53, BB.) leads — for the time being — into the house of 
Augustus. This newly cut passage seems to be calculated to 
mislead the visitor at once : it occupies the site of a staircase 
connecting the two floors of the house, the remains of which were 
likewise obliterated in 1893, leaving only the marks of the steps 
against the side walls. The following plan (Fig. .53), although 
defective in two or three points, which cannot be made good unless 
the excavations are completed, will enable the visitor to find his 
way without difficulty. 

The Palatine hill, so near the Forum and the Capitol, the cen- 
tres of Roman political and business life, had always been the 
favorite place of residence with statesmen, eminent lawyers, and 
orators, and wealthy citizens in general. Augustus made it the 
seat of the Empire. Born near the east corner of the hill, in 
the lane named " ad capita bubula," ^ he selected it again as the 
Imperial residence, after the victory of Actium, which had made 
him master of the world. The ambitious plan was not carried 
into execution at once. He began, 44 b. c, by j^urchasing the 
modest house of Hortensius the orator, the columns and pavements 
of which were of common stone. After the conquest of Egypt in 
28, he bought other property, including the house of Catilina. 
The Imperial residence was then rebuilt on a larger scale and in 
more becoming style, the whole estate being divided into three 
sections. The first, from the side of the Velia, was occupied by 
the Propylaia, the Temple of Apollo, the Portico of the Danaids, 
and the Greek and Latin libraries , the middle section by the 
Shrine of Vesta ; the last, on the side of the Circus, by the Im- 
perial house.2 This magnificent set of buildings was crowded 

1 "Ox-heads." The tomb of Metella is actually called " Capo-di-Bove " 
from the ox-skiills of its frieze. The lane where Augustus was born was close 
to the "street of the old Curife," ad Curias veteres. 

•2 " Phoebus habet partem: Vests pars altera cessit — quod superest illis, ter- 
tius ipse tenet " (Ovid, Frmf., iv. 951). References for the Temple of Apollo, 
and the Portico of the Danaids: Rodolfo Lanciani, II tempio di ApnlUni- palatino 
(in Bull. arch, com., vol. xi. ]SS;i, p. 185, pi. 17); and Ancient Rome, p. 109. — 
Christian Huelsen, Miltheiluiifjcn, 1888, p. 296; and 1895, p. 28. 



with the masterpieces of Greek, Tuscan, and Roman art, as mi- 
nutely described in '• Ancient Rome," p. 109. The building of 
a shrine of Vesta near the house was a necessity of state, since 
Aus'ustus had been elected iiontifex maximus after the death of 


I IkH Mril il 

o o oooeoo e qqooooo 


ooooooooo ooooooo 

■—1 r"-TT?^r~T 


Fig. 53. — I'lau of the Doimis Aiigii.stana, Ground Floor. 


^milius Lepidus in 12 u. c. On this occasion the old pontifical 
palace was presented to the Vestals, to increase the accommodation 
provided by theii- own. 

The Domus Augustana was destroyed by the fire of Nero, with 
the exception of the room in which the founder of the Empire had 
slept for forty years. It was rebuilt by Domitian towards a. d. 
85, never to suffer any more by the violence of man or at the hand 
of Time, until the vandal hand of the Abbe Rancoureuil ruined it 
in 1775. The Temple of Apollo and its libraries were destroyed 
in the night, between the 18th and 19th of March, a. d. 363, the 
fury of the flames being such that only the Sibylline books were 
saved from the wreck. We hear no more of the monumental 
group until the time of Fra Giocondo da Verona (f 1520), when 
the beautiful ruins, set in their frame of evergreens, began to at- 
tract the attention of architects and archaeologists. Dosio, Palla- 
dio, Heemskerk, Ligorio, Panvinio have left important memoranda 
of the state of the " palazzo maggiore " in the sixteenth century. 
Palladio mistook the palace for a public bath — terme di palazzo 
maggiore — but his plan is none the less important. I found it 
in the Burlington-Devonshire collection and published it in the 
" Mittheilungen " of 1894, plates i.-iii. Comparing the various 
accounts, maps, drawings, sketches, acts of notaries, etc., of the 
cinquecento, we gather the following information : — 

The ground occupied by the Augustan buildings belonged, 
towards the middle of the sixteenth century, half to Alessandro 
Colonna, half to Cristoforo Stati. Duke Paolo IMattei purchased 
both properties about 1560. We do not know whether Alessandro 
Colonna had searched the grouiul : the two other gentlemen did. 
They came across (and destroyed) the Propylaia, described by 
Pliny (xxxvi. 4, 10); the Portico of the Danaids. described by 
Propertius (ii. 31) ; and the Temple of Vesta. No mention is 
made of the Temple of Apollo, unless we can consider as such 
the notice given by Pietro Saute Bartoli (Memorie, n. 7) of the 
discovery of a hiding-place inlaid with precious stones, where the 
Sibylline books wereprobably kept. The Portico of the Danaids 
numbered fifty-two columns of glatto antico, many of which have 
been recovered from time to time, probably because they were 
considered unfit for the lime-kiln. " On October 29, 1664," says 
an eye-witness, "in the gardens of Duke :Mattei, a portico was 
discovered of extraordinary i-ichness, with columns of giallo an- 
fico. and two bas-reliefs representing Romulus, the Wolf, the 
Lupercal, Faustulus, the Tiber, and other sulijects connected with 


the foundation of Rome." Winckelmann speaks of two other 
panels representing Dajdalos and Ikaros, and a young Satyr drink- 
ing from a cup. A fifth, described by Matz, represents Theseus 
and the Minotaur, a sixth Ulysses and Diomedes. 

In 1728 Count Spada, who had bought the villa from the Mattel, 
discovered seven rooms " ornamented with precious marbles, gilt 
metal, stucco bas-reliefs on a golden ground, and arabesques." In 
one of the rooms, which was used for bathing purposes, there was 
a marble cathedra, and a basin of lead before it. The two columns 
of oriental alabaster, which stood on each side of the cathedra, 
were removed to the chapel of Prince Odescalchi in the church of 
SS. Apostoli. Count Si>ada found also " several broken statues 
of marble and bronze." 

In 1825 Charles Mills found another column of yiallo 2.25 
metres long, lying on a marble pavement, at a depth of 1.5G 
metre. Other pieces of fluted shafts of giallo came to light in 
1869 and 1877, in the excavations of the so-called Stadium, where 
they had rolled down from the portico, together with the eighteen 
or twenty torsos of the Danaids described by Flaminio Vacca 
(Mem. 77). 

In March, 1849, Colonel Robert Smith, who had succeeded 
Charles Mills in the ownership of the grounds, destroyed a portion 
of the Pulvinar (see Fig. 53), to make room for a carriage road 
between the gate on the Via de' Cerchi and the Casino. In the 
same year he discovered the drain connecting the Area ApoUinis 
with the main sewer of the Vallis Murcia. 

The blame for having destroyed to a great extent the house 
of Augustus rests with the Frenchman Rancoureuil, who exca- 
vated the Villa Spada in 1775, and sold even the bricks and stones 
of the historical sanctuary to a stonecutter in the Campo Vaccino 
named Vinelli. I have heard it related that the abbe was so 
anxious to keep his proceedings secret, that besides preventing 
any one front seeing the excavations by daylight (except his 
friend Barberi), he kept a fierce mastiff to watch the place at 
night. Roman archaeologists, however, did not give up the con- 
test, and a young man named Benedetto Mori, an assistant of 
Piranesi, volunteered to sketch the plan of the ruins coute qui 
coute. He began by making advances to the dog, tempting him 
with food, until after many nocturnal meetings the two became 
so friendly that the beast helped the architect to accomplish his 
mission. U appears from his designs — although rather imperfect 
— that the front of the palace followed the curve of the Pulvinar 


ox state balcony from which the games of the Circus were seen, and 
tliat there were five windows on either side of the entrance door. 
This door was still visible in 1829, but it is concealed now by the 
gardener's house. Inside the building first came the atrium (A) 
with a colonnade on each side, giving access to apartments of 
elaborate shape and design ; farther on was the court of honor, 
with a peristyle of 56 fluted marble columns of the Ionic order, 
on which opened other private apartments. One of the most 
elegant chambers was the sterquilinvum (CC), with three recesses 
supported by finely carved brackets. Its pavement and walls were 
incrusted with polychrome marbles ; of marble also were the 
water-pipes connected with the basins. The lead pipes found in 
other parts of the building bore the name of Domitian. No trace 
seems to have been found of the tower or " belvedere " named 
Syracuse or rexvSfpvov, to which Augustus retired when worn with 
the care of governing the world. From this locus in edito, as 
Suetonius calls it, he must have watched day by day the trans- 
formation of the capital, which he had found built of bricks and 
wanted to leave a city of marble. Just opposite the west windows 
of the palace, his friend L. Cornificius was rebuilding with great 
magnificence the old federal Temple of Diana on the Aventine, 
and Augustus himself the three temi^les of Minerva, Juno Regina, 
and Jupiter Libertas on the same hill. Turning to tlie other 
points of the horizon, he could see the transformation of the 
Campus ^lartius made by Agrippa and by himself, the Portico 
and Temple Ilerculis Musarum built by jMarcius Philippus, the 
Atrium Libertatis by Asinius Pollio, the Temple of Saturn by 
Munatius Plancus, a theatre and a portico by Cornelius Balbus, 
an amphitheatre by Statilius Taurus, and scores of other edifices, 
masterpieces of architecture and museums of fine arts. 

Of the Domus Augustana nothing except a few bare walls is 
left standing, and three underground rooms of graceful design, 
marked DDI) in the plan (p. 139). The shimmering light which 
falls througli masses of ivy from an opening in the middle of the 
ceilings makes these ruins very picturesque. As a contrast to the 
loneliness of the spot, there is above our heads an artistic gem 
of the cinquecento, a small portico designed and painted by 
llaffaellino del Colle. The subjects of the graceful frescoes are: 
Cupid showing the arrow to Venus ; Venus lacing her sandals ; 
Jupiter in the form of a Satyr pursuing Antiope ; and other such 
mythological scenes. The frescoes, injured by neglect, were re- 
stored by Camuccini in 1824 at the expense of Charles Mills. 


It is probable that the works of art, discovered at various times 
in the adjoining Stadium, have fallen there from the Domus 
Augustana and from the Portico of the Danaids (see § xxii.). 

The two columns of alabaster found in 1728 have been used 
in the decoration of the Odescalchi chapel. The two bas-reliefs 
symbolic of the foundation of Rome (]\loniimenta Mattheiana, 
vol. iii. pis. 37 and 45) are now set into the wall of the courtyard 
of the Palazzo Mattel. The third, with Daedalos and Ikaros 
(Winckelmann, Monum. inediti, n. 95), belongs to the Villa 
Albani ; the fourth, with the young Satyr (Visconti, Museo Pio 
Clement, vol. iv. pi. 31), to the Galleria dei candelabri. The fifth, 
of Theseos and the Minotaur, is broken in two, one part belong- 
ing to the British Museum (Ancient Marbles, xi. 48), one to the 
Museo delle Terme in Rome. The latter also owns the sixth 
panel, with the figures of Ulysses and Diomedes. How interesting 
it would be to the stiulent if plaster-casts of this unique set of 
panels were exhibited in the place to which the originals belong ! 
The capital of the Corinthian order with the acanthus leaves 
bending from right to left (Guattani, Monum. ined., vol. ii. 1785, 
p. 94, tav. ii. fig. G) is now in England. The exfjuisite frieze 
of the sterquilinium was divided between the architect Barberi 
and the Venetian amlxissador Andrea Memmo. One of the two 
Leda? discovered by Rancoureuil went to England, and the Apollo 
Sauroktonos, also discovered by him, was purchased by Pius VI. 
for the Museo Vaticano (Galleria delle statue, No. 264). The 
Apollo Citharoedos by Scopas, which stood in the temple, between 
the images of Latona and Diana, is represented in some brass 
medals of tlie time of Augustus; there are also several reproduc- 
tions in marble. The one (No. 516) in the Hall of the Muses was 
found in 1774 in the Pianella di Cassio near Tivoli. A second 
replica (No. 495 in the same hall), known as "Bacchus in Female 
Attire," and very mucli restored, w'as removed from the Villa 
Negroni. There is a third subject in the hall of the Greek Cross, 
No. 582, known as the " IMuse Erato," which does not deserve the 
name of Apollo Palatinus attributed to it in official catalogues. 
The last replica, discovered in the Villa of Quintus Voconius 
Pollio near Marino, March, 1885, was purchased by Leo XIII., and 
largely restored by Galli. It now occupies the place of the Faun 
of Circieii, No. 41 Braccio nuovo. 

In all these works of art " Apollo appears in a costume which at 
first sight surprises us. We seem to have before us one of those 
exalted females who were mistresses of the Ivre and of song. 


aud we require circumstantial evidence to convince us that these 
splendid robes envelop the form of a slender youtli." ' 

References. — Giuseppe Guattani, Roma descritta ed illustrata, vol. i. p. 
48, tav. viii.-xiv. ; and Monumenti inediti, vol. ii. 1785, pp. 1 and 29. — Luigi 
Canina, Edljizii di Roma antica, vol. iv. pi. 108. — Henry Deglane, Gazette 
Archeol., 1888, p. 14r5. — Bullettlno arch, com., vol. xi. 188.3, p. 185. — Visconti 
aud Lanciani, Guida del Palatino, Rome, 1873, pp. 33 and 98. — Rodolfo Lan- 
ciani, Pagan and Christian Rome, chap. v. ; and II palazzo maygiore, in Mit- 
theilungen, 1894, pp. 3-36. 

XVI. DoMus TiBERiANA (house of Tiberius), Fig. 54. — We 
now cross the valley which separated, before Domitian's time, the 
house of Augustus from the Cermalus, and visit the wing of the 
Imperial residence which owes its existence to Tiberius and Cali- 
gula. This part is not yet laid bare, the underground floor alone 
having been made accessible here and there. As we have observed 
in the introductory remarks, the substructures are most irregular 
in their plan, because they were intended to serve but one pur- 
pose : to support an artificial j^latform, upon w^hich the palace was 
built on its own independent design. At the same time we must 
acknowledge that the irregularity of the substructures is less 
apparent here than in any other section of the hill, so that we 
can almost foresee what would be the general outline of the Domus 
Tiberiana and of the Domus Gaiana if the living apartments 
were laid bare. The two buildings now form a rectangle 150 
metres long and 115 metres wide, limited by the Forum Palatinum 
on the south, by the area containing the prehistoric monuments on 
the west, by the Clivus Yictorise on the north and east. It contains 
the following j^laces of interest : (XIV) the Domus Tiberiana ; 
(XV) the House of Germanicus ; (XVI) the wing added by Cali- 
gula, which we shall call Domus Gaiana; (XVII) the Forum Pala- 
tinum, a public square between the palaces of Caligula and Domi- 
tian. Apropos of the last-named place, the reader must remember 
that the Imperial buildings of the Palatine did not form a mass 
inaccessible to the public, like the Vatican palace and gardens of 
the present day; the hill w^as crossed by streets and passages, 
through which the citizens could probably pass without restric- 
tion at all hours of the day. The gates witli which these streets 
and passages are provided were probably closed at night, and 
had a guard posted by them.^ This is certain for the Porta 

1 Emil Braun, Ruins and MvKevms, p. 230. 

2 At the time of Caligula's murder the watch at the main gate was probably 
kept by the Gennani corporis ciistodes (Suetonius, 58). There were also por- 
ters {janitores) assisted by a watch-dog (Suetonius, Vitellius, 16). 



41 I H 









Fig. 54. — Plan of the Doraus Tiberiana and of the Domus Gaiaua. 


Romanula and the Clivus Victoriae, and for the grand state en- 
trance in front of Doniitian's palace ; it is probable for the steps 
of Cacus, at the top of which the jambs of a travertine gate are 
still to be seen. For other streets of access to the Palatine we 
must await the results of further excavations. 

Tiberius Claudius Nero, father of the Eiuperor, owned a modest 
house (XV) on the Palatine, which afterwards came into the pos- 
session of Germanicus. Tiberius the Emperor raised a noble 
palace next to it, known in classic documents as the Domus Tibe- 
riana. It formed a square, the south side of which opened on the 
street called " Victoria Germaniciana," whilst the west towered 
above the valley of the Velabrum at the height of 50 metres, the 
north touched the Temple of Victory and Caligula's palace, and 
the east opened on the Forum Palatinum. 

Tacitus (Hist., i. 27) says that Otho, wishing to join the con- 
spirators against the life of Galba, who were about to meet in the 
Forum, descended to the Velabrum through the Domus Tiberiana 
(probably by the steps of Cacus, or by one of the private stairs 
which are still to be seen behind the gardener's house and the 
walls of Romulus). The same historian describes Vitellius glutting 
himself in the banqueting-room of the palace, while his jiartisans, 
who were fighting against Flavins Sabinus, had set the Capitol 
ablaze. The fire could be seen from the Imperial table. On re- 
ceiving the news of his defeat, which left no hope for his crown or 
foi" his life, he rushed to the Aventine jjer aversam partem palatii, 
viz., by the same steps which Otho had descended a few months 

The great attraction of the palace was the library, Bibliotheca 
Tiberiana, which seems to have contained state papers and docu- 
ments more than books. The passage of Dion Cassiiis about the 
fire of Commodus very probably refers to it : " The flames per- 
vaded the palace with such suddenness and force that nearly all 
the registers and records of the Empire were lost." 

The only portion now visible is the arched substructures of the 
south front, with a row of cells very poorly lighted, ventilated, 
and ornamented (see Fig. 49). They must have been occupied 
by soldiers or slaves. One of them (A) protected by a wooden 
railing, is very rich in grafiiti, lately published and explained by 
Professor Correra in " Bull. arch, com.," 1894, p. 95, plates 2-4. 
There ai-e mairy names, followed by the specification castre\ji]sis, 
"from the praetorian camp," or milea, "soldier." One of them 
writes in tolei-ably good Greek, " Many have Mritten many tilings 


on this wall, I nothing ; " to which another hand subscribes 
•• Bravo ! " Per- 
haps the most 

curious sratiito , v ,.,( 

is a rough TV /.L/V^X^'I 
sketch of the 

head of Nero made by a soldier named 
TuUius Romanus. ^^ ^ ^-,\\ k 3; i 

Rough sketches and bona-lide carica- .^^'^.' ^t :i}''<^''-^ 

turesof Imperial heads are not unknown ; '- .'' i" \ 

on the Palatine. One was found in /,^ ,/|y iT^_^> 
March, 1876, by an English lady, graf- ^'V,f \ \ 

fito on a slab of giallo antico with the \ ' , j|.^ ^^ ~ 

semi-barbaric legend " Caxir Xero " (iVero V\Vj 'A v\S\vx .. -^ JS 
Ccesar), the work of one of the Teutonic • \! ^ C^-"" '"^J 

body-guard.i This also is a specimen of \ ~^^ i 

the artistic propensities of another sol- A /f 

dier, who perhajjs had just seen the Em- 1 2_ // 

peror walking in front of the corpx-de- /\^ { 

fjarde of the Domus Tiberiana. Several A 

officers from the Domus Tiberiana are /'J 

recorded in Roman epitaphs : a balam- // 
helus acuarius, or plumber (Corpus, n. Fig. 55. — A Graffito of the 
8653) an alhanus a supelectile. or keeper Domus Tiberiana. 

of plate (n. 8654) ; ajucundus vilicus, or caretaker (n. 8655), etc. 

XVII. House of Germanicus (Fig. .54, XV.). — This beau- 
tiful edifice was discovered in the spring of 1869, and I well re- 
memV)er the excitement created among artists and archseologists 
by the appearance of its celebrated paintings. It is the only Ro- 
num private house now existing, the one discovered l)y Azara in 
the Villa ]\Iontalto, near the present railway station, having been 
destroyed in 1777, and its paintings cut away from the walls and 
sold to Lord Bristol. ^ 

The house has but one entrance (B), not from the streets, which 
go round thi-ee sides of it, but from the cryptoporticus of the 

1 Published in facsimile, Bull. arch, cow., 1877, p. 166. 

■- The house discovered by Azara was illustrated by Angelo Uggeri, 
Iconografia deyli erlifizi di Roma antica, vol. iii. pis. 14-17, p. 53; vol. ii. 
pi. 24. — Raffaele Mengs and Camillo Buti, Pitture trovate I' anno 1777 nelhi 
rilln Ner]voni. 13 plates. — Camillo Massimi, Notizie della villa Massimi, 
Rome, 1836, p. 214. — Luigi Canina, Edijizl di Roma antica, vol. iv. tav. 192. 


palace of Tiberius and CaligTila, in which the murder of the latter 
took place on January 24, a. d. 41. The historians who describe 
the event say that the murderers, not daring to retrace their steps 
for fear of the guards posted at the main entrance by the Velia, 
ran away in the opposite direction and concealed themselves in 
the house of Germanicus. This statement leaves no doubt as to 
the identity of the building, which, besides, abounds in hiding- 
places, crypts, and underground passages running in the direction 
of the house of Augustus. The intense love felt by the Romans 
for the unhappy prince, and the veneration for his memory, which 
lasted for centuries, explain the fact that this house alone, among 
so many public and private buildings, altars, shrines, temples, 
palaces, etc., destroyed by the Cpesars, was kept as a national 
relic down to the fall of the Empire. Evidence of the care taken 
of, and of repairs made on, the house from time to time is to be 
found in the legends of its water-pipes. One bears the name 
" Ivliae-Avg" (Julia, the daughter of Titus, or Julia Domna) ; the 
second, " Domitiani Caesar[/.s'] Avg[usti] " ; the third has the name 
of a plumber, " \j\iicius'\ Pescennivs Eros," probably a contempo- 
rary of Septimius Severus. 

The fore portion of tlie house, sunk below the level of the 
street, is built of reticulated work with small prisms of yellowish 
tufa. The angles and arches are of the same material, without 
any mixture of bricks, a style of masonry which came into fashion 
towards the end of the Republic. Like all Roman private resi- 
dences, it is divided into two sections: one for the reception of 
friends and clients, one for domestic use. We enter the first by 
an inclined vestibule paved with fine mosaic. Tlie atrium (C) was 
probably testudinatum, viz. covered by a roof with no impluinum 
in the centre. The pavement is of fine mosaic ; and there are 
remains of the altar of the domestic gods (D). Three halls open 
on the side opposite the vestibule ; the first on the left (E), dam- 
aged by the sinking of the outer wall, has some good decorative 
panels divided by slender columns, with ivy and vines woven around 
their shafts. 

The central hall or tablinum (F) has a similar decoration of 
composite columns, but the panels contain frescoes far superior 
to the others in interest, design, and execution. They have been 
reproduced many times and by various processes by Rosa, Perrot, 
and the German Institute ; the best copes in facsimile, made at 
the time of the discovery by M. Layraud, were presented by 
Napoleon III. to the Library of the l^cole des Beaux Ai'ts. 


The one in the back wall represents Polyphemus the giant, half 
merged in the waters of the sea, who, having crushed his rival 
Akis under a heavy rock, turns toward Galatea with an expression 
of cruelty mingled with tenderness. The Xymph glides over the 
water on the back of a sea-horse, followed by two Nereids. The 
passion by which the giant was nuxstered is represented by a 
Cupid, who stands upright on his left shoulder and guides him 
with a ribbon. 

On the right, and above the frieze, there is a smaller panel 
rejiresenting a scene of private initiation. The picture which 
follows, on turning to the right wall, belongs to the landscape 
order, and show^s a sti-eet scene with houses many stories high 
on either side. A woman, followed by her attendant, knocks at 
one of the doors, and four or five figures appear at the windows 
or on the balconies to make sui'e who is seeking for admittance. 
The second small panel, above the frieze, seems to indicate the 
preparations for a domestic sacrifice. 

The last and best picture pertains to the myth of lo, loved by 
Jupiter and persecuted by Juno. The fair daughter of Inachus is 
kept jirisoner in the sacred wood by Mycen.T, and sits at the foot 
of a pillar surmounted by the image of the jealous goddess. The 
all-seeing Argos, armed with lance and sword, gazes intently at 
the girl in his custody. Behind the rock, on which he is leaning 
with the right elbow, Mercury appears to advance cautiously, 
waving the caduceus as a symbol of his mission from the father 
of the gods for the deliverance of lo. The name EPMH2 is written 
in white letters under the Messenger's feet, and there is no doubt 
that the other jiersonages were likewise indicated by their proper 
names in, APFOS. 

The dining-room or Irirlinium (G) opens on the west side of 
the court. Its frescoes have suffered very mucli from exposure 
and damp, the apartment being sunk four metres l)elow the street. 
The walls have been found coated with flange tiles, with the rim 
turned inwards, so as to leave a free space for the circulation of 
air and the evaporation of moisture. A curious vase of glass filled 
with fruit is painted above the entrance door. The panels have a 
vermilion ground, except two which show fanciful groups of birds, 
animals, trees, etc., on a white surface, the work of a very inferior 

Admittance to the inner (and higher) rooms is gained by a 
narrow wooden staircase (H) on the west side of the atrium, near 
the door of the iricliniiDii : but they hardly deserve a visit, having 
been despoiled of every bit of ornamentation. 


References. — Pietro Rosa, Plan et peintures de la niaison pnternelle de 
Tib'ere, s. 1. — Lanciani and Visconti, Guida del Palatino, Rome, Bocca, 1873, 
p. 132. — Georges Perrot, Memulres d^ircheologie, Paris, Didier, 1875, p. 74. 
(Les peintures du Palatin.) — J. H. Middleton, The Remains of Ancient Rome, 
vol. i. p. 175. — Monumenti delV lustituto, vol. xi. pis. 22, 23. 

XVIII. DoMUS Gaiana (house of Caligula), Fig. 54, XVI. — 
Suetonius (Calig. 22) and Dion Cassius (lix. 28; Ix. 6) say that 
Caligula protracted the Imjjerial Palace as far as the Forum {ad 
Forum usque), making use of the Temple of Castor and Pollux 
for a vestibule. lie must have thus occupied and built over 
the ground once covered by the houses of Clodius, Cicero, and 
other wealthy citizens, described in § ii., and crossed by the Clivus 
Victorife. The front of the palace opened on the Nova Via, 
towering above its pavement to the height of 150 feet. This 
facade is represented in its present ruinous state by the following 
plate (Fig. 56). 

Starting from the foreground — the Clivu.s Sacer by the Arch 
of Fabius Allobrogicus — we first see the house of the Vestals, 
with the statues of the priestesses lining the south side of the 
peristyle ; and above it the Nova Via, by which the house was 
separated from Caligula's palace. The whole mass of arched 
masonry which rises above the street, and which appears ci'owned 
by a clump of ilexes, represents only the substructures built by 
Caligula to raise the slope of the hill to a level with its summit. 
The palace itself, with its state apartments and halls and porti- 
coes, began where the ruins actually stop, not a particle being left 
above ground to tell the tale. The substructures, at all events, are 
well worth visiting : we gain by them the true idea of the human 
fourmilliere of slaves, servants, freedmen, and guards, which lived 
and moved and worked in the substrata of the Palatine, serving 
the court in silence and almost in darkness. It is difficult to 
understand or to explain how the greater portion of these under- 
ground dens were lighted and ventilated. I believe that, in the 
oi'iginal design, they were well provided with such essential ele- 
ments of light and comfort : the cryptoporticm, where the mux'der 
of Caligula took place, received light from tlie Forum Palatinum 
(Fig. 54, XVII.) by means of skylights opening under each inter- 
columniation ; the rooms KK had a skylight in the middle of 
their vaulted ceiling, and so forth. In progress of time, aiul on the 
occasion of the repairs and changes which every Emperor consid- 
ered it his duty to make, no regard was paid to the original plan : 
staircases, windows, and corridors were condemned, intercepted, or 



closed : rooms subdivided into two or four apartments ; free spaces 
built over ; and streets tm-ned into dark passages. 

The student's most perplexing labor on the Palatine is to single 
out which parts are architecturally essential and pertain to the 


original plan, and which are later changes deserving no considera- 
tion. His task is made even more tronblesome by the fact that all 
maps of the hill, from that of Zangolini, which I published in 
1873,1 to the latest of Richter (1889), Middletou (1892), and Bm-ns 
(1895), mark existing remains with the same shade of color, 
no matter whether they belong to the great banqueting-hall of 
the masters of the world, or to a cellar sunk deep iu the ground. 
I have tried to avoid this mistake in Sheets xxix. and xxxv. of 
the " Forma Urbis," where only the living apartments and public 



Fig. 57. — A Corner of tlie Palace of Caligula according to Rosa's Map. 

buildings are marked in full tint, the substructures and cellars 
in lighter color or in simple outline. The results obtained by this 
process of sifting are in many cases remarkable. The following 
from Caligula's house might serve for all. 

The portion of the house which spans the Clivus Victorias is 
represented in guide and topographical books as follows (Fig. 57) : 

According to this accepted plan, none of the rooms marked AA, 
BB, CC had light or air, the whole space — the street included — 
being vaulted over. Now, as " several rooms . . . are richly 
1 The same that I have made use of in Ancient Rome, pp. 106, 107. 



decorated with a combinatiou of colored stucco reliefs and paint- 
ings on the flat, very gorgeous in effect, but almost invisible for 
want of light, except that of lamp," ^ and others have an elaborate 
mosaic floor, as is suitable for rooms inhabited, not by slaves, but 
by officers of superior rank, we w^ere trying to find the proper ex- 
planation of these facts, but in vain. It came in the most satis- 
factory way w hen I adopted the system of distinguishing, in color 
or in outline, the original walls from later additions. 

By glancing at the nuip made with this caution. Fig. 58, we see 
at once that when the palace was built by Caligula, the apartments 

Fig. 58. — The Same, according to Sheet xxix.of the " Forma Urbis." 

now plunged in darkness received light and air from a court 32 
metres long and 26 wide, through which passed the Clivus Victoria^. 
The rooms on the southwest side opened on a balcony " supported 
on stone corbels carrying a series of arches." These and the 
front of the balcony " are richly decorated with delicate reliefs, 
modeled in stucco, of figures and foliage, once covered with gold 
and colored decoration, and designed with great skill and beauty 
of effect " (Middleton). The marble railing or parapet is an 
addition by Rosa. 

The rooms under the balcony, on a level with the court, were 
used as a corps de garde. The walls of one (now protected by a 

1 Middleton, i. 194. 


wooden railing) are covered with graffiti. There are names like 
" Philaronivs," " Annaevs," " Aprilis ; " the inipi-ession of a coin 
repeated five times ; and the phrase, written perhaps in the hour 
of the siesta in a hot summer day : " Somnvs clavdit ocellos." 
(See Bull, arch, com., 1895, p. 195.) 

Another portion of the building, the cri/ptopnriicus, marked 
XVIII, Fig. 51, has been identified beyond any shade of doubt 
with the " solitary and obscure corridor " in which the assassina- 
tion of Caligula took place on January 14, a. d. 41. The event is 
described at some length on pp. 117-119 of " Ancient Rome." 

Near the bend of the crriptoporticus towards the house of Ger- 
manicus, there is an oval basin, which Rosa calls a fish-pond 
(vivaio di pesci). I doubt whether it is ancient, or the work of a 
mediaeval farmer. It marks the i^lace in which the Renaissance 
lime-burners established their kilns. One of these was discovered 
by Rosa in 1866, filled to the brim with exquisite works of art, 
some of which had by an accident escaped the effects of fire. The 
objects formerly exhibited in the local Museo Palatino, where 
they attracted intense interest, and now scattei'ed in various rooms 
of the Museo delle Terme, comprise a veiled head of the Emperor 
Claudius; a head of Nero; three caryatides or eaHe/j/io/-rt« of nero 
antico of an archaistic type ; an exquisite statue of an ephebos in 
green basalt, with the arms and lower portion of the legs miss- 
ing ; ^ head of Arpokras, and several fragments of less importance. 

The last place deserving of a visit is the long and well-preserved 
staircase which leads from the Clivus Victoriae to the top of the 
ruins, where a charming little grove of evergreens now casts its 
shade. The grove is known in literary histoi'y as the first place 
of meeting of the Accademia degli Arcadi. 

The palace, or whatever remained of it in tolerable preservation 
after the barbarian inroads, was taken possession of and some- 
times inhabited by the popes, as a practical evidence of their 
political power in Rome. The palace was put under the cai'e of 
an officer styled a ciira jjalatii. One of them named Plato, whose 
epitaph was seen by Pietro Sabino in tlie pavement of the church 
of S. Anastasia, rebuilt or repaired about 680 the long staircase 
which I have just mentioned as descending from tlie top of the 
ruins to the Clivus Victoi-iae and the Porta Romanula. His son, 
having been elected pojie in 705 under the name of ,Iohn VI I.,^ 

1 The statue has been recently ilUistrated by F. Hauser in the MlUhnlunijen 
for 1805, pp. 97-119, pi. 1. (Basalt statue vom Palatin.) 

2 John VII. was buried in S. Peter's before the altar of the Sudario, which 



conceived the plan of making the palace of the Caesars the perma- 
nent and official residence of the Bishops of Rome ; and accord- 
ingly " super ecclesiam sanctaj Dei genitricis qua? antiqua vocatur 
[above the church of S. ]\Iaria Liberatrice] episcopium construere 
vol nit," 1 and established brick-kilns for the purpose, the produce 
of which is marked by the stamp shown in Fig. 59. 

Fig. 59. — A Brick Stamp of Jolin VII. 

John YIT. did not live to see his project accomplished : his 
successors did not care for it, and they repaired to the convents 
or strongholds of the Palatine only in case of necessity. Celes- 
tinus II. died in 1144 apud Palladium (in the monastery of S. 
Cesario) ; Lucius II. in 114.3 ap>id ecclesiam S. Gregorii (in the 
fortress of the Septizonium) ; Eugenius III. was elected pope in 
1145 apud monasteriiun S. Cesarii ; Gregory IX. in 1227 apiid sep- 
temsolium. They were simply chosen as places of refuge in times 
of popular disorder, which once quelled, the popes resumed their 
habitual residence at the Lateran. 

Caligula's palace has not been excavated since the sack by the 
Duke qf Parma in 1725-27 ; and we do not know whether thei'e 
are still traces left of the work of John VII. or of his Imperial 

XIX. The Palace of Domitiax (ojKi'a Ao/xenavoC). — One of 
the first thoughts of Vespasian, after iiis election in a. d. 69, was 
to reduce the Imperial residence to its old limits on the Palatine, 

he had built and endowed. His portrait, a miniature in a golden ground, is 
given by Giacomo Grimaldi, Cod. Barb., f. 9-3. 

1 References. — Liber pontijicalis, in .lohann. VII., ed. Duchesne, vol. i. 
p. 385. — G. Battista de Rossi, Notizie deyli Scari, dicemb. 188-3. — Rodolfo 
Lauciani, L' itinerario di Einsiedlen, p. 63. — Louis Duchesne, Btdletin cri- 
tique, 188.5, p. 417 sq. ; and Milanrieif de V Ecole franq(nse de Rome, 1896, fasc. 
ii. — Grisar Hartniann, S. .T., in CiriUa Cattol, May, 189G. 


and give back to the people the immense tract of land which 
Nero had usurped for his Golden House. At the same time he 
could not abstain from raising himself a new palace, to be used 
for state receptions and banquets. This great structure, called by 
Nerva cedes publicce populi Romani, was brought to perfecticg;i by 
Domitian, who lavished upon it all the costliest productions of 
contemporary art. Hence Plutarch (Poplic, 15) calls it o'lKia 
Aofieriavov, and compares Domitian to Midas, who turned into gold 
whatever fell under his touch. See also the eulogy of Statins 
(Sylv., iv. 11, 18). It stands between the palaces of Tiberius and 
Caligula on one side, and that of Augustus (with its temples and 
porticoes) on the other, in the line of the valley which runs from 
the Arch of Titus to the Circus. The valley was still occupied at 
that time by private mansions, and by one or two shrines ; they 
were not destroyed, but made use of to support the platform on 
which the palace stands. Some of these older buildings are still 
visible, and will be described below. The plan of the palace is 
that of a private Roman house, but it is of a size and magnificence 
becoming the ruler of the world. Little or nothing is known of 
its history ; in fact, it seems never to have required repairs on 
account of the solidity of its construction. The Emperors did 
not live in it, but held their levees, delivered their judgments, 
presided over councils of state, received foreign envoys, and gave 
official banquets in the various apartments set apart for such 
purposes. The last Emperor seen in the palace was Heraclius, 
whose coronation took place in the throne-room a. d. 629. We 
hear of it again nine centuries later, when the northern half of the 
Palatine was bought by the Farnese. To this family we owe the 
first excavations of the Palatine. They took place in 1536, when 
the avenue now called di S. Gregorio was cut open between the 
Septizonium and Constantine's Arch for the triumphal progress of 
Charles V. In the legal deeds for the acquisition of property on 
the hill, the Farnese, and above all the glorious Cardinal Alessan- 
dro, always betray their inclination for archaeological discoveries. 
One of them, dated January 17, 1542, contains these words : 
"Marco Antonio Palosio sells to tlie cardinal, etc., his vinej^ard 
on the Palatine, adjoining that of Yirginio da Mantaco, with its 
crypts, ruins, edifices, marbles, and statues, whether visible above 
ground or covered yet by the accumulation of soil." The result 
of the Farnese excavations is not known ; but considering that 
the front walls of the gardens (destroyed in 1881) cut the house 
of the Vestals right in two, that the Uccelliera (now the Uffizio 


degli Scavi) was founded on Caligula's palace, and the Casino 
(described on p. 164) on that of Domitian, something of value must 
certainly have come to light. Tlie only monument mentioned by 
contemporary archfeologists is the pedestal (Corpus Inscr., vi. 456) 
which marks approximately the site of the ^des Penatium in 
Velia. It was discovered near the Arch of Titus. 

Three halls open on the front of Domitian's palace : tlie throne- 
room, aula regia, in the centre ; the chapel, or lararium, on the left ; 
and a basilica, or court-room, on the right. The throne-room, built 
of bricks from the kilns of Flavia Domitilla, is 160 feet long and 120 
wide, and was decorated with sixteen columns of pavonazzetto (aa), 
having bases and capitals exquisitely cut in ivory-coloi-ed marble. 
There were three niches on either side for colossal statues or groups, 
and each of them was flanked by smaller columns of porphyry. 
The two statues of black basalt, discovered in the adjoining 
basilica in 1724, had been probably removed from these niches. 
On either side of the great door (b), opening on the front portico, 
stood two columns of giallo antico, which the Duke of Parma sold 
to the stone-cutters Perini and IMaciucchi for 3000 scudi. The 
threshold was made of a block of Greek marble so large that the 
high altar of the church of S. M. ilotonda has been cut out of it. 
The throne (c), or augustale solium, was placed ojDposite the door, 
in the apse where Bianchini in 1726 set up his mendacious praise 
of Francis I., Duke of Parma and Piacenza, the last destroyer of 
the Palatine. Bianchini has given the name of lararimn, or do- 
mestic chapel, to the room on the left, on account of the altar 
which he found built against the back wall. The altar, which was 
approached by two flights of stairs, has since been demolished. 
Here took place the remarkable find described in " Ancient Rome," 
p. 127. Heliogabalus, according to Herodianus, had attempted to 
collect into the chaj^el attached to the palace of the Caesars the 
most famous relics of the Roman world — the Palladium, the fire 
of Vesta, the ancilia, and, of course, the Acus Matris Deum or 
meteoric stone from Pessinus, described in § xiii. The stone, it may 
be remembered, was very large, of conical shape, and brown in 
color. Monsignor Bianchini, who excavated the lararium in 1725, 
seems to have positively discovered the relic. " I am sorry," he 
says, " that no fragment of statue or bas-relief or inscription has 
been found in the chapel ; . . . the only object discovered was a 
stone nearly three feet high, conical in shape, of a deep brow'n 
color, looking very much like lava, and ending in a sharp point. 
I do not know what became of it." 


If my siu-mise i.s well founded, and the identity between the 
Acus Matris Deum and Bianchini's stone probable, if not certain, 
we can better understand the passage of the " A^ita Heliog.," iii. 
The templum HeJiogahali iuxta (edes imperatorias, which he men- 
tions, must have been close to the lararium, unless the lararium 
itself was transformed into a temple. 

Behind the chapel is the only staircase (d) yet discovered in 
these apartments. It led to the iipper galleries, from which the 
great ceremonies of state coidd be witnessed by invited guests. 
Another flight of steps, now buried again, leads to the wine-cellars, 
whei-e Bianchini discovered, in 1721, rows of amphorfe marked 
with the label liquamen excellens L. Purelli Gemelli (Bianchini, p. 
260). The walls of the staircase and those of the room (e) were 
covered with exquisite fresco paintings, of which not a square 
inch has been spared desti-uction. Fortunately they were copied 
in time b}- Gaetano Piccini and Francesco Bartoli. Piccini's 
album is to be found now in the Museum of the Hofburg, Vienna; 
Bartoli's plates in the Topham collection at Eton. These last 
number 58, of which 10 are of great size. They represent cam- 
pestrian scenes, sacritices, and Bacchic dances, crowded with grace- 
fid figures.! 

Some of the subjects have also been engraved on copper. They 
are to be found in Cameron's " Baths of the Romans from tlie 
Restorations of Palladio " (London, 1772) ; in INIorghen's appen- 
dix to the " Pictura? antiquas Cryptarum Romanarum " of Bartoli ; 
and in tlie '• Collection of Ancient Paintings after the Originals at 
Rome, witli Critical, Historical, and Mythological Observations 
upon them," by George Turnbull, LL. D. (London, 1741, folio, 
54 plates). When we think that these exquisite specimens of 
the golden art of Domitian's age were found intact in the first 
quarter of last century, under the eyes of such men as Cardinal 
Alessandro Albani, Pier Leone Ghezzi, Francesco Bianchini, and 
Fi-ancesco Bartoli, and that the very walls w^hich they covered 
wei-e demolished for the sake of the bricks, we may indeed ask by 
what right we continue blaming the iSIiddle Ages or the barbarians 
for deeds Avhich are not as disgraceful as those here recorded. 

The hall on the opposite side of the throne-room is thought to 
have been a hasilica, or court-room, where the prince delivered 
judgment in cases pertaining or submitted to the crown. There 

1 See Disegni di antichita nella BiMiott-ca di S. Maria di Eton (in Bull, 
arch, com., 1894, p. 164). — Pirturw antiqiM Cryptanim Romanarum {ibidem, 
189.5, p. 182).— II palmzo Mar/r/iore (in Mittheilung-en. 1894, p. 26). 


are still traces of the suggestum or platform on which sat the Im- 
perial judge and his assessors, and of the staircases which led to it. 
The fragment of a marble screen, dividing the apse from the space 
reserved for the audience, and the columns by which the hall would 
be divided into aisles and nave, are " restorations " of Commenda- 
tore Rosa, resting on no sufficient evidence. The basilica was 
excavated for the first time (?) in 1724. There is an account of 
the results in MSS. p. 248 of the queen's library at Windsor, 
from which we gather that the two colossal statues of Bacchus 
and Hercules in black basalt, now in the Museo at Parma, were 
found lying on the floor on April 20 of the same year. 

Behind the three front halls opens the inner court or peristyle, 
the area of which amounts to 3600 square metres. The columns 
were of porta santa, with columns, capitals, and entablature cut in 
white marble like lace-work. Suetonius says that this was a favor- 
ite haunt of Domitian, who could walk under the colonnades away 
from the crowd and secure from danger. The biographer adds 
that the side walls had been inci'usted with slabs of phengite 
marble, reflecting the images like a mirror, so as to allow the 
prince to see whatever might take place behind his shoulders. 
The two sides of the peristyle are occupied by a set of nine rooms 
of various shapes, the use of which it is not easy to imagine. 
Considering, however, that the middle room, octagonal in shape, 
forms a vestibule through which personages driving to the palace 
by the Forum Palatinum were admitted into it, it is obvious that 
they were used for cloak and waiting rooms, porter's lodge, etc. 

Before proceeding any farther in our description, it is necessary 
to remember that below the halls we have visited, and even below 
the peristyle, there are other splendid apartments, galleries, crypto- 
porticuses, and bathrooms, the existence of which has remained 
unknown to the modern excavators of the Palatine. I only dis- 
covered it myself in 1892, while examining Bianchini's manu- 
scripts in the Biblioteca Capitolare at Verona, and the Topham 
collection of drawings at Eton. The subject is so curious and new 
that a few words of explanation will not be out of place. 

In 1722, the Marchese Ignazio de' Santi, Minister of Parma to 
the Pope, asked leave for his master, the Duke Francis, to excavate 
the Palatine Gardens which he had inherited from the Farnese. 
Cardinal Patrizi, in giving consent on behalf of Innocent XTII., 
imposed two conditions : that if the value of gold and silver coins, 
engraved stones, and medals should eventually exceed the sum of 
10.000 scudi, the Pope's treasury should share the profits ; secondly. 


that life-size statues and architectural marbles should not be re- 
moved from Rome. Duke Francesco rebelled against these fair 
conditions, and his agent in Rome gave so much trouble that, on 
April 4, 1720, Cardinal Albani gave him carte blanche to do what 
he pleased on the Palatine. He did not hesitate about it. The 
acts of vandalism committed by this Ignazio de' Santi and his 
successor Count Suzzani, with the tacit consent of Monsignore 
Francesco Bianchini, w^ho had been appointed superintendent of 
the excavations, have no parallel in the history of the destruction 
of Rome. The words ladronecci infami, used by Guattani in re- 
ferring to them, are comparatively mild. The prelate was the only 
one to sufifer. While watching the works one day, the ground 
gave way under his feet, and although the di'op w^as hardly four- 
teen feet, the shock was ultimately the cause of his death. His 
posthumous volume, " II palazzo dei Cesari," is almost worthless, 
both in the text and in the plates, which an eye-witness of the 
excavations, Pier Leone Ghezzi, denounces as ••' impostures." The 
discovery of an underground floor is not mentioned nor illustrated 
by Bianchini, and I had to make a pilgrimage to Yerona, Eton, 
and Paris to collect information about it.^ Without entering into 
particulars already published in the " Mittheilungen " of 1894, I 
will merely mention the discovery of a bathroom 21.30 metres long 
and 11.50 metres deep, the richest and most beautiful apartment, 
as far as we know, in the whole palace of the Caesars. The walls 
were incrusted with " Florentine " mosaic work in pieti-a dura, 
alternating here and there with marble bas-reliefs set in a richly 
carved frame, and with niches for statues. A colonnade of por- 
phyry shafts, each two feet in diameter, ran along three sides of 
the hall ; while on the f oui'th side five lions' heads of gilt bronze 
threw jets of water into a marble basin. Each fountain was flanked 
by ten columns of porph^Ty, sei'pentine, giallo, verde, and pavo- 
nazzetto, with capitals and bases of gilt bronze. The roof (frag- 
ments of which lay scattered on the pavement inlaid with crusts 
of the rarest breccias) seems to have been divided into panels, 
some of which contained mythological groups in fresco painting, 
others figurines of white stucco on a heavily gilt ground. 

All these treasm-es were destroyed in May, 1721. An English 
artist, E. Kirkall, who has left two rare coloi'ed prints of this hall, 
says in the footnote, '' The plan of Augustus's (Domitian's) bath, 

1 The memory of the find was lost altogether by the houses of Parma and 
Naples and by their diplomatic agents in Rome, so much so that in 18-35 
another search was made in the same spot, naturally without results. 


found underground on the east side of the Pahitine hill in Rome 
in the year 1721, and barbarously defaced and broken in pieces 
during the conclave of that year, and the broken pieces sent to 

It is to be regretted that this underground portion of Domitian's 
palace, without which we shall never be able to understand the 
working and mechanism of Roman Imperial state life, should be 
still buried under a mass of rubbish. The only rooms now visible 
(under the west wing of the peristyle — very damp and chilly) 
have nothing to do with it : tliey belong to a private mansion of 
the late Republic, which Domitian left undisturbed because it lay 
below the level of his artificial platform. The discoverers of 1720 
misnamed it the Baths of Livia (see Fig. 60). The first room at 
the foot of the (modern) stairs was decorated with arabesques and 
festoons on a ground of gold ; the second with groups of figurines 
on a blue ground ; the ornaments of the ceilings were also worthy 
of the golden age of Augustus. Owing to the neglect in which 
this gem of Roman domestic architecture has been kept since 1726, 
the decorations have nearly disappeared. 

The triclinium, or great state lianqueting-hall, opens on the 
south side of the peristyle. Nardini has identified it with the 
lovis Cenado, in which the murder of Pertinax took place, as de- 
scribed in the " Vita," ch. xi. The biographer says that the three 
hundred rebels from the Prjetorian camp entered the palace by the 
vestibule opening on the Forum Palatinum, and rushed through 
the locus qui appellatur Sicilia to the lovis Cenatio, where they 
met with their Imperial victim. If the lovis Cenatio is the name 
of the dining-room, that of Sicilia must belong to the peristyle. 
Nothing remains to tell us how this hall was decorated save two 
fragments of granite columns, of which there must have been 
sixteen. The pavement of the apse, where the table of honor was 
set, is well preserved, but the administration is compelled to keep 
it covered, to save it from frost, rain, and the hands of tourists. 
It is made of crusts of porphyry, serpentine, giallo, and pavo- 
nazzetto in imitation of geometrical patterns. The small tri- 
angidar cabinet, on the left of the apse, was probably a latrina. 
The dining-room was necessarily connected with kitchens and 
pantry, haunted by hundreds of coci; but here again we are left 
in the dark because the excavations have stojjped at the wrong 
level. The tombstones of members of the Imperial household, 
collected in vol. vi. part ii. pp. 11.50-1204 of the " Corpus Inscrip- 
tionum," mention among other officers several members of the 


collegium cocorum Ccesaris (No. 8750) ; a grand chef, prcepositus 
cocorum (No. 875'2) ; cooks that the Emperors had purchased or 
obtained from the Cornufician and Sestian families (Nos. 8753, 
8754) ; a butler a cena centurionum (No. 8748), viz., for the service 
of the officers of the bodyguard on duty at the palace ; a super- 
intendent of the wine-cellars (No. 8745) ; a Gemellus prcejmsilus 
argenti potorii, keeper of silver drink ing-cups (No. 8729) ; an 
Ulpius Ilierax, keeper of gold plate and cups (No. 8733) ; a i7-iclini- 
archa or chief butler (No. 1884) ; a keeper of lamps (No. 8868) ; 
keepers of table-linen, bakers, pastry-cooks, and jn-cegustatores. 
Princes and jjrincesses of the Imperial family had their own 
special cooks like the Zethus, No. 8755, who calls himself cocus 
Marcellce minoris. 

In the portion of the Imperial palace or palaces visible to us 
there is no room for the lodging and keeping of such a powerful 
army of servants as we know to have been attached to the court. 
The columbaria of servants and freedmen of Augustus and Livia 
on the Appian Way — described in " Ancient Rome," p. 130 — con- 
tained about six thousand cinerary urns. The number must have 
been doubled under the extravagant nde of Nero and Caligula ; 
and yet not half of the Palatine was built over in those days. 
There are many mysteries to be solved before we gain a satisfac- 
tory knowledge of the material organization and working of the 
Imperial Court. 

There is one more hall of the olKia Aofienavov to be visited on 
the right of the triclinium. It was used as a ni/mphceum, where 
the water, playing in various ways, the light, filtering through 
bushes of exotic plants, the perfume of rare flowers, and the 
balmy air adnutted through Cizycene windows, made the post- 
prandial siesta most agreeal)le. The fountain is elliptical in 
shape, with inches and recesses for flower-jjots and statuettes. 
The pavement is inlaid with the most rare bits of oriental ala- 
baster. Upon it were lying at the time of the discovery (1862) 
two pieces of fluted columns of giallo brecciato, and a statue of 
Eros with large wings, restored by Karl Steinhauser, and removed 
to the Louvre. Froehner (Musee National du Louvre, Sculjsture 
antique, p. 311, No. 325) describes it as "un torse grec d'une 
exquise delicatesse de ciseau. De la main droite levee, Eros ado- 
lescent versait du vin dans une coupe." The statue has been illus- 
trated by Froehner himself in the " Illustration," 1867, p. 1-52, and 
by Henzen in the " BulL Inst.," 1862, p. 227. 

It is hardly necessary to remind the reader that the palace of 


Domitiiiu is syuimetrical in all its parts, and tliat a room of the 
same style and size as this Nymj)hieum is lying buried under the 
Convent of the Visitation (Villa Mills). 

On the edge of these ruins Cardinal Alessandro Farnese raised 
a casino, the north portico of which was painted in arabesques by 
a pupil of Taddeo Zuccari. The panels represent vEneas visiting 
J^vander, Cacus stealing the oxen of Hercules, Evander sacrificing 
to Hercules, the grotto of the Lupercal, the foundation of Rome, 
subjects drawn from the Virgilian reminiscences of the Palatine. 

The works of art discovered in the Palace of Domitian are 
scattered to the four winds. The basalt statues of Hercules and 
Apollo, found in 1724, are in the Museo di Antichita at Parma, 
together with other architectural and ornamental marbles ; more 
pieces were removed to the Palazzo Farnese at the end of last cen- 
tury. Napoleon III. presented to the Louvre the most rare and 
beautiful results of his excavations (November 4, 1861, to April, 
1870) ; even the small but highly interesting local museum founded 
by Commendatore Rosa (catalogued in the Guida del Palatino, p. 
52) has been dispersed, and its contents have lost their individu- 
ality in the great collections of the Museo Nazionale alle Terme. 

As to the fate of the fresco paintings discovered behind the 
lararium in 1721-25, I quote this passage from Winckelmann's 
" Storia delle Arti," ed. Fea, vol. iii. p. 105, § 26 : "A hall forty 
feet long, with the walls entirely covered with frescoes, was un- 
earthed on the Palatine in 1724. The panels were separated by 
columns (in the so-called grotesque style) very thin and long. 
The panels detached from the walls went first to Parma, then to 
Naples, together with other rare objects inherited from the Farnese. 
But as they were kept in their boxes for twenty-four years, the 
mildew and damp effaced every trace of them, except in the case 
of a small Caryatid, which is now exhibited at Capo di ^Nlonte." 

All writers on the Palatine describe some exquisitely carved 
marbles, spoils of the excavations of 1725, which had been laid 
aside by the Uccelliera ; and Luigi Rossini has illustrated them 
in one of the best jjlates of his work " I Sette Colli." Twenty-four 
pieces were shipped to Naples in 1787, by order of Carlo Paniceri, 
agent of the king; the others were removed to the Palazzo Far- 
nese about 1830. In May, 1834, Count Ludolf, the Neapolitan 
envoy, asked leave of Gregory XVI. for the removal to the Museo 
Borbonico of this last remnant from the Palatine. The govern- 
ment had not courage to refuse, and tried to throw the responsi- 
bility on a committee of experts. The commissioners in this case 


gave the goveniiueiit a good lesson. Their report, signed by Carlo 
Fea, the veteran defender of our archaeological patrimony, contains 
these words: "Carlo Fea begs to be excused for not giving his 
consent to the removal, because these marbles are essential parts 
of the Imperial palace, and must be left where they belong for 
the use of archaeologists, historians, and artists, who could never 
understand the architecture and the ornamentation of those noble 
ruins without them. We must not renew the example of Absyrtus 
and Orpheus, whose limbs were torn to pieces and scattered far 
and wide." 

A last observation about the Palace of Domitian and the Far- 
nese gardens in general. The rubbish or newly made ground 
which covers the ruins is not entirely local, but has been brought 
there from various parts, fi'om the foundations of the Chiesa del 
Gesii, built by the same cardinal (1.375) and by the same archi- 
tect (Vignola), from those of the Palazzo Farnese, etc. Under 
the rule of the Frencli invaders, 1809-14, the earth from the ex- 
cavations of the Temple of Venus and Kome was deposited in the 
strip of land between the Xova Via and the Palace of Caligula. 

REFERE^•CES. — Francesco Bianthini, // palazzo dei Cesari, Veroua, 1738, 
chap. V. p. 48. — Wilhelm Henzen, Ann. Inst., 1862, p. 225; 1865, p. 346.— 
Friedlaencler, Jfaurs Romaints, vol. i. p. 156. — Wilhelm Froehner, V IlluMm- 
tion, 1867, p. 152. 

XX. The Gardens of Adonis (Ilorti Adonfea — Vigna Bar- 
berini). — Domitian added to the comfort and luxury of the 
state apartments gardens laid out in Oriental style, and called 
" Horti Adon.Ta." ^ He had borrowed the idea from the Assyrians, 
who dedicated such places to Adonis, as the representative of the 
Sun and the promoter of vegetable life. Amongst their specialties 
were the ktjttoi 'ASwciSos, large pots of clay, sometimes of brass and 
silver, in which fennel, lettuce, and other special plants were sown 
on the approach of the anniversary feast of the god. The Palatine 
gardens are represented in a fragment of the marble plan, Jordan's 
" Forma," pi. 10, n. 44, reproduced on the next page (Fig. 61). 

Where were the horti located? The answer is not so easily 
given : perhajis they were laid out in the corner of the hill above 
the Coliseum, which had already been incorporated in the Impe- 

1 Philostratus, in the Life of ApoIIuniii.^ of Tyana, vii. 32, mentions not gar- 
dens but avKrtv 'ASaJct^os, which means either a hall or a villa: m the first case 
the indication of Philostratus might be referred to the hall designed in Fig. 61 
in the middle of the gardens; in the second case it refers to the gardens them- 


rial domain by Nero, and which is tlie only one that the plan fits. 
This rectangnlar space, supported by great substruction walls, is 
the property of the Barberini, and is called either the Vigna di 
S. Sebastiano or Vigna dell' Abbadia. 

A visit to this lovely spot is necessary to complete our study 

Fig. 61. —The Horti Adonaea, a Fragment of the Marble Plan of Rome. 

of the Palatine. No special permission is required, and the gate 
— Via di S. Bonaventura, No. 3 — is usually kept open ; but the 
gardener has acquired the habit of asking exorbitant fees. It is 
better to address one's self to the keeper of the Cappella di S. Se- 
bastiano. on the left of the entrance. 

The topographers of the Renaissance have given this Vigna 



Barberini the iiauip of Foro A^ecchio, derived obviously from the 
Curi» Veteres, which were located at this very corner of the hill. 
Lucio Fauno (Antichita, p. 106) says "in molti istromenti antichi 

(S. Bonaventura) 

(Villa Mattel -Mills) 

(Modern Street) 



(Vigna Barberini) 





rniTTT ' 


Fig. 62. — Plan of the Horti Adona?a (?), according to Ligorio. 

di notai si truova questo luogo cognominato alia Curia Vecchia." ^ 

Ligorio (Bodleian, f. 55) gives the plan of the ruins here presented 

(Fig. 6'2), stating at the same time that their condition was such 

1 In deeds and records of notaries of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 


that he could not vouch for the exactness of his survey. Flavio 
Biondo (Rom. Inst., i. 76), who visited the place at the time of 
Eugenius IV. (1431-39), speaks of it as one of the best preserved 
and most imposing parts of the Palatine : " Remarkable ruins 
they are, with marble doors in the circuit of the walls, finer and 
more perfect than any others to be found in Rome." In chap. ix. 
part i. of " Fabiola," Cardinal Wiseman gives a charming descrip- 
tion of this spot, where he supposes that his hero Sebastian was 
quartered ; and in chap. xxv. part iii. desci'ibes his martyrdom in 
the " court of the palace near his own dwelling, planted with rows 
of trees and consecrated to Adonis," and " that ancient chapel 
which stands in the midst of the ruined Palatine, to mark the spot 
on which he fell." The Acts of Sebastian are not altogether trust- 
worthy, having been written in the fifth century, but their topo- 
graphical indications are genuine. They place the scene of the 
martyrdom in hippodromo palatii;^ and we know from other 
sources that this was precisely the name given to the present 
Vigna Barberini from the fall of the Empire to the tenth century, 
when it was transferred to the so-called Stadium. 

In the appendix to the " Piante di Roma," the late Comm. de 
Rossi has published a curious description of the Palatine, written 
at the foot of a map, in twelve numbers, corresponding to those 
marked in the map itself. It is a document of the Byzantine 
period. After describing the atrium, the throne-room, the basilica, 
the banqueting-hall, etc., of the Palace of Domitian, it passes to 
the house of Augustus (VII), to the great baths of the Palace of 
Severus (VIII), to the stadium or gymnasium (IX), to an un- 
known coquina (X), to the great reservoir of the Aqua Claudia at 
S. Bonaventura (XI) ; and beyond it, viz. at the corner of the hill 
above the Meta Sudans, it places the hippodromum. 

References. — Pirro Ligorio, Cod. Bodl., f. .55. Cod. Turin., xiv. — 
Francesco Bianchini, Palazzo dei Cesari, p. 139, sq. — Heinrich Jordan, Forma 
Urbis Romce, tab. x. n. 44, p. 59. — Gaston Boissier, Promenades archiol., p. 
132, n. 1. Melanges de V Ecole frangaise, avril 1893, pp. 101-104. 

XXI. The pi'esence of a memorial to Sebastian, the gallant 
officer who gave his life for his faith, in the very gardens (the 
hippodrome of later days) in -which church traditions place the 
scene of his execution, proves how well founded is the tradition. 
The chapel, the earliest mention of which dates from the eleventh 
century, was restored in 1636 by Prince Taddeo Barberini. We 

1 Bolland, Acta SS., u., Jan., p. 278. — Mabillon, Mtis. ital., ii. pp.161, 
574. — Jordan, Topographie, ii. 384. 



could not make our study of the Palatine complete without noti- 
cing the three ecclesiastical buildings which made this cornel* of 
the hill famous in the Middle Ages. 

A. EccLESiA S. C.ESARii IX Palatio (the Imperial Christian 
oratory and Christian representative of the classic Lararium). — 
It is first mentioned in the time of Phocas (603), but it may be 
older. The titular saint is believed to be Caesarius, an African 
deacon, who suffered martyrdom at Terracina; but it is evident 
that, whoever he may be, his name was selected to suit the place 
to which the chapel belonged. Such coincidences, which almost 
amount to jeu tie mots, are by no means fortuitous. The remains 
of the villa near Velitrae, where Augustus passed his youth, 
are actually called S. Cesario.^ The images of the Byzantine 

Fig. 63. —The Church of S. Caesarius in Paliitio. 

Emperors were exhibited in this chapel, as a mark of the power 
they still claimed over the ancient capital of the Empire ; and 
their keeping was intrusted to Greek monks ordinis saccitarum, 
a name perhaps derived from the ample fi'ocks they wore. Saint 
Saba junior, sent on a diplomatic mission from Amalfi to Otho 

1 The following distich was engraved on the door of the church of S. 
Martina, huilt on the site of the Martisforuin (Marforio): Martyrii gtstans 
cirgo Martina coronam, Eiectv hiiic Martis numine templet tenes. 


III. in 989-991, died while a guest of these monks, and his funeral 
was attended by Otho's Empress Theophania. " The monks," says 
Anselmus of Avelbury, " use the fermented bread for the Holy 
Communion, instead of the azym, without the pope or the Roman 
Catholics taking offense at it." The last mention of 8. Cesario 
occurs in the fourteenth century, when there was but one offici- 
ating priest left. 

The site of this historical sanctuary, seen and described only 
iive centuries ago, is not known to us ; but 1 am inclined to place 
it among the remains of the so-called baths of Heliogabalus on 
the Sacra Via, represented in the cut above. 

Whatever may have been the object of this edifice in classic 
times (third century after Christ), there is no doubt that it 
was transformed into a church at the end of the fifth century. 
At the time of its discovery in 1872 many particulars could be 
traced which have now disappeared : patches of Byzantine mosaic 
in the floor, traces of inscriptions and paintings, not to speak of 
the secretarium and of the baptistery. The apse and the presby- 
terium are still discernible, as well as many rooms and cells suited 
for the abode of monks. No name has yet been given to this 
church : that of S. Csesarius in Palatio seems the most appropriate, 
especially if we consider how close it is to the Tui-ris Chartularia, 
the great mediaeval stronghold of the popes. 


monastery, variously called, of S. Maria in Pallara; of SS. Sebas- 
tiano and Zotico ; of S. Sebastiano alia Polveriera ; of S. Andrea 
in Palladio, etc.). — The first mention occurs in documents of the 
year 1001,^ but it may belong to the Constantinian era, that is to 
say, to the group of memorials raised under that Enq^eror to the 
heroes and heroines of the last persecution of Diocletian. 

The monastery was fortified, or, to speak more exactly, was 
included in the Palatine fortifications of the Frangipani. In 
describing the election of Pope Gelasius II. (1118), the "Liber 
pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, vol. ii. p. 313) calls it locum iutissimum 
infra domos Leonis el Cencii Frniapane.^ Later on it became 
the official residence in Rome of the abbots of Monte Cassino. 
Under Urban V. (1362-70) we find it intrusted to the care of a 
single clergyman, Angelo Riccardelli. The ruins of the church, 
on the walls of which the history of the martyrdom of S. Zoticus 

1 Pertz, Monumenta Germanice historica, vol. iv. p. 7G8. 

2 Ceiicio Frangipane is the same to whom the monks of S. Gregory leased 
the Septizonium and the tower of the Circus Maximus in 1145. 


was painted, are described by Baronio. At tlie time of Urban 
VIII. the building was entirely profaned and turned into a farm- 
house. Michele Lonigo saw on the spandrils of the front of the 
tribune two remarkable figures : one representing a certain Petrus 
illustris medicus, a mediaeval restorer of the church, offering a 
model of it to S. Sebastian ; the other his wife Giovanna offering 
other gifts to S. Zoticus. 

Pope Barberini and his nephew Taddeo restored the chapel 
in 1636, destroying at the same time all traces of the frescoes, 
except those of the apse. They had been copied, however, in 
1630 by Antonio Ecclissi; but he failed to catch the spirit and 
the meaning of the subjects, as we can ourselves judge from the 
facsimiles which are now exhibited in the chapel. 

The frescoes of the apse represent the Saviour between SS. Law- 
rence, Stephen, Sebastian, and Zoticus, the last two wearing the 
costume of the court officers of the fifth century. There is a 
lower belt of figures painted in the eleventh century at the expense 
of the monk Benedictus. 

The two columns of breccia corallina on the altar were probably 
removed from the upper cloisters of the house of the Vestals. The 
halaustri in front of it are cut in the rarest kind of lumachella. 

The monastery had its own cemetery, where burial was carried 
on in the Roman fashion, the corpses being protected by a double 
row of tiles placed in a slanting position. The cemetery was dis- 
covered on May 24, 1879. 

C. The Turris Chartularia (the centre of the fortifications 
of the Frangipani, in which the archives of the church were kept 
for a long time). — The foundations, built of chips of marble, si- 
lex, and travertine, rest on an ancient bed of concrete, and are 
flanked by huge blocks of peperino, belonging to the temple of 
Jupiter Stator. (See Book Til. § viii.) The date of its construc- 
tion is not known. In 1167 Pope Alexander III., persecuted liy 
the partisans of Barbarossa, found shelter in it. The name of 
Chartularia is derived, according to Marini, from a manufacture 
of papyrus-paper ; according to Cancellieri from the archives 
which it contained. The cut (Fig. 64) shows the state of the 
tower in the sixteenth century, to which it had been reduced by 
Brancaleone in 1257. Valadier destroyed the rest in 1829. A 
detailed account of it is given by Nibby, " Roma Antica," vol. ii. 
p. 471. 

References. — Louis Duchesne, Bulletin critique, 1885, p. 417. — Gio. Bat- 
tista de Rossi, Bullet, crist., 1867, p. 15 ; and Notizie Scavi, December, 1883. — 


Enrico Stevenson, // cimitero di Zutico, Modena, 1871, p. 71 ; and Bull. arch, 
com., 1888, p. 295. — Mariano Avmellini, Chiese di Roma, '2d ed., pp. 517, 524. 
— Heinricli Jordan, Topogi-aphie, vol. ii. p. 609. — Pasquale Adinolfi, Roma 
neW eta di mezzo, vol. i. pp. 392-397. 


Fig. 64. — The Torre Cartularla in tlie Sixteeiitli Century. 

XXIT. The so-called Stadium (Xystus). — The name of 
Stadium has been given to the circus-like ediiice, 160 metres long 
and 47 wide, which sejmrates the house of Augustus from the Baths 
of Septimius Severus. The giving of this name seemed justified 
first by the oblong shape of the place, with a sliglitly cui-ved end ; 
secondly, by the measure of 160 metres, which comes very near 
that of a stadium (177.40) ; thirdly, by the two fountains which 
occupy the place of the goals. Professor Marx, on the other side, 
thinks the name to be wrong, and that the place was a garden, a 
xystus with a gestatio, etc., attached to the house of Augustus. 
The question is too technical and minute to be treated in these 
pages. One theory does not absolutely exclude the other. For 
the sake of clearness 1 shall follow the old denomination, without 
taking any responsibility for it. 


The foundation of the Stadium is attributed to Doniitian while 
rebuilding the Donius Augustana. The style of the brickwork is 
the same in both, and so are some of the brick stamps from the 
kilns of T. Flavins Clonius and T. Flavius Hermes, freedmen of 
the Emperor. By a close examination of the structure in its 
present state we can reconstruct its history from the time of Do- 
mitian (if not of Augustus) to that of Theodoric. Originally it 
was nothing but a level space of ground, perhaps laid out in grass 
and flower-beds, inclosed by a wall slightly curved at the western 
end. There was no portico, no seats, no steps, nothing character- 
istic of a place of public meeting. Hadrian probably built the 
two-storied portico, as shown by the style of masonry and by the 
brick-stamps of the years 123-134:, found in great numbers in the 
excavations of 1871 and 1893. Septimius Severus improved the 
aspect of the Stadium by the addition of an Imperial tribune or 
hejtedra. The lower arcades of the portico rest on half columns 
coated with slabs of portasanta, the bases of which are hollow, 
and fit into the masonry like half-rings. One of tlie capitals dis- 
covered in 1868 by Yisconti is cut out of a block quarried a. d. 
195 under the consulship of Scapula Tertullus and Tineius Cle- 
mens. The portico, thei-efore, was included by Septimius Severus 
in his general reconstruction and embellishment of the place. A 
prefect of the city of the fourth century made other restorations, 
if we may believe the words of a fragmentary inscription discov- 
ered in 1878. Last of all. King Theodoric tried to stop the ruin 
and the fall of this part of the Imperial buildings. His name has 
been read many times on bricks discovered by Visconti in 1868 
and by myself in 1877. Theodoric seems to have propped with 
buttresses the walls which threatened to collapse, and to have 
also transformed the plan and the destination of the building. 
The arena, once used for athletic s^jorts or for flower-beds, was then 
occupied by a large oval basin, which we would call a swimming- 
bath were it not for the absence of a water-tight floor ; probably 
it was meant for a small amphitheatre. It is highly interesting 
to the student of the decline and fall of Imperial Rome to ex- 
amine the work of Theodoric in its details. First of all, when 
the basin was built, the floor of the Xystus was already covered 
with a bed of rvibbish from two to three feet thick, as we can 
certify by comparing the level of the original marble pavement 
with that of the foundations of the oval. These foundations are 
built of chips and blocks of porphyry, serpentine, giallo antico, 
and, above all, of pieces of cipoUino columns, belonging to the 


second floor of the portico. The Stadium therefore must have 
been half ruined iu Tlieodoric's age, probably in consequence of 
the earthquake mentioned in the. contemporary inscriptions of 
the Coliseum.! Another circumstance deserving notice is that 
on either side of the entrance to the ring there are two marble 
pedestals removed from the house of the Vestals, and inscribed 
with the name of Coelia Claudiana, virgo vestalis maxima. In 
adapting them to their new object, Theodoric's masons did not 
even take time and care to erase the name of the illustrious 

Nothing is known of the fate of the building in the Middle 
Ages. The document of the eightli century produced by De Rossi 
(Piante di Roma, p. 127), of which mention has been made 
above, describes it as a gpnnasium, viz. locus diver-sis exercitationum 
yeneribus deputatus. In the tenth or eleventh century it was occu- 
pied by a colony of stone-cutters and lime-burners, whose sheds 
and workshops were seen and described in the excavations of 1877. 
The floor around the sheds was covered with chips and fragments 
of statues and architectural marbles. When we recollect that 
there were on each tier of the portico eighty-six columns, and 
over a thousand feet of richly carved marble cornice, and marble 
roofs, and marble parapets, floors, and incrustations, and number- 
less statues and bas-reliefs, of which hardly a trace is left, the 
magnitiide of the work of destruction needs no comment. There 
is an altar left standing in the middle of the arena, which they 
had begun to hammer and split, when, for a reason unknown to 
us, the work of destruction was suddenly given up. To one 
object only they seem to have paid respect, namely, the beautiful 
statue of Juno, discovered March 3, 1878, and now exhibited in 
the Museo delle Terme." We found it lying on two supports 
(cuscini) of stone, on which it had been placed so carefully that 
not even the most delicate folds of the peplum had suffered 
damage from the operation. The photograph of this masterpiece 
is given in the " Notizie " for 1879, pi. 1, n. 2. A regular search 
for plunder was opened in 15.52 by Alessandro Ronconi. Julius III. 
being engaged at that time in building his famous Villa Giulia, 
outside the Porta del Pojiolo, a campaign was opened against the 
antique monuments of the city by all those wishing to please the 
pope, or to make money by dealing with him in marbles for the 
palace, or in statues and inscriptions for the ornamental grounds 
by which it was surrounded. The tombs of the Via Flaminia at 
1 Corpus Inscr., vi. 1716, a, b. 



Torre di Quinto, the remains of the gardens of Domitia in tlie 
Vigna of Bindo Altoviti (Prati di Castello), the Baths of the 
Aqus Albula^ near Tivoli, the Baths of Agrippa behind the Pan- 
tlieon, the Villa of the Acilii on the Pincian, the ruins of Porto and 

Fig. G5. — Headless Statue of a Muse discovered in the so-called Stadium. 

Ostia, the Temple of the Sun in the Villa Colonna, and the 
stadium of the Palatine were put to ransom. Between ]\Iay and 
July, 1552, Alessandi-o Ronconi sold to the pope columns of cipol- 


lino, pedestals and bases, and even the gutter of white marble 
which carried off the drippings from the roof of the portico. 

Francesco Ronconi, son or nephew of Alessandro, was more suc- 
cessful in his excavations of 1570. Their results are thus de- 
scribed by Flaminio Vacca (Mem. 77) : " I remember the finding 
in the Vigna Ronconi of eighteen or twenty mutilated statues of 
Amazons (Danaids), somewhat larger than life-size. In the same 
place, and exactly under the wine-press, which Ronconi was re- 
pairing at the time, the Hercules of Lysippus was discovered." 
The fate of the Danaids is unknown, except that in the account 
books of Cardinal Ippolito d' Este the following entry has been 
discovered by Professor Venturi : " March 5, 1.570 : To expense for 
statues, seventy-five scudi to Francesco Ronconi and Leonardo 
Sormano for a life-size statue of an Amazon." 

Pius IX. in 1868, Commendatore Rosa in 1872, and the Italian 
government in 1877, 1878, and 1893, have liberated the Stadium 
once for all from its heavy pall of ruins. No other part of the 
Palatine impresses us more vividly. There is no break in the 
inclosure wall, nor in the colonnade of the lower portico, although 
many of the shafts are only a few feet high : the remains of the 
Imperial hexedra tower at tlie height of 120 feet. The east end 
of the portico is especially well preserved and so are the meta? 
in the shape of fountains, and some of the monuments which 
mark the middle line of the arena. 

The hexedra deserves a few words of description. There is a 
ground floor, level with the arena, with a middle hall of good size, 
and a smaller room on each side of it. The pavement, the marble 
incrustations, and the paintings of the hall have been destroyed, 
with the exception of the frescoes in the lunette of the vault. 
They would hardly be noticeable, owing to their bad style and 
imperfect preservation, were it not for a rare and perhaps unique 
representation of a terrestrial globe fixed to the circle of the hori- 
zon, which rests on three pegs. This globe shows how wide-spread 
in Roman schools was the theory, known and supported since the 
time of Aristotle, that the earth was a sphere. 

This hall formed part of the castle of the Frangipani, facing 
the monastery of SS. Andrea e Gregorio in Clivoscauri. In the ex- 
cavations of 1871 some thirty skeletons of men who seem to have 
perished in their youth were found at the foot of the wall on the 
right ; some of the skulls bore marks of blows and cuts from 
battle-axes or swords. We thought, while gazing at these remains, 
that, during one of the bloody contests which every now and then 



marked the election of a pontiff, these young warriors had lost 
their lives in the defense of the stronghold of the Septizoniuni, 
and had been buried in haste under the Imperial tribune. The 
vaulted ceiling of the hall must have been intact at that time, 
because the skeletons were found covered by great masses of 

The small room on the right was never finished and its floor 
never paved ; the other one, on the contrary, is nicely painted and 

Fig. 66. 

- Female head of Greek workmanship discovered in the so-called 

has a mosaic floor with festoons and birds in black and white. 
There are graflati on the plaster to the left of the entrance, among 
which is a roll of names followed by a cipher. The names may be 
of athletes or sportsmen, and the figures may refer to their con- 
tests or to the victories won. 


The Imperial box occupied the whole hemicycle on the upper 
floor. A colonnade of syenite granite decorated its front, another 
of pavonazzetto the curve of the apse. Shafts, capitals, bases, and 
fragments of the entablature cover the floor in front of it. It is 
probable that the Hercules of Lysippus discovered by Ronconi in 
1570, and bought by Cosimo III. for the Pitti Palace, belonged to 
one of the eleven niches of the hexedi-a. 

This statue is the only one pertaining to the Stadium which has 
been taken away from Rome. I have already spoken of the fate 
of the Danaids discovered by the same Ronconi. The Muse found 
by Visconti in 1868 and the Juno of 1878 are exhibited on the west 
side of the quadrangle in the Museo delle Terme. In the exca- 
vations of 1893 several remarkable works of art came to light, 
namely, a headless statue of another Muse (Mai'ch 29), which has 
been left on the sf)ot, at the east end of the north portico ; a bust 
of Antoninus Pius; a torso of a Faun; and a superb female head 
of pure Greek workmanship, of which I give a reproduction (Fig. 
(36). It is the work of a great master of the fifth century b. c, 
and may belong to one of the Muses by which the image of Apollo 
C'itharoedus was surrounded in the neighboring temple. These 
marbles are preserved in the Museo delle Terme. 

Rej'eren.ces. — Carlo Liidov. Visconti, Di un nuovo graffito palatlno (in 
Giorn. arcad., vol. Ixii.). — Visconti and \^s.\\c\a,m, Guida del Palatino, p. 87. — 
Pietro Rosa, Relazione sulle scoperte archeologiche, p. 78, Rome, 1873. — Fabio 
Gori, Archivio Stoi'ico, vol. ii. p. 374. — Henry Deglane, Gazette archeologique, 
1888, p. 216 ; and Melanges Ecole /rang, d'e Rome, ix. 1889, pp. 184-229. — 
Notizie degli Scavi, 1878, p. 66 ; 1879, tav. i. n. 2 ; 1893, pp. 31, 70, 117, 162 ; 
1894, p. 94. — Josepli Sturm, Das kaiserliche Stadium, Wiirzlnirg, 1888. — 
Monumenti antichi pubblicati per cura della r. Accademia dei Lincei, vol. v., 
189.5, p. 17. — Friedrich Marx, Das sogennante Stadium (in Jahrbuch des deut- 
schen Instituts, 1895, p. 129). — Rodolfo Lanciani, Mittheil:, 1894, p. 16.— 
Christian Huelsen, Ibid., 1895, p. 276. 

XXIII. The Palace of Septimius Severus (sedes Severi- 
anre). — Between the two summits of the Palatine, the Cermalus 
and the Palatium, there is a marked difference in shape. The first 
was, and is still for the most part, surrounded by cliffs which made 
it inaccessible ; the second slopes down more gently towards the 
Ciselian and the Piscina Publica ; and while the Imperial buildings 
stop with the edge of the precipice on one side, they descend to 
the bottom of the slope and to the level of the valley on the other. 
Immense substructures were raised here by Septimius Severus and 
Caracalla to reach the average level of the other palaces, as shown 
by the following engraving from a photograpli, taken from the 



Aventine. The letters AA' mark the level of the platform ; B marks 
the remains of the Palace of Severus, built on the platform ; C, 
the curved end of the Stadium ; D, the remains of the palace of 


No other section of the Palatine has sutt'ered as much as this one 
from the action of time and from the hand of man. By measure- 
ments on the spot, compared with descriptions and documents left 
by those who saw the ruins in a better state, I have ascertained that 
the ^des Severianse must have covered an area of '24,500 square 
metres, and must have reached the height of fifty metres above the 
pavement of the streets which inclosed them on two sides. This 
gives a volume of one million and a quarter cubic metres, a perfect 
mountain of masonry, of which only a few traces are left standing 
to tell the tale. The edge of the substructures, marked A' in the 
illustration, is celebrated for its fine view, which extends over 
hills and dales as far as the coast of Ostia and Laurentum. (See 
Ancient Rome, chap. v. p. 126.) In gazing at it from his lofty 
point of vantage the reader must remember that he is only level 
with the ground floor of the palace, which rose from twenty-five to 
thirty metres above his head. The ruins were granted in 975 
to the monks of S. Gregorio by Stephen of Hildebrand, then ruler 
of Rome. We gather from the act of donation that there were 
at that time thirty-eight arches still standing on the side of the 
Circus, which were pojiularly called the -' Porticus Materiani ; " 
others were visible in the adjoining property of John de Papa de 
Septem Viis. Above this line of crypts and arcades there was a 
strip of cultivated land, and still higher up the bathing apart- 
ments of the palace (wit dicilur balneum imperatoris). 

On March 18, 1145, the rviins, or at least the portion of them 
between the stronghold of the Seiitizoniura and the tower which 
had been raised over the triumphal Arch of Titus at the entrance 
to the Circus Maximus, were leased to Cencio Frangipane. A 
century later the monks thought it best suited to their interests 
to break up the property and lease the crypts and arcades one by 
one. Between 1215 and 1218 twenty-one were rented individually 
for various purposes, which in progress of time were reduced to 
one, for a hay-loft (ad retinendum fenuiii) ! One of the conditions^ 
in these contracts obliged the tenant to paint the coat-of-arms of 
S. Gi'egory above the gate of the crypt, and keep it fresh and 
bright. The abuse was suppressed in 1862 after the terrific fire 
which consumed in one night thousands of bales of hay, and 
threatened to destroy the whole mass of buildings. 

This corner of the Palatine is connected with two well-known 
names, that of Tommaso Inghirami da Volterra, surnamed Fedra, 
a famous poet, orator, and scholar of the sixteenth century, and 
that of Marcello Venusti, a painter and a pupil of Michelangelo, 


like Sebastiano del Piombo aud Daniele da Volterra. The first 
owned the part of the palace called balneum imperatoris, 
which he sold to Marcello Crescenzi, auditor of Clement VII., 
on January 22, 1533 ; the second owned the vigna (marked " dei 
Benfratelli " in the plan facing p. 107), which he had bought on 
April 24, 1560, from Concordia Maccarani, widow of Francesco 

The only work of art found — as far as I know — among these 
ruins is a torso of Minerva with the aegis dotted with stars. 
Paolo Biondi discovered it by accident on June 5, 1823, and it 
was removed soon after to the Museo Yaticano. I may mention 
also a precious gold fibula, a piece of Byzantine work of the sixth 
century, discovered by Mr. Bliss at the top of the stairs leading 
from the Stadium to the hexedra. It is now exhibited in one of 
the ground rooms of the Museo delle Terme, together with the 
" tesoro " of Castel Trosino.^ 

XXIV. The Septizonium. — Few remains of the Imperial 
palace, or indeed of the whole city, are as widely known as the 
Septizonium, and yet archaeologists are still discussing what the 
name means and what was the real nature of the edifice. Vis- 
conti (Guida del Palatino, pp. 4!) and 93) thinks that " Septizo- 
nium " was the name of the front of the Palace of Severus facing 
the south, which was ornamented with seven rows (septem zonce) 
of columns, symbolizing the seven bands or atmospheres of hea- 
ven. ^ He supports the theory by two arguments : first, that the 
hebdomadal cycle in honor of the seven planets came into fashion 
and practical use about the time of Septimius Severus ; second, 
that even in the Middle Ages the Septizonium was connected with 
the sun and the moon. Jordan and others, on the other hand, 
deny that there were seven tiers of columns : they fix the maxi- 
mum at three, which is the number represented in the earliest 
designs of this noble ruin. Now as the word septifolium indicates 
a plant with seven leaves, and the word septimontium indicates a 
group of seven hills, so the word septizonium must indicate, in the 
present case, an edifice with seven bands or horizontal lines ; in 
other words, with seven entablatures supjiorted by rows of columns 
one above the other. It is also possible that the rows were only 
six, if we reckon among the horizontal bands the basement and 

1 Referexck. — Benedetto Mittarelli, Ann. Camaldul. (Mittheilungen, 
1894, vol. ix. p. 4). 

- Rawlinson, The Five Great Monarchies, vol. ii. pp. 269, 547. 


the stejis of the structure. Visconti also remarks that we actually 
have a bona fide septizonium in the Campanile of Pisa, the tiers 
of which were only seven in the original design of Wilhelm and 
Bonanno. The eighth was added about a century later. We must 
remember in the last case that the three rows of columns, of 
which the Septizonium was composed, reach only the height of 
25.64 metres above the level of the Via Triuniphalis. The existing 
remains of the Palace of Severus are at least 55 metres high ; thei-e- 

Fig. 68. — Tlie Remains of the ^des Severianse and of the Septizonium, from a Sketch 
by du Cerceau. 

fore if the Septizonium was built, as we believe, to screen the con- 
fused mass of structures behind, and to serve as a monumental 
facade to the Palace of Severus, it must have been higher than 
we supposed. This condition of things appears evident in the 
above sketch by Jacques Androuet du Cerceau, which I borrowed 
from his volume of 1560, marked E, f/, 26 in the Cabinet des 
Estampes, Paris. 

As we have seen above (pp. 178, 179), the line AA' marks the 
top of the substructures and the beginning of the palace. Sup- 


posing the Septizonium to have been only three stories high, it 
would hardly have masked even the substructures. 

The Septizonium was already in a ruinous condition at the end 
of the eighth centiu-y. The inscrij^tion engraved in the frieze of 
the lower colonnade numbered 280 letters, of which 118 were 
copied by the so-called Einsiedlensis on the extreme left, towards 
the Circus Maximus ; 45 by the anonymous Barberinianus (Cod. 
XXX. 25) on the extreme right, towards the Arch of Coustantine. 
There was consequently a gap of 117 letters between the two ends 
of the ruins, which were respectively called '• Septem solia niaior " 
and " Septem solia minor." The total length of the building being 
90 or 95 metres, two fifths of it had already collapsed in the eighth 
centiuy. On July 22, 975, John, abbot of S. Gregory, was allowed 
to destroy the minor portion ; but he did not take advantage of 
the perniission. In the year 1084 Henry IV., while besieging the 
fortress of Septem Solia, in which Rusticus, nephew of Gregory 
Vn., had sought refuge, caused the fall of many columns (quam- 
plurimus columnas subvertit). In 1257 the larger portiofi was 
desti'oyed by Senatore Brancaleone. The last remnants disap- 
peared in the winter of 1588-89 by order of Sixtus V., and at the 
hand of his favorite architect Domenico Fontana. The destruc- 
tion cost the pope 905 scudi, but he recovered more than his 
money's worth by making use of the materials, whether blocks of 
peperjno and travertino or columns of rare marbles. 

Thh'ty-three blocks of stone were vised in the foundations of the 
pedestal of the obelisk in the Piazza del Popolo ; 104 of marble 
in the restoration of the column of Marcus Am-elius, including 
the base of the bronze statue of S. Paul ; 15 in the tomb of the 
pope in the Cappella del Presepio at S. Maria Maggiore ; and an 
equal number in that of Pius V. The staircase of the Casa dei 
jNIendicanti, or workhouse, by the Ponte Sisto ; the washing- 
house, or lacalore, in the baths of Diocletian ; the door of the 
Palazzo della Cancellaria ; the north facade of the Lateran Palace, 
its court and staircases ; and the church of S. Girolamo degli 
Schiavoni, had all theii" share of the spoils of the Septizonium. 

Keferexces. — Heinrich Jordan, Bullettino dell' Instituto, 1872, p. 145; 
and Forma Urbis Romce, pp. 37-41, tab. viii. n. -38. — Antonio Bertolotti, 
Artisti Lombardi, vol. i. p. 87: Libro xix. de! cav. Fontana per la disfattura 
dolla scola di Vergilio. Milan, Hoepli, 1881. — Christian Huelsen, Das Sep- 
thoniu?n, etc.: xlvi. Programm ziim Winckelmannsfeste der archaeologischen 
(Jesellscliaft zu Berlin. 188G. — Enrico Stevenson, II settizonio Severiano 
(Bullettino comm. arch., 1888, p. 269, tav. xiii.). — Rodolfo Lanciani, E 
Falazzo Maggiore (in Mittheilungen, vol. ix., 1894, p. 4). 


XXV. The Water Supply and Reservoirs of the Palace. 

— Nothing is known of the water supply of the Palatine before 
the time of Domitian. The fact that Augustus would take his 
siesta in summer months " by the fountain of the peristyle," proves 
that his house was well provided with water from the time of its 
first construction. After doubling the extent of the Imperial 
domain on the hill, Domitian carried a powerful siphon from the 
reservoir of the Arcus Ca?limontani (Aqua Claudia) by the temple 
of Claudius, to the highest point of the hill by S. Bonaventura. 
The pressure must have been enormous, as the siphon crossed 
the valley between the two hills at a point 41 metres (41.16) be- 
low the feeding reservoir. It luust have reached four atmospheres. 
Remains of Domitian's hydraulic work were discovered in 1658 
and 1742. The pipe, made of solid sheets of lead, and oval in 
shape, measured about a foot in diameter, and could carry 276 
unities {oiicie) of water. The laying of the siphon had been 
inti'usted to the care of M. Arrecinius Clemens, the brother-in-law 
of Titus and consul a. d. 73, and its construction to a plumber 
named Postumius Ameiimnus. We have been able to follow the 
course of the water not only across the valley, but through the 
various sections of the Imperial palace. The pipe supplying the 
house of Augiistus bore the inscription dornvs avgvstan.e and 
the name of Evhodas, the procurato?' aquanun; that supplying 
the house of Germanicus, the names of Eutychus, procurator, and 
Hymnus, plumber ; that of the Stadium the names of Epagathus, 
procurator, Martialis and Alexander, plumbers, and so forth. 

Domitian's sijihon is thrown into the shade by the exploit of 
Septimius Severus. After rebuilding, repairing, and connecting in 

^.S.Bonaaentura Via di s.\ Gregorio 





SS.Ciouannl e 




one mass the various sections of the palace, damaged by the fire 
of Commodus; after raising another palace of his own, to which 
the Septizonium served as a fa9ade ; after providing the Imperial 



residence with therms of great size and magniticence, he carried 
the channel of the CLiudia from the top of tiie Ca?lian to the top 
of the Palatine, making it span the valley at a prodigions height. 
The viaduct, composed of four lines of arcades, measured at least 
425 metres in length and 42 metres in height. The sketch on the 
opposite page represents the portion above the modei-n Via di S. 
Gregorio. The five arches on the left on the road, shaded in black, 
are still in existence ; the six on the other side were destroyed, on 
November 14, 1596, by Caprizio Cornovaglia (Cornwall), the owner 
of what is now' called "Orto Botanico." 

The water was stored in the great reservoir, afterwards turned 
into a refectory for the monks of S. Bonaventura. Among the 
discoveries made when the convent was built, Bartoli mentions a 
spigot of Corinthian brass weighing ninety pounds. 

References. — Rodolfo Lanciani, / rnmenliirii di Frontino, etc., Koina, 
Salviucci, 1880, pp. 211, 234.— Kiddlliiiu Viiiuti, Homa antiai, vol. i. p. 38. 

XXVI. Twomore ^v» ^,^n>^. ,.,.•,,„ .,, „ .,i4p- 

edifices, or rather 
two parts of the 
same edifice, remain 
to be examined be- 
fore we leave the 
Palatine : the P.*> 
DAGOGiuM and the 
DoMus Gklotiaxa. 
The Domus Gelo- 

tiana was purchased 
and embodied in the 
crown property by 
Caligula, not for 
want of additional 
space and accommo- 
dation, but to satisfy 
his passion for the 
races of the circus, 
and his aifection for 
the squadron of the 

greens, /actio prasi- h.hS 

na, in whose stables -v ^ . i ■ ^^ . . 

(by SS. Lorenzo e ^^^ ^'- ^^-^^^^^ 

Damaso) he used Fig. to. - Plau of the Domus Gelotiana. 

to spend days and nights indulging in all kinds of excesses. 



hoiuse adjoined the Circus and the Carceres, where the riders were 
massed on race days, so that it was easy for the young prince to 
join his friends without leaving the Imperial palace. The Domus 
Gelotiana is composed of two parts : one adjoining the Circus, 
which is still in private hands, and is entered from the gate No. 
45 Via dei Cerchi. It contains the vestibule, the atrium, the tab- 
linum, and the triclinium. The inner part, which is Government 
property, contains many smaller apartments opening on a second 
courtyard or peristyle, and it has become famous for the graffiti 


Fig. 71. — One of the Walls of the Paedagogium with Greek and Latin GraflSti. 

which cover its walls. We learn from them that, after the death 
of Caligula, the Domus Gelotiana, or, at least, this inner part of it, 
was turned into a training-school for court pages, under the name 
of Psedagogium. The name occurs very often in the graffiti : Co- 
rinthus exit de pccdagogio ! Marianus Afer exit de jxedagogio ! as 
if the boys wanted to chronicle their liberation from the rod of 
the master on the walls which had long imprisoned them. There 
was another amusing allusion to the hardships of school life, 
composed of a vignette and its explanation. The vignette repre- 
sented a donkey turning the mill, and the legend said, Labora, 


aselle, quomodo ego lahoravi et proderit tihi. " Work, work, little 
donkey, as I have ^A'orked myself, and thou shalt be rewarded 
for it." This graffito was destroyed by an unscrupulous tourist 
in 1886. The most interesting of the set is the one representing 
a caricature of the Crucifixion of our Lord, discovered at the be- 
ginning of the year 1857, and removed soon after to the Kirche- 
rian Museum of the Collegio Romano. 

The front part of the house, entered by the Via dei Cerchi, No. 
45, was partially excavated in 1888, when a remarkable set of 
fresco paintings was discovered in the dining-liall, marked A in 
Fig. 70. 

The figures, varying in height from 1.60 metres to 1.80, rep- 
resent butlers and waiters in the act of leading the guests to the 
banqueting table. The tricliniarch with a rod in his hand stands 
by the entrance door, whilst other men are carrying napkins, 
wreaths, silver plate, etc. It is to be regretted that such an inter- 
esting place should not be accessible to the public, and that the 
front and back sections of this historical house shovdd not be ex- 
cavated at one and the same time. The discovery of the triclinium 
has been illustrated by Marchetti in the " Xotizie degli Scavi," 
1892, p. 44 ; and by Hiielsen in " Mittheilungen," 1894, p. 289. 

Literature on the graffiti of the Pa?dagogiiim. — Raffaele Garrucci, // 
crocifisso graffito nella casa dei Cet'dri. Rome, 1857; and GraJ/iti di I'oinpei, 
p. 97, plates 30, 31. — Ferd. Becker, Das sjjott crucifix d. roin. Kaiserj)al<i.<le. 
Breslau, 1866. — Franz Xaver Kraus, Das sjwttci-ucijix iwin Palatin. Freiburg 
im Breisgau, 1872. — G. Battista de Rossi, Btdl. Inst, 1857, p. 275; Btdl. crist., 
18G3, p. 72; 1867, p. 75. — C Ludovico Visconti, Di un nitovo graffito palati no 
(in Giornale areadico, vol. Ixii.); and SuUa interpretazione deUa sigle. V. D. 
N. dei graffiti 2^alntini. Rome, 1868. — Visconti and Lanciani, Guida del 
Pahitino, p.'lS. — Fabio Gori, in Giornale arcndico, vol. lii. p. 45. — Rodolfo 
Lanciani, Ancient Rome, p. 119. — Liiigi Correra, Graffiti di lioma (in Bull, 
com., 1893, p. 245; 1894, p. 89). 



I. The Sacra Via. — The line and direction of the Sacra Via 
in Imperial times is no longer a matter for discussion, because, 
since April 21, 1882, its pavement has been laid bare from one 
end to the otlier, together with the remains of the edifices which 
bordered it, of the monuments in honor of different worthies 
which decorated its pavement, and of the drains which ran under 
it. The topography of this " queen of streets " was, however, very 
different in Kingly or early Republican times. It can be made 
out in two ways : from the remains of Kingly or Republican 
buildings which ai:)pear here and there, below the level of the 
Imperial ones (for instance, under the house of the Vestals and 
under the Basilica Julia), or from the configuration of the ground. 
Geological analysis proves, among other things, that the primitive 
road crossed the ridge of the Velia, not by the Arch of Titus, as 
it did afterwards, but fifty metres north of it, where the church of 
S. Francesca Romana now stands. The furrow followed by the 
road was discovered by Nibby in 1827-32 by means of borings 
through the clay and marl strata of which the ridge is composed. 
The same archaeologist found remains of private houses under the 
pavement of the present or Imperial road. From these pieces of 
evidence we can conclude that the primitive Sacra Via left the 
hollow of the Coliseum at a point equidistant from the Colossus 
(I in plan) and the Meta Sudans (II), — I mention these monu- 
ments to give the reader some " points de repere ; " crossed the 
depression between the Palatine and the Oppian on the line of the 
axis of the Templum Rom;Tj et Veneris (IV) ; descended the north- 
ern slojie towards the Forum along the Porticus INIargaritaria 
(XII) ; then turned diagonally towards the Vicus Tuscus (XXIX), 
passing l)etween the Temple of Vesta (XIX) and the habitation of 
the Pontifex Maximus (Regia, XVIII). From the junction of the 


R Lanriam efe/m 



Vicus Tuscus to the Capitoliiie hill no changes seem to have taken 
place. The whole course of the primitive Sacra Via was irregular 
and winding as becomes a much frequented path over undulating 
ground not encumbered by buildings or obstacles of any kind; 
but as soon as buildings began to rise on either side, it took a 
definite shape, and angles were substituted for curves until the 
street was made to turn at a right angle no less than five times. 
The transformation was obviously accomplished by degrees : first 
in 42 B. c, when the Temple of Cfesar was raised on the spot 
wliere his body had been incinerated, secondly after the fire of 
Nero, thirdly after that of Commodus, and lastly after that of 
Carinus. Each of these calamities gave rise to a new " piano 

After the fall of the Empire, when traffic was practically reduced 
to its primitive state, and the glorious monuments of this " celeber- 
rinuis urbis locus " crumbled into dust, the bend round the Temple 
of Ca?sar was abandoned, and the traffic resumed the ancient line, 
which was the easiest and shortest. This late path is still marked 
by bits of rough pavement made up with old worn-out paving- 
stones, blocks of marble, and architectural fragments. 

The primitive path was named Sacra Via (tnfima, summa, clivus 
sneer) because three very sacred hut temples stood on its border : 
tlie hut for pvil)lic fire, or Temple of Vesta, that in which the 
Penates brought from Troy were kept, and a third inhabited by 
the high priest. The people adopted the form Sacra Via, instead 
of Via Sacra, and its inhabitants were called Sacravienses. In the 
early days of Rome it was divided into three sections, the first 
from its origin near the Sacellum Strenia; (site unknown, but near 
the (Jiardino delle Mendicant!) to the house of the "rex sacrifi- 
culus " on the top of the ridge ; the second from this house to the 
Kegia or habitation of the Pontifex Maximus ; the third from 
the Regia to the summit of the Capitoline hill. In Imperial 
times the ascent to this hill was called cliinis Capitoiinits. Its total 
length from the Meta Sudans to the foot of ascent was 790 metres. 
The street retained its name at least up to the ninth century after 
Christ, as certified by the " Liber Pontificalis " in the Life of 
Paschal I. (817-824, "ecclesia Cosmoe et Daniiani in Via Sacra"), 
but its classic meaning was altogether forgotten. The church of 
S. Cosma and that of S. Adriano were called "in Via Sacra" 
because they were on the line of the great pontifical processions, 
which entered the Forum by the Via di Marforio and left it in the 
direction of the Arch of Titus. 


LiTERATUKE. — Aiiibrosch, Siudien und Andeutungen. Breslau, 1839. — 
Adolf Becker, De Muris, p. 23; and Topographie, pp. 219-243. — Antonio 
Nibby, Roma nell' anno 1838, part i. vol. i. p. 49. — Luigi Canina, Bcscrizione 
del Foro. Kome, 1845. — Heinrich Jordan, Capitol, Forum und Sacra Via, 
Berlin, Weidmann, 1881; and Topograpliie, vol. i. p. 155. — J. Francis 
Nichols, Tht Roman Forum, pp. 277-299. — J. Henry Parker, The Via Sacra 
in Rome, London, 1876. 

II. The Colossus (colossal statue of the Sun) (I in plan). — 
The platform of the Velia, from the "summa Sacra Via" to the 
site of the amphitheatre, was occupied by the vestibule of the 
Golden House of Nero, a square portico with a colossal bronze 
statue in the centre. The statue had been cast in Rome by Zeno- 
dorus in tlie likeness of Nero ; but after the death of the tyrant 
the head had been changed into that of the radiant Sun, 1 he face 
beai'ing a resemblance to that of Titus. Vespasian generously 
rewarded the artist who had thus served the interests of the 
Flavian dynasty. When Martial wrote the second epigram, "De 
spectaculis," about a. d. 75, tlie Golden House had already been 
pulled down, and the ground near the Colossus seems to have 
been occupied by scaffoldings connected with the work of the new 
amphitheatre. The statue remained in its place until 121 , when 
Hadrian, having chosen the site for his Temple of Venus and 
Rome, caused it to be placed neai'er to the Coliseum. I'he dis- 
placement was effected by the architect De(me)trianus with the 
help of twenty-four elephants, the statue remaining all the while 
uiiright and suspended from the movable scaffolding. The diffi- 
culty of the operation may be estimated by the fact that the 
bronze mass was 30.5 metres high. The seven rays round the 
head, each 6. 68 metres long, were a later addition. The " Vita 
Comm." affirms that the head was changed once more by Commo- 
dus to bear his own likeness. It is represented in coins of Alexan- 
der Severus and Gordianus. The last classic mention occurs in 
the Chronicon of Cassiodorus ; the first mediaeval record (V) in a 
document of a. d. 972 (" domus posita Romse regione quarla non 
longe a Colosso "). The pedestal of the Colossus (I in plan) was 
discovered by Nibby in 1828. It is built of concrete with brick 
facing, once covered with marble slabs. 

Literature. — Antonio Nibby, Roma nelV anno 1838, part i. vol. ii. p. 
442. — Fr. Morgan Nichols, The Roman Forum, p. 294. — J. H. Parker, 
The Via Sacra in Rome, London, 1876, plate 38. — Donaldson, Arvhiicctura 
numism., n. 79. — De Rossi, Piante di Roma, p. 76, n. 1. 

III. Meta Sudans (II in plan), a fountain called 7nf'ta from 


its shape like a goal of the circus, or from its location at the 
meeting point of four regions, II, III, IV, X, and sudans from the 
playing of its water in sprays and cascades. The Chronicon of 
Cassiodorus names Domitian as its founder, and the year 97 as the 
date of its construction. Perhaps Domitian only enlarged and 
embellished a fountain akeady existing, because a meta of pyra- 
midal shape appears in the medal struck in the year 80 for the 
dedication of the Coliseum ; and besides Seneca, who died in 65, 
mentions the neighborhood of the foimtain as the place where 
people would try new bugles and flutes, and make an unbearable 
noise (Ep. Ivi. 5). The round basin of the present day dates from 
the time of Constantine, When Ficoroni excavated it for the 
first time in 1713, there Avere six metres of rubbish around the 
meta. It is represented in the marble mouth of the well of the 
Vatican museum, Corridoio delle Iscrizioni, compartment XIII., 
right side, the photograph of which is marked Xo. 4(371 in Park- 
er's collection. Xibby, however, declares that this meta is the 
work of a modern restorer. A church of S. Maria de Meta is 
mentioned by Armellini (Chiese, 2d ed. p. 522). 

LiTKRATUKE. — Coheii, Motin. imp., vol. i. p. •i62, n. 18-t; p. 359, n. 1G3. — 
Donaldson, Arch, numism., n. 79. — Ficoroni, Vestujit di Roma, vol. i. p. 3G. — 
Allierto Cassio, Corso delle acque, vol. ii. p. 194. — Antonio Nibby, Roma nell' 
anno 183S, part i. vol. i. p. 370. 

IV. The Arch of Coxst.\xtixe (III in plan). — The origin 
of this noble monument is described in " Pagan and Christian 
Rome," p. 20. It was raised in a. d. 815 to commemorate the vic- 
tory of the first Christian Emperor over ^Maxentius, with marbles 
taken at random from other pul)lic and private monuments. The 
bas-reliefs of the Attic, the statues of the Dacian kings, the eight 
medallions above the side arches, the eight columns of giallo 
antico, and the greater part of the entablature were removed from 
a triumphal arch of Trajan, probably from the " Arcus divi Trai- 
ani " which spanned the Via Appia near the Porta Capena. A 
piece of the inscription, probably from the same arch, is to be 
found in the Coliseum. ^ 

The two bas-reliefs on each side of the middle passage are at- 
tributed by Xibby to the time of Gordianus the younger, all the 
rest to the time of Constantine. The inside of the strticture is also 
built with a great variety of materials taken from monuments 
belonging to the Fabii and to the Arruntii, the carvings and 
1 Bull. arch, com., 1880, 217, n. 9. 


inscriptions of which are still perfect. The bricks alone are con- 
temporary with Constantine, and are stamped with the well-known 
seal OF(Jicin(e) s(«crfc) R^atiorris). 

The name of the pious Emperor saved the arch from destruction 
in the darkest period of mediaeval history. A little church dedi- 
cated to the Saviour also shielded it from damage ; it was called 
S. Salvatore de Trasi from the name of Arcus Traseus, or Arco 
de' Trasi, given to the monument in the twelfth century, perhaps 
from the statues of the Thracian (Dacian) jirisoners which stand 
on the attic. 

Giovio and others have accused Lorenzino de' Medici, the mur- 
derer of Duke Alessandro, of having decapitated the statues and 
some of the bas-reliefs of the arch. He was capable of the deed, but 
the charge is not proved. The heads were not removed to Flor- 
ence : in fact, no one has ever traced them ; one only was found 
buried deep in the ground at the foot of the arch about 1795. 
The state of the sculptures in the sixteenth century is most care- 
fully reproduced in a drawing of the Laing collection at Edin- 
burgh (vol. xi. pi. 24). Paul III. removed the earth which covered 
the arch up to the plinth of the columns, to prepare the way for 
the triumphal entry of Charles V. Clement VIII. laid hands on 
one of the columns of giallo antico, to make it pair with another 
from the Forum of Trajan, and placed both under the organ in the 
transept of the Lateran. 

Literature. — Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. n. 1139. — De Rossi, Bull, crht., 18G.3, 
p. 49. — Rohault de Floiirv, L'aix de Constaniin (in Revue archeol., Sept. 
1803, p. 250). — Wilhelm Henzen, Bull, inst., 1863, p. 183. — Antonio Nibby, 
Roma nell' anno 1838, part i. vol. i. p. 443. — Beschreibumj der Stadt Rom, iii. 
1, p. 314. — Antonio Guattani, iJown rfescrzVia, i. p. 41. — Theodor Schreiber, 
Berichten der k. sachs. Geselhclwft der Wissenschaften, April, 1892, p. 121. — 
Eugfene Petersen, Mhtheil., 1889," p. 314. 

The " conservatori " of Rome and Clement XTT. ordered a gen- 
eral restoration of the arch in 17S1. The works were superin- 
tended by Marchese Alessandro Capponi, who made use of a co- 
lossal piece of the marble entablature of the Neptunium which 
had just been found near the Piazza di Pietra. The missing column 
was replaced, although of different marble ; the heads of nine 
Dacian kings and one of the statues (the third on the S. Gregorio 
side) were replaced. The position of the latter was occupied by a 
fragment which is now kept in the Capitoline museunt. The words 
" ad arcvm" are engraved on its plinth, an address for the, porters 
who had to remove it from the sculptor's studio to the arch. 




The Arch of Constantine has been a favorite subject for artists 
since the early Renaissance. It appears many times in the back- 
ground of famous pictures, like the " Dispute of S. Catherine," 
by Pinturicchio, in the Appartamento Borgio ; or in the " Castigo 
del Fuoco Celeste," by Sandro Botticelli, in the Sistine Chapel, of 
which I give a rejiroduction. 

When I first visited the staircase and the rooms in the attic 
story, on February 27, 1879, the first signature of a visitor which 
struck me at the first landing was that of INIichelangelo, dated 
14U4: (genuine ?). Antonio da Sangallo the elder and Cherubino 
Alberti have also left accounts of their exploration of those rooms. 

V. vEdes Rom.k et Veneris (Temple of Venus and Rome) 
(IV in plan), designed and built by Hadrian on the site of the 
vestibule of the Golden House. — As the Temple of Castor and 
rollux was named in progress of time from Castor alone, so that 
of Venus and Rome is called simply templum Urhis by the " Vita 
Hadriani," Urhis fanum and delubrum Itomce by others. The foun- 
dation stone was laid on the birthday of Rome, April 21, a. d. 
131, and the dedication solemnized in 135. Antonio Nibby, who 
led the excavations of the temple from November, 1827, to Decem- 
ber, 1829, found many brick stamps of 123, and a few of 124. Dion 
Cassius relates that, when the work was already in progress, Ha- 
drian submitted his drawings to Apollodorus of Damascus, the 
illustrious architect of Trajan's Forum, whom in a fit of jealousy 
he had already banished to a remote island. The architect did 
not disguise his opinion : the statues, he said, were too large for 
their niches, and the temple ought to have been raised much 
higher so as to be seen to greater advantage from the side of the 
Clivus Sacer. This arrangement, besides, would have permitted 
the construction of caves and vaults under the foundation, use- 
ful botli for storing the machinery of the ampbitheati-e and for 
preparing it out of sight for immediate use. It is related that the 
great man paid for his criticism with his life. 

The temple was brought to perfection by Antoninus Pius, on 
whose medals it appears with the legend romae aeternae v^e- 
NERi FELici, perha^js the very one engraved on either front of the 
structure. Having been greatly injured by fire in 807, it was re- 
stored by Maxentius, whose brick stamps, 0¥F(icina') s(ummae') 
R(ei), F(ecj<) DOM(i7ms), ai"e found in great numbers in the walls 
of the double cella. Ammianus Marcellinus includes it among the 
1 Nichols, The Roman Forum, p. 294. 



marvels of Kome (a. d. 356). In 391 it was closed and abandoned 
to its fate, but the solidity of the building was such that, two cen- 
turies later, we find it still intact. Pope Honorius I. (625-040) 


obtained from the Emperor Heraclius the gilt-bronze tiles of the 
roof, which he removed to that of S. Peter's. Many of these 
were carried off by the Saracens in the loot of 846 ; those left on 
the roof of the nave, seen and described by Grimaldi in 1606, 
must have been melted by Paul V., together with the other bronzes 
of the fountain of Symmachus. (See Pagan and Christian 
Rome, p. 136.) Paul I. (757-767) built a church in honor of SS. 
Peter and Paul on the vestibule of the temple facing the Forum, 
where the fall of Simon the Magician was believed to have taken 
place. Two small cavities in one of the paving-stones of the 
Sacra Via were shown to the faithful, as the marks left by the 
knees of the prince of the Apostles, while jiraying for the discom- 
fiture of the impostor. The stones are still kept in the present 
church of S. Francesca Romana, on the right of the tomb of 
Gregory XI. The chapel of Paul I. did not last long : at the 
time of Leo IV. (847-8.55) its place was occupied by the church of 
S. Maria, called Nova, in opposition to that of S. Maria Antiqua, 
still existing, behind the remains of the Augustaeum. The 
present edifice, dedicated to S. Francesca Romana, dates from the 
time of Paul V., 1612. 

All these chapels and churches were built at the expense of the 
temple. Nibby says that the bed of rubbish immediately above 
the antifpie pavement was composed of architectural fragments, 
split and charred ; that he found in 1810 a lime-kiln near the Arch 
of Titus, bordered by pieces of precious columns of porphyry — a 
material refractory to fire — and filled with sculptiired fragments ; 
and that, while restoring the church of S. Francesca in 1828 and 
1829, he found the walls built with pieces of marble ; yet enough 
plunder was left among the ruins of the temple to satisfy the 
greed of scores of modern excavators. Flaminio Vacca could pur- 
chase about 1.575 slabs of Greek marble from the pavement of the 
cella facing the Coliseum, which he descril)es as a " cosa stupenda." 
Ligorio says that pieces of columns and of the entablature found 
by the monks of S. Maria, in adding a wing to their convent, were 
made use of in the " fabbrica di S. Pietro." Other beautiful mar- 
bles are described and designed by the Gobbo da Sangallo. An 
oval basin of a fountain of oriental granite, 5.57 metres in diame- 
ter, discovered also in the sixteenth century, was " ruinato dalle 
scellerate mani " of the excavators. At last, when these vandals 
thought that nothing was left to plunder above ground, they at- 
tacked the foundations of the portico and temple, which were built 
of blocks of travertine or peperino ! Not one is left in situ. The 



annexed plan explains the form and architectiu-e of the building, 
The portico inclosing the temenos had columns of gray granite, 
seventy-two pieces of which have escaped destruction, simply 
because they were unfit for the lime-kiln, and too hard to be made 

Fig. 75. — Bas-relief with the Temple of Venus and Rome. 

use of. If these columns were raised into their former position, 
as has been done with those of the Basilica Ulpia, the Temple of 
Venus and Eome wovild become the most picturesque ruin of this 
classic district. The peristyle of the double cella was made of 
shafts of cipollino, six feet in diameter. There is one fragment 
lying on the northeast side of the platform, which the stone-cut- 
ters engaged in the repairs of S. Paolo fuori le Mura had begun 


to saw, to make discs for the pavement of that church. This last 
act of destruction was stojiped by Carlo Fea, then Superintendent 
of Antiquities, who broke the saw and put the stone-cutters to 

The drains which run parallel with the wings of the portico are 
beautifully j^reserved ; they are 2.70 metres high and 0.90 wide, and 
the tiles of their roofs are marked with the consulates of Paetinus 
and Apronianus (a. d. 123), and Servianus III. and Varus (125). 
The north corner of the platform is built over the remains — still 
visible through a trap-door — of a jirivate mansion. They include 
part of the atrium with the impluvium paved with pieces of blue, 
green, and white enamel. 

The temple is represented in a bas-relief, formerly in the Muti 
house. Piazza della Pescheria, and now half in the Museo delle 
Terme, half in the Lateran ! An illustration of it was given by 
Professor Petersen in the " Mittheilungen " of 1896. (See Fig. 75.) 

Literature. — Dion Cassius, Ixix. 5. — Amm. Marcelliu., xvi. 10. — Fla- 
miiiio Vacca, Memorie, n. 73. — Carlo Fea, Miscdlanea, vol. i. p. 85, note («); 
Varieta di Notizie, p. 137. — Nibby, Roma antica, vol. ii. p. 723. — J. H. 
Parker, Archceology of Rome, vol. ii. p. 86. — Rodolfo Lanciani, Z' itinerario 
di Ehmedlen, pp. 62-67; Melanges de I' Ecole frangaise de Rome, IBlll, p. 164, 
pi. 3. — F. M. Nichols, The Roman Forum, p. 293. 

VI. So-called Baths of Heliogabalus, and Church of S. 
Cesakio in Palatio (V in plan). See p. 169. 

VII. TuRRis Chautularia (VI in plan). See p. 171. 

VIII. The Temple of Jupiter Stator (VII in plan). — The 
Tiu'ris Chartularia marks most likely the site of the Temple of 
Jupiter Stator, and the blocks of j)eperino of which its founda- 
tions are built belong probably to the cella. The temple vowed by 
Komulus, during his first encounter with the Sabines in tlie valley 
of the Forum, was only built in 296 by M. Atilius Regulus. 
Classics place it near the Mugonia gate of the Palatine, at the 
highest point of the [Nova Via, near the highest point of the 
Sacra Via, and within the limits of the fourth region. The four 
indications concur in loca.ting the temple on the site of the Turris 
Chartularia, side by side with the Arch of Titus ; and in precisely 
this position do we find it in the famous pictorial bas-relief of the 
Haterii, exhibited in the tenth room of the Lateran ISluseum. 
According to this sculptural sketch, the temple was of the Co- 
rinthian order, and hexastyle, the front facing the north. It is 



liai'dly necesyary to reniiud the reader that a certain mass of 
concrete at the entrance of Domitian's palace on the Palatine hill, 

Fig. 76. — Arch of Titus — Temple of Jupiter Stator in the Bas-relief of the Haterii. 

described in books and shown to visitors as the Temple of Stator, 
lias nothing in common witli it. That mass of concrete belongs 
to the foundations of one of the towers built by the Frangipani 
to make their Palatine stronghold a locus tullssinius. 

I^ITKRATUI^E. — I'jiiil Briinn, Annall dcW Inst., vol. xxi. 1849, p. 370. — 
Ileinricli Jordan, Topoyrajihie, \~, p. 277. — Wolfgang Helhig, Guide to the 
Public Collections of Rome, vol. i. p. 4f)G, n. (571. — Fuvma f'rbis, pi. xxix. 

11 \'igna Barberini. S. Sebastiano Lii Pallara 




Fig. 77. — Plan of Neighborhood of the Arch of Titus. 

IX. The Arch of Titus (VIII in plan). — It stands at the 
west corner of the great platform of Venus and Rome at the 



highest point of the Sacra Via; it is called, therefore, Arcus in 
Sacra Via Summa in the bas-relief of the Haterii reproduced above. 

The title of divus (deified) given to the conqueror of Judaea in the 
inscription of the attic (Corpus, vol. vi. n. 945), as well as the relief 
of his apotheosis, shows that the monument was finished only after 


his death. The style is that prevalent in Domitian's time, with 
a superabundance of carving in the architectural lines. Having 
been included in the fortifications of the Frangipani, it suffered 
great damage during the fights of the twelfth and thirteenth cen- 
turies. To insm-e its safety after the demolition of the tower and 
houses by which it was partly supported, Giuseppe Valadier took 
down the whole structure piece by piece in 1822, strengthened the 
foundations, and reconstructed it in its present form, completing 
the missing parts in travertine so as to make them easily dis- 
tinguishable from the originals, which are in pentelic marble. The 
bas-reliefs on the left represent the triumph of Titus, those on the 
right the spoils taken from the Temple of Zion, like the seven- 
branched candlestick (from which comes the name of Arcus Septem 
Lucernarmn given to the arch in the Middle Ages), the golden 
table, the silver trumpets, etc. These spoils were deposited in the 
Temple of Peace in a. d. 75, five years after the conquest of Judaea, 
together with a marvellous collection of works of art, which in- 
cluded a statue of Naukides fi'om Argos, a figure of the Nile sur- 
rounded by the sixteen infants all cut in a single block of basalte 
ferrigno, the lalysos, a celebrated pictiire of Protogenes, the ScyUa 
of Nikomachos, the Hero of Parrhasios, and many other master- 
pieces. All these, except the Jewish relics, perished in the fire of 
191. They ultimately fell the prey of Genseric and were landed 
safely at Carthage in 455, where, eighty years later, Belisarius 
recaptm-ed them and sent tliein to Constantinople. 

Literature. — Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. n. 945 (943). — Flavius Josephus, 
Jud., book vii. 17. — Antonio Nibby, Roma antica, vol. i. p. 490. — Rodolfo 
Lanciani, Ancient Rome, p. 291. 

Nearly opposite the arch, at the corner of the Porticus Margari- 
taria on the Nova Via, is a shapeless mass of concrete, believed 
to be the pedestal of the equestrian statue of Cloelia, described by 
Livy, Seneca, Plutarch, and Servius. The surmise is not improba- 
ble, especially as we know that the group was still existing in 
Sacra Via Summa at the time of Servius, viz., at the beginning of 
the fifth century. A centiiry later Cassiodorus mentions as yet 
visible in the same place a group of bronze elephants. 

Literature. — Becker, De muris atque portis, p. 38. — Nichols, The Roman 
Fonim, p. 311. 

X. Basilica Nova (Basilica of Constantine) (IX in plan). — 
The space of ground covered by this vast building was probably 
occupied at an early age by the Macellum or Forum Cupedinis, a 



market for the sale of fruit, honey, flowers, and wreaths, the last 
inentiou of which occurs under Augustus. Doniitian built on 
part of the ground the Horrea piperataria, warehouses for Oriental 
spices, which were burnt down in the fire of 191, together with 
many private houses, one of which, discovered in 1811 under the 
right aisle, is described by Fea (Varieta di Notizie, p. 24). I have 
myself seen traces of other buildings, on the occasion of repairs 
made to the water-pipe which supplies the fountains of the Palatine 
and which crosses the basilica diagonally. The basilica was begun 
by Maxentius and finished by Constantine, partly with materials 

Fig. 79. — Plan of Constautiue's Basilica. 

found on the spot, partly with bricks made expressly in one of the 
ufficince summce rei. Hundreds of these were found in the ex- 
cavations of 1880. It seems that when Maxentius lost his life 
in the battle of October 27, 312, the basilica was very nearly com- 
pleted, as is shown by the discovery of a silver medallion — bear- 
ing the legend maxentius v{ius) ¥(elix) aug(w*/m^-) — in 1828, in 
a block of masonry fallen from the highest i^oint of the building. 

The basilica had a nave and two aisles. The noble vaulted ceil- 
ing of the nave, eighty-two metres long and twenty-five broad, was 
supported by eight fluted columns of Proconnesian marble, of 
which only two appear in the vignettes and designs of the Renais- 



sance. Such is, for instance, a sketch by Bramante in the Uffizi col- 
lection (No. 1711), which shows one between the first and second 
arches, with its capital and entablature, and another without capi- 
tal between the second and third. This last must have disappeared 
at the time when Sangallo the elder was directing the works of 
S. Peter's; certainly he made use of its base, which is described by 

Fig. 80. — The Basilica of Constantine at the time of Paul V. 

Dosio as " larga piedi 8 dita 7 . . . ed e la basa d' una delle colonne 
. . . che fu portata (a S. Pietro) a tempo che era architetto el San- 
gallo." The other pillar, so conspicuous in the vignettes of the 
sixteenth century — among which I may mention the one painted 
by Raphael's pupils in the last room, first floor, of the Farnesina — 


was removed to the Piazza di S. Maria Maggiore by Paul V. in 
1613, and set up in honor of the Virgin, as described in " Pagan 
and Christian Rome," p. 136. We can account also for the fate of 
a third base. It supplied the material for the statue of Alexander 
Farnese, now in the Sala dei Capitani, Palazzo dei Conservatori. 

The basilica, in its original construction, faced the east, and was 
entered from the side of the Temple of Venus and Rome by a 
clumsy portico out of proportion with the rest of the edifice. 
Later on, a new entrance was opened on the south side facing 
the Sacra Via, and a new tribune built in harmony with it. The 
entrance was decorated with four large columns of porphyry, 
pieces of which were found in 1487, 1819, and 1879, and restored 
to the place to which they belong. Here also were discovered the 
fragments of the colossal marble statue of Domitian, now in the 
Cortile dei Conservatori. 

The collapse of this ungraceful structure must date from a com- 
paratively recent time, because Nibby asserts that he saw traces 
of a Christian fresco painting of the thirteenth century in the 
north apse. Perhaps the ceiling of the nave fell in the earthquake 
of 1349, described by Petrarch (Epist. x. 2), carrying down with it 
the greater portion of the south aisle. The roof of the north aisle, 
still perfect, was granted by the city in 1547 to Eurialo Silvestri, 
who laid out a garden on the top of it and filled it with antiques. 
The basilica itself was used as a cattle-shed until 1714, when it 
was granted to Marchese Emilio de' Cavalieri for a riding-school. 
Ten years later I find it used as a hay-loft by the architect Bari- 
gioni. The French invaders began excavating it in 1812, and 
Pius VII. continued their work in 1818-19. In 1828 Nibby laid 
bare the pavement, which remained in good condition till the sec- 
ond French invasion of 1849. The basilica having been selected 
as a drilling-place for French recruits, the last trace of the pave- 
ment was destroyed about 18.54 by the treading of feet. 

Literature. — Carlo Fea, La basilha di Costantliw sbandita dalla via 
Sacra, Rome, 1819; Prodromo di nuove osservazioni, 1816, p. 24; Miscellatiea, 
vol. ii. p. 47. — Antonio Nibby, Delia via Sacra, etc., p. 189; Del tempio della 
Pace e della basilica di Coslantino, Rome, 1819; Roma antica, vol. ii. p. 238. 
— Nicola Ratti, Su le r ovine del iempio delta Pace. Rome, 1823. — Bunsen, 
Beschreibung, vol. iii. 11. 291. — Notizie degli Scavi, 1879-80. — Rodolfo Laii- 
ciani, Bull, com., 1876, p. 48. 

The basilica was freed from the granaries and factories and 
ironworks which concealed its northern apse between March, 1878, 
and February, 1880, when the tunnel known in the Middle Ages 
as the Arco di Latrone was again made accessible (X in plan). 



Before the construction of the basilica direct communication 
existed between the Sacra Via and the region of the Carina?, the 
cross street passing between the Forum of Peace and the ware- 
houses for Oriental spices (Horrea piperataria). Maxentius brought 
his building into contact with the Forum of Peace and obstructed 
the passage. To obviate the consequences of the obstruction and 
to save the citizens a long detour, a subway was opened under the 
northeast corner of the basilica. The subway is about four metres 
wide and fifteen long ; it is paved with tiles inscribed with the 
stamp of the Imperial kilns, off . s . r . f , ocex ; the side walls 

Fig. 81. — The Arco di Latrone under the Basilica of Constantine. 

are worn with longitudinal grooves to the height of cart-wheels. 
A\'hen the adjoining Temple of the Sacra Urbs was dedicated by 
Pope Felix IV. (526-530) to SS. Cosmas and Damianus, one end 
of the passage was walled up and the passage itself turned into a 
sepulchral cave. Loculi resembling those of the catacombs are 
still to be seen in the upper part of the walls, and two or three 
ajipear in the illustration above. At a much later period hogs- 
heads of wine took the places of the dead. 

This passage was known in the ]\Iiddle Ages as the Arco di 
Latrone. Pirro Ligorio (Bodl., f. 15) speaks of it as follows: 
" The subway which we now call Latrone runs between the church 


of S. Cosma and the Temple of Peace (the Basilica of Constan- 
tine). After it liad served as a burial-place at the time of the 
destruction of Rome, traffic was restored through it ; but it was 
a lonely, dark place, and murders and robberies were freely com- 
mitted in it. To atone for these crimes, and to bring about a 
better state of things, the Arco di Latrone was included in the 
itinerary of the famous procession of mid- August, when tlie image 
of the Saviour is removed from the Lateran to S. JMaria Maggiore." 
The procession of " mezzo agosto," to which Ligorio refers, was 
one of the great events of mediaeval Rome ; the contest for prece- 
dence among the popular corporations afterwards degenerated 
into open fights and bloodshed. The magistrates of the city 
issued regulation after regulation, the last of which, engraved on 
marble in the anticpie style, is still to be seen in the vestibule of 
the Palazzo dei Conservatori at the foot of the stairs. The regu- 
lations did no good : the pageant was preceded or followed by so 
many struggles that it left a bloody trail upon its path. It was 
suppressed in 1566 by Pope Pius V. 

Literature. — Vincenzo Forcella, Iscriz. delle chiese di Roma, vol. i. 
n. 60, p. 37. — Giovanni Marangoni, htorin delV oratorio appellato Sancfn 
Sanctorum, p. 112. Rome, 1747. — Rodolfo Lanciani, Archivio della Societa 
di storia patria, vol. iii. p. 378; Jtinerario di Einsiedlen, p. 119. 

XI. The Clivus Sacer, or gradient of the Sacra Via by the 
Basilica of Constantine (XI in plan). — This tract, excavated 
between March and June, 1878, is the noblest and widest of the 
whole line. It measures 23 metres across from building to build- 
ing, and 12.35 metres between the sidewalks. Under the roadway 
runs a cloaca 2.10 metres high, and 0.90 wide, built of bricks and 
vaulted over, with side embranchments to collect the waters from 
the north slope of the Palatine and from Constantine's Basilica. 

The left-side pavement, along the Porticus INlargaritaria and 
the House of the Vestals, is 8.20 metres wide, and entirely encum- 
bered by monuments in honor of different people, dating mostly 
from the time of Septimius Severus and his successors. There 
are pedestals of single or equestrian statues, shrines, fountains, 
hemicycles, etc., which, found in a good state of preservation in 
1879 and 1882, have been since greatly injured by frost and neglect. 
The most important are : (a) the pedestal of a statue, probably of 
a Greek masterpiece, set up by Fabius Titianus, j)refect of the 
city in a. d. 339-341, together with many others (see Coi'pus 
Inscriptionum, vi. 1653) ; (J) that of a statue raised to Constan- 
tius, by Flavins Leontius, prefect of the city in 35.5-356 ; (c) that 



of a statue of Titus; (d) an altar dedicated to the Lares augusti; 
(e) a shriue dedicated to Gordianus the younger by the people of 
Tharsos, together with his equestrian statue. This graceful sedi- 

LJ^U ^ 

OliT (T^ m> 


Fig. 82. —Plan of Clivus Sacer. 

cula was supported by two columns of portasanta; the letters 
TAPCEnx on the epistyle were of gilt metal. It could be recon- 
structed almost in a perfect state. 

Literature. — Notizie degli Scnri, 1879, p. 14, tav. vii., and p. 113 ; 1882, 
p. 216, tav. xiv.-xvi. — Bull, com., 1878, p. 257 ; 1880, ]>. 80. 

On the side opposite the Basilica Nova stood the 

XII. PoRTicT's Margaritaria, an arcade for jewelers and 
goldsmiths (XII in plan). — The parallelogram between the Sacra 
and the Xova Via, the Arch of Titus and the House of the Vestals, 
remained a ten-a incognita to the topographer until the excavations 
of 1878-7.9. Instead of the cedes Penatinm, of the house of the 
Tarquins, of the Temple of Jupiter Stator, and other such edifices 
crowded into it by the fancy of modern students, it was found to 
contain a })ortico; sup2>orted by ten or eleven rows of stone pilas- 
tei-s (twenty-two in each row), similar in every respect to the Por- 
ticus Septorum under the Palazzo Doria, and to the Porticus 
Vipsania under the (now demolished) Palazzo Piombino. The 
stone pilasters stand four metres apart, and the covered galleries 
must have been lighted by openings in the vault. The classic 
name of this portico is easily found by refei-ring to the Almanac 



of 354, which mentions, among the edifices near to the Forum, a 
Porticus Margaritaria, viz., a portico occupied by jewelers and 
goldsmiths. Considering that the jewelers and goldsmiths of the 
Porticus Margaritaria call themselves de Sacra Via, it is evident 
that the arcades opened on that very street. Part ii. of volume vi. 
of the " Corpus Inscriptionum " contains scores of epitaphs of 
these tradesmen of the Sacra Via : there are unguejiiarii, perfumers ; 
aurijices, goldsmiths ; an auri vestrix, weaver of gold cloth (?) ; 
ccelatores, engravers also in repousse work ; coronarii or wreath- 
makers ; Jlaturarii, metal-casters ; (jemmarii and margaritarii, deal- 
ers in jewels and pearls ; pigmentai-ii, makers of cosmetics ; tibiarii. 

Fig. 83. — Plan of Porticus Margaritaria. 

flute-makers ; and negotiatores in general. Originally tliey must 
have exhibited their precious merchandise in booths and screens 
and desks under the shelter of the portico ; later on, the portico 
was cut up into regular shops by means of brick walls raised be- 
tween each jiair of stone pilasters, exactly as was done with the 
Septa and with the Porticus Vipsania. The space was cut up also 
vertically by means of wooden floors, so as to secure an office or 
a bedroom above the shop. 

The visitor who looks at the apparently barren site of the portico 
may wonder how and where the subtle eyes of the topographer can 
see all these details. The explanation is this. When the exca- 
vators, in search of building-materials, attacked the ruins of the 


portico at the time of Alexander VII., under the leadership of 
Leonardo Agostini, they removed only the blocks of travertine of 
which the pilasters were built, and left alone the partition walls 
of brick. The portico, therefore, is gone, except a few blocks 
which remain in situ here and there, especially on the side of the 
Nova Via, but we can judge of its shape and size and aspect from 
the brick walls, which still show the marks of the blocks stolen 
away under Pope Chigi. Many brick stamps found in the excava- 
tions of 1879 mention the kilns of Domitia Lucilla, wife of Lucius 
Verus. The shops, therefore, must date from the second quarter 
of the second century, probably from the year 134. The whole 
building was not level, but followed the slope of the ground, like 
the inclined wings of Bernini's portico at the end of the piazza of 
S. Peter's. 

Literature. — Notizie deijli Scai-i, 1882, p. 228. — Luchvig Preller, Die 
Regionen (ler Stadt Rom, p. 154. — Forma Urbis Roma, pi. xxix. — • Sante 
Bartoli Pietro, Mem. 50 (iu Fea's Miscellanea, vol. i. p. 234). — Corpus inscr., 
vol. vi. n. 1974, 9207, 9212, 9214, 9221, 9283,9418, 94.34, 9545, 9662, 9775. 

Continuing our descent of the Clivus Sacer, after passing on the 
right the street leading to the Carinse, described in § x., we find 
on the same side the monumental group of SS. Cosma e Damiano, 
which comprises a round vestibule, once the Heroon Komuli, and a 
square hall, once the Templum Sacra^ Urbis. 

XIII. The Heroox Romuli (Temple of Romuhis, son of I\Iax- 
entius) (XIII in plan). — When this young prince died in o(l9, a 
coin was struck with the legend divo komvlo, on the reverse of 
which is represented a round monument erected to his memory. 
The " Liber Pontificalis," John the deacon, and others mention the 
site of SS. Cosma e Damiano as that of a templum Romuli (mean- 
ing the founder of the city), and this tradition has lasted to our 
own time. (See Nibby, Roma nell' anno 1888, part i. vol. ii. p. 710.) 
Commendatore de Rossi, with the help of a fragmentary inscrip- 
tion whicli still remained affixed to the building towards 1550, has 
been able to prove, first, that the round vestibule of SS. Cosma e 
Damiano and the Heroon Romuli are one and the same thing ; 
secondly, that the Heroon was still unfinished when Maxentius 
lost his life at the battle of Saxa Rubra on October 27, 312. The 
Senate comjjleted the rotunda, and dedicated it, together with 
the basilica, to Constantine. Pope Felix IV. (526-530) cut open a 
communication between the rotunda and the Templum Sacrse 
Urbis behind it, and dedicated both to SS. Cosmas and Daniianus, 
physicians and martyrs. 



The style of the Ilevoon shows a decided decline in taste and 
elegance. Instead of a round marble cella surrounded by a peri- 
style of fluted Corinthian pillars, as we see in the Temple of 
Matuta, of Herciiles iNIagnus Custos, etc., we are confronted with 
a clumsy mixture of curved and straight lines, a round hall be- 
tween two rectangular ones, a front with a hemicicyle between 
the middle columns, and two doors between each side couple. 

Fig. 84. — The Portico of the Heroon Romuli. 

Two columns (of cipollino) are left standing ; a third was removed 
at the time of Urban VIII. ; the site of the fourth is only marked 
by its socle. The most conspicuous portion of the building is the 
entrance door, with bronze folds and an elaborate entablature sup- 
ported by two columns of porphyry. The door and its ornaments 
were raised to the level of the modern city by Pope Barl>erini 
about 1630. The Italian government restored it to its ancient 
site in 1879. I may add that when Urban VIII. repaired the roof 
of the cupola, the cupola itself was in imminent danger of collaps- 



ing. We found ^vedg■ed in its cracks roots of ilexes over ten centi- 
metres in diameter, the remains of an hortus siccus many hundred 
years old. 

LiTEKATUKK. — Gio. Battista cle Rossi, Bull, crist., 1867, p. 66. — Rodolfo 
Lanciaui, Bull, com., 1882, p. 29, pi. 9. — Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. n. 1147. — 
Mariano Armellini, Chiese di Ruiau, pp.152 and 155. — Notizie de<jli Scavi, 

Fig. 85. — Plan of 
SS. Cosma e Damiano. 

XIV. Templum Sacr.e Urbis (archives of the Cadastre) (XIV 
in plan). The inner rectangular hall, back of 
the Heroon Romuli, was built by Vespasian 
in 78. 

When this wise prince took the reins of 
empire after the great disasters which had 
befallen the capital under Nero and Vitellius, 
the city was still " deformis veteribus in- 
cendiis atque minis." Its state may be com- 
pared with that of Paris after the Commune 
as far as public buildings are concerned, but 
we must go back to the Chicago fire of 1871 
to find a parallel for the thousands of palaces, 
tenement houses, temples, and shrines de- 
stroyed, the ruins of which covered ten re- 
gions out of fourteen. Between 73 and 75, 
the high priests, magistrates, architects, sur- 
veyors, and military engineers, under the 

leadership of the censors, attended to the reorganization of the 
city both materially and from an administrative point of view. The 
last Roman census in the antique fashion was taken in 74, the city 
area and limits were defined, the ground surveyed, the line of the 
Servian walls and that of the octroi measured, together with the 
length of the streets radiating from the golden milestone towards 
the gates, the fourteen wards divided into many hundred " com- 
pita larum " (parishes ?), the cadastre of public and private 
property revised and brought up to date, the pomerium enlarged, 
the streets straightened and repaved, the temples rebuilt, and a 
new and re%'ised map of the city made. All the documents con- 
nected with these geodetic and financial operations were deposited 
in a fire-proof building erected for the purjiose on the southwest 
side of the Forum of Peace, between it and the Sacra Via. The 
hall had two entrances, one from the northwest, decorated with a 
portico of six columns, on the epistyle of which the following in- 
sci'iption was engraved : — 



imp • caes • vesPASiANus • avg • font • max • tribvn • put • 
viii imp • xviii • p • p • censor • cos • viii 

impp • caess • severvs • et • antoninvs • pii • avgg • felices 


(This epistyle was broken, with the fall of the portico, into 
four pieces. Two are missing; one was found about 1530 in the 

Piazza della Consolazione ; 
the last, in 1612, near the steps 
of S. Francesca Komana.) 
J The second entrance, still per- 
fect, ojjened on the street de- 
scribed in § X. This monu- 
mental gate has been designed 
and illustrated by Middleton 
in the " Remains of Ancient 
Rome," vol. i. p. 41. The last 
two lines of the inscription, 
which contain the names of 
Severus and Caracalla, refer 
to the restorations made by 
these Emperors to the edifice, 
considerably damaged by the 
fire of Commodus. Their work 
can be easily recognized from 
the fact that while Vespa- 
sian's hall was of opus quad- 
ratum, of tufa strengthened 
with blocks of travertine at 
the corners, the restorations 
of 211 are of bricks. When 
Panvinio and Ligorio de- 
scribed and sketched the 
building towards the middle 
of the sixteenth ceiitury it was 
„„ practically intact, the only 

changes made when it was 
".'■'."■".'.'",.''.'.,!':'."-''"' J. f. p.... Chi-istianized by Felix IV. 

being the introduction of the 

. The Church of SS. Cosma e Domiano ^P^^ and the altar. They de- 
scribed the hall as lighted by 
fifteen large windows (three 


Fig. 86. ■ 

in the Middle Ages. 



still visible, see Fig. 86). The walls were divided into three hori- 
zontal bands by finely cut cornices. The upper band was occupied 
by the windows, as in our old churches ; the lower was simply lined 
with marble slabs covered by the bookcases and screens which 
contained the papers and records and maps of the cadastre ; the 
middle one was incrusted with tarsia-work of the rarest kinds of 
marble, with panels representing panoplies, the Wolf with the infant 
founders of Rome, and other such allegorical scenes. A particu- 
lar that may surjirise the reader is that a large percentage of the tiles 
of the present roof are ancient, their dates varying from the time 
of Caracalla to that of Theodoric. After the restoration of Cara- 

Fig. 87. — The Church of SS. Cosma e Damiano at the end of the sixteenth century. 

calla the place took the name of Templum Sacrge Urbis. This 
most perfect of the buildings in the classic district of the Sacra 
Via was mercilessly mutilated by Pope Urban VIII. in 1632. He 
raised tlie level of the church by 24 feet, destroyed the stone walls 
which made it fire-proof, and sold or gave up the stones to the 
Jesuits for their Church of S. Ignazio. The bronze gates of the 
Heroon were wrenched from their sockets and rebuilt out of place 
in symmetry with the axis of the church ; the historic inscription 
of Constantine was destroyed, and the precious incrustations of 


the nave were obliterated. The Christian decorations of the edi- 
fice had no better fate. There was a ciborium in the a^ise, made 
about 1150 by Guy, cardinal of SS. Cosma e Damiano, a master- 
piece of the school of Paolo Romano, signed by four of his son's 
pupils : lonannes, petrvs, angelms, sasso, filii pavli hvivs 
OPERis MAGiSTRi FVERVNT. It was leveled to the ground, to- 
gether with the ambones of Sergius I. (695). The frescoes in the 
lower portion of the walls were whitewashed. Pope Barberini laid 
his hands also on the mosaics of the apse, mutilating those of the 
arch as well as those of the calotta. Lastly, he called the monks 
to helji in the work of destruction, and a brief dated 1630 (discov- 
ered by Armellini in the Archivio dei Brevi) gave " licentiam effo- 
diendi lapides " as they pleased. 

The fame of the Templum Sacrae Urbis comes, however, from 
another cause. When Agrippa and Augustus surveyed the city 
in 6 B. c, the result of their labors, viz. the plan, or Forma Urbis, 
was publicly exhibited in the Porticus Vipsania on the Via Fla- 
minia (Aug. 1, 7 b. c). Vespasian, likewise, must have exhibited the 
plan of the city reconstructed, after the fire, by Nero and by himself, 
in this building of SS. Cosma e Damiano. The third edition of 
the map, rej^resenting the city rebuilt and reorganized by Severus 
and Caracalla after the fire of Conimodus, was certainly affixed to 
the outside wall of the building, looking on the forum of Peace. 
This celebrated " Forma Urbis," engraved on marble at an ap- 
proximate scale of 1 : '250, the fragments of which are exhibited 
in the Capitoline museum, has been described at length in Book 
I. pp. 95-98. 

Literature on the Heroon Roimili and the Tem]iliini Sacrw Urhis. — Gio. 
Battista de Rossi, Bull. arch, crist., 1867, p. iW ; and 18'Jl, p. 7ti, n. 3 ; Mu- 
saici delle chiese di Homa, part iv. — Rodoh'o Lauciani, Bull, cum., 1882, p. 2i>, 
tav. iii.-x. — Mariano Armellini, Cliitse di Homa, 2d ed. p. 152. — Leone 
Nardoni, Di alcune sotterr. confessloni nclle antlche basilichc. Rome, 1881. — 
Notizle degli Scavi, 1879-80, passim ; and Bull, cum., 1881, p. 8. 

On the names Urbs JJterna and Vrbs Sacra consult F. G.Moore in Transact. 
Amer. Philul. Association, 1894, 34. 

The back wall of the temple covered by the marble plan formed 
at the same time part of the inclosure of the Forum of Peace 
(XV in plan), the pavement of which is inlaid with slabs of 
portasanta. The pavement has been uncovered both at the foot 
of the wall, where it is still to be seen, and under the house Via 
del Tempio della Pace, Xo. 11, where it lies buried under thirty- 
eight feet of rubbish. I have already mentioned (§ ix.) some of 


the famous ornaments of this forum ; we may add to the list a gal- 
lory of statues of famous athletes from Greece, of which we heard 
the first time in March, 1891, when a marble pedestal was dis- 
covered at the corner of the Via del Sole and the Salara Vecchia, 
bearing the inscription nreOKAHS ' HAEI02 ■ nENTA0AO2 " (iro) 
ATKAEITOT * ('Ap76)toT. It refers to the celebrated statue of 
Tythokles, a work of Polykletos, the original of which was erected 
at Olympia, in memory of exploits of the former in the pent- 
athlon. There the statue was seen by Pausanias (vi. 7, 10), and 
there also its pedestal was rediscovered by the Germans in 1879 
between the temples of Juno and Pelops. The original figure 
must have been leaning on the right leg, as shown by the marks 
on the plinth, whereas the Roman copy seems to have been leaning 
the opposite way, unless tlie pedestal has been made use of twice, 
before and after the first barbaric invasion. The loss of the Roman 
replica is deeply to be regretted because we have no specimen of 
the work of the second Polykletos. The pedestal is exhibited in 
the Museo Municipale al Celio. 

A little below the Temple of Romulus, the Sacra Via was 
spanned by the 

XV. Fornix Fabiaxus (the Arch of Q. Fabius Allobrogicus) 
(XVI in plan). — On the left footway of the Sacra Via, nearly 
opposite the street which divides the Temple of Faustina from 
the Ileroon Romuli, are lying several blocks of travertine, with 
mouldings, cornices, and capitals of very simple design. They 
were discovered in 1882 in the middle of the street, not one stand- 
ing in its original site. Ancient writers place at this exact point 
the fornix or archway erected by Q. Fabius INIaxinms Allobrogicus, 
consul 121 B. c, in memory of his successful campaign against 
the Allobroges and Arvernes. The monument was celebrated 
more from its location than for architectural value or size. Cras- 
sus the orator used to say of IMemmius that he thought himself 
so great that he could not enter the Forum without stooping his 
head at the Arch of Fabius. Cicero places it at the foot of the 
Clivus Sacer. 

The remains of the arch were certainly dug up in 1543, but 
the statements of contemporary writers are so contradictory that 
it seems impossible to make out the truth. Some assert that the 
stones inscribed with the name of the conqueror of Savoy were 
found built in the vault of the Cloaca ]Maxima ! Others describe 
not only the exact spot where the arch stood, but also its deco- 


rations, trophies, victories, etc. Judging from the existing frag- 
ments, it was a very simple structure, worthy of the austerity of 
Republican times. The diameter of the archway measured 3.94 
metres. It was built of travertine on the outside, with the core of 
tufa and travertine. Near or upon it were statues of L. ^milius 
Paullus and of P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus. 

LiTEUATURK. — Cicero, De orat., ii. 66 ; and Pro Plancio, 7. — Corjnis J7isc):, 
vol. i. p. 178; and vol. vi. n. 1303, 1304. —Gio. Battista de Rossi, JDeW arco 
Fabiano nel Foro (in Annal. Inst., 1859, vol. xxxi. p. 307). — Notizie der/U 
Scavi, 1882, p. 224, tav. xvi. —Nichols, The Roman Forum, p. 126. — The- 
denat, in Daremberg and Saglio's Dlctiontiaire , p. 1.302, n. 28. 

The last building on the right side of the Sacra Via, before 
reaching the Forum, is the 

XVI. iEi)Es Y>w\ Pii ET Div^. Faustina, or Temple of An- 
toninus and Faustina — chui'ch of S. Lorenzo in jNliranda (XVII 
in plan). — "When Antoninus Pius lost his wife, Faustina the 
elder, in A. D. 141, the Senate voted a temple to commemorate her 
apotheosis, with priestesses attached to it, with gold and silver 
statues, etc. On the architrave of the temple this simple inscrip- 
tion was engraved : — 

dIvae • favstInae • ex • s • c. 

The same divine honors were given to Antoninus after his 
death in 161 ; and his name was added to that of Faustina on the 
frieze, with little consideration for the laws of epigraph ic symme- 
try. (See Corpus Inscriptionum, vol. vi. n. 1005.) The edifice 
was named from the last occupant, ^des divi Pii. It is prostyle, 
with six columns on the front and three on the sides. The col- 
umns are of Carystian or cipollino marble, which had come into 
great fashion since the time of Hadrian. The frieze, with its 
griffins, vases, candelabra, and festoons, is considered a marvel of 

In the wide space covered by the pronaos there were statues 
of friends or relatives of the Antonines, like those of Vitrasius 
Pollio (Corpus Inscriptionum, 1540), husband of Annia Faustina, 
governor of Asia and of lower Moesia, consul a. d. 138 and 176 ; 
and of Bassseus Rufus Qhid., 1599), one of the victorious leaders 
in the Marcomannic campaign. The temple is represented in 
contemporary medals, as well as in a bas-relief of the Villa Me- 
dici. (See Bull. Inst., 1853, p. 141.) Its remains, most beautifully 
preserved, were dedicated to S. Lawrence in the seventh or eighth 



century, probably by a devout lady named ^Miranda (compare the 
names of S. Lorenzo in Forraoso, in Daniaso, in Lucina, etc.). 
This saved them from destruction until the time of Urban V., 
1362-1370, who allowed the temple to be reduced to the present 
state, to provide stones and marbles for the reconsti-uction of the 
Lateran. Martin V. granted the church in 1430 to the corporation 

Fig. 88. — The Frieze of the Temple of Faustina. 

of apothecaries, who built shrines and chapels in the intercolum- 
niations of the portico, protected by a roof the slanting traces of 
■which are still \4sible. Roof and cbapels were demolished by 
Paul III. on the occasion of the entry of Charles Y. Fra Gio- 
condo da Verona mentions more than once excavations made 
round the temple at the end of the fifteenth century, by which he 
and Peruzzi were enabled to take measurements of the substruc- 
tures and basement ; but no further spoliation seems to have been 
committed until the temple was again given up by the same Paul 
III. to the deputies for the Fabbrica di S. Pietro. 

The results of the loot of 1.510 are described as follows by 
Ligorio (Bodl., p. 28) : " I shall now describe some marbles found 
at the foot of the temple, when they were searching for, and re- 
moving to S. Peter's, the beautiful steps, an act of vandalism 



which I cannot condemn too strongly. There was a bas-relief 
representing Nereids riding on dolphins ; a portion of the figure 
which stood on the top of the pediment ; a square pedestal with 
low relief, in a style like the Egyptian ; and many fragments of 
statues, capitals, and friezes, half burned in a lime-kiln. There 
was also the base of a statue dedicated to Antoninus by the corpora- 

Fig 89. — Graffiti oii the Caiystiau Columns of the Temple of Faustina. 

tion of bakers, which became the property of the Mattel." There 
were twenty-one steps, as ascertained in the course of the excava- 
tions made in 1811 by the French prefect of the Departement du 
Tibre. The same excavations brought to light the threshold of 
the door leading to the crypt below the stairs. M. Lacour Gayet 
discovered in 1885, and published in the " Melanges de I'Ecole 
fran(;aise de Rome " of that year, p. 226, a set of graffiti scratched 


on the lower portion of the columns of the pronaos, after their 
surface had been softened by the fire of Conimodus. They rep- 
resent Hercules and the lion of Xemea, a Lar, the Alctory, etc. 
The inscriptions date from the Christian era, as if some one was 
hastening the " purification " of the building. There are saluta- 
tions like EVTiciANE VIVAS and the monogram 


CO y^ A 

which must have been sketched by some one of Eastern extrac- 
tion, as the Latins always made the Alpha precede the Omega. 

The ground in front of the temple was cleared in January, 1870. 
Among the objects recovered on this occasion were a fragment of 
the fasti consulares from the year of Rome 75.5 to 760 ; a pedestal 
of a statue which, having been overthro'SATi by an earthquake (fa- 
tali necessitate collapsa), was replaced on its pedestal by Gabinius 
Vettius Probianus, a prefect of Eome, at the beginning of the 
fifth century, well known for the care he took for the j)reservation 
of works of art, injured in one way or another during those event- 
ful years ; and the pedestal of an equestrian statue raised \)\ the 
policemen to Geta. The ground in front of the temple is called 
in the inscription of Probianus celeberrimvs a-rbis locvs. 

Literature. — Vita Pii, 6. — Eckliel, Doctriiia numism. vet., vii. .39. — Pirro 
Ligorio, Cod. vat., 3374, f. 168; and Cod. Torin., xv. f. 100.— Fra Giocoiido 
da Verona, Uffizi, n. 202. — Tournon, Etudes statist, sur Rome, vol. ii. p. 264. 
— Valadier et Visconti, Raccolta delle piii itisirjni fabbriche di Roma, tav. ii., 
iii. — Antonio Nibby, Faro romano, p. 181. — Angelo Pellegrini, Svavi di 
Roma (in Buonarroti, February, 1876). — Armellini, Chiese di Roma, p. 1.57. 

We must now cross to the opposite side of the Sacra Via, and 
examine, before entering the Forum, the group of Vesta, which 
comprises the Regia, the temple, the shrine, and the house of the 


XVIT. The Regia (X\T;II in plan). — The now vacant sj^ace 
of ground between the Temples of Vesta and Faustina was occu- 
pied by the Regia, the official residence of the Pontifex ]\Iaximus, 
and the centre of his administration, the foundation of which was 
attributed to Xuma. It contained a chapel where the lances of 
Mars were kept ; another sacred to Ops C'onsiva, which could be 
entered only liy the Vestals and by the •' sacerdos publicus ; " spa- 
cious archives for the safe keeping of the annals, commentaries, 
and books of the Supi'eme Priesthood ; and a meeting hall where 



religious conventions were held (like that of the Fratres Arvales 
of May 14, 14 b. c, for the cooptatio of Drusus Caesar, son of 
Tiberius). The Regia was burnt to the ground not less than four 
times : first in 210 b. c. ; then in 148, when only the chapel of 
Mars and the laurel-trees shading the entrance were saved from 
the flames ; and again in 36, when it was rebuilt by Doniitius 
Calvinus in solid marble, and ornamented with statues obtained 
from Julius Ciiesar, much against his will. Pliny (Xatural His- 
tory, xxxvi. 18, 8) says that two of the four statues which once 
had supported the tent of Alexander the Great were placed before 
the Regia, the other two being before the Temple of Mars Ultor. 
In 1883 I expressed the opinion (Notizie Scavi, p. 479) that 

Fig. 00. —The Regia, as .sketched by Pirro Ligorio. 

the graceful little edifice (once more attacked by the flames in the 
conflagration of Nero) never rose from its ashes ; but after read- 
ing the account of its discovery and outrageous treatment by the 
deputies of the Fabbrica di S. Pietro in 1543-46, I wish to correct 
this statement. The illusti-ation, which I have photographed 
from an original sketch by Ligorio, who was present at the di?- 


covery, speaks better than any other argument. The design is 
more a restoration of that fanciful architect than a picture of 
the real state of the building when first discovered (August 15, 
1543 V) ; but many of the particulars are genuine, as any one can 
see by comparing them with the existing fragment, reproduced by 
Huelsen and Nichols, with Michelangelo's reconstruction in the 
Sala dei Fasti, Palazzo dei Conservatori, and with Panvinio's de- 
signs. Ligorio labored under the delusion that the edifice discov- 
ered was a " Janus," and so he gave it four entrances, wliile in 
reality there were but two. At any rate all those present at the 
find, Palladio, Metello, Panvinio, Ligorio, agree that there was 
a considerable portion of the Regia standing above ground, and 
that very many lines of the Fasti triumphales et consulares were 
found in situ, engraved on its marble walls and pilasters ; the first 
between 18 and 12 before Christ, the consulares in 36. Ligorio 
says that it took thirty days to demolish the exquisite ruins down 
to the level of the foundations, some of the blocks being split for 
the lime-kiln, others handed over to the stone-cutters of S. Peter's. 
Cardinal Alessandro Farnese came finally to the rescue : the frag- 
ments of the Fasti were piously collected by him, and removed 
to the Capitol, and the ground was tunneled in various directions 
in search of stray pieces. Michelangelo for the architectural part, 
and Gentile Delfino for the epigraphic, were deputed to arrange 
them in one of the halls of the Palazzo dei Conservatori. Other 
fragments have been discovered since 1870. 

Literature. — Coi-jms Inscr., vol. i. p. 41.5; second edition, pp. 10-12, pi. 
la. — Fea, Frammenti d. Fasd. — Adolf Becker, Topographie, p. 234. — De 
Murls, p. 23. — F. M. Nichols, The Roman Forum, pp. 118-12.5. — Heinrich 
Jordan, Furma Urbis, pi. 3, n. 21. — Notizie der/li Scavi, 1882, p. 226. — The dis- 
coveries of 1886 were illustrated b}' Nichols, The Regia and the Fasti Capito- 
lini (in Archaiologia, vol. 1., 1887, p. 227); by the same in Mittheil., 1886, 
pp. 94-98; by Jordan, Gli edijizi J'ra il tempio di Faustina, e V atrio di Vesta 
(in Mittheil., 1886, p. 99, pis. 5-7); and bv Huelsen, Die Regia (in Jahrbuch 
Arch. Inst., 1889, p. 228). 

XVIII. The Temple of Vesta (XIX in plan). — "In prehis- 
toric times, when fire could be obtained only from the friction 
caused by rubbing together two sticks of wood or from sparks of 
flint, every village kept a public fire burning day and night in a 
central hut for the use of each family. The duty of watching the 
precious element was intrusted to young girls, because girls, as 
a rule, did not follow their parents or brothers to the pasture 
grounds, nor did they share with them the fatigues of hunting or 


fishing expeditions. In course of time this simple practice be- 
came a kind of sacred institution, especially at Alba Longa, the 
mother country of Rome ; and when a party of Alban shepherds 
settled on the banks of the Tiber, the worship of Vesta — repre- 
sented by the j)ublic fire and the girls attending to it — was duly 
organized at the foot of the Palatine, on the borders of the market- 
place " (Ancient Rome, p. 135). 

It seems that the original hut built by Numa perished in the 
invasion of the Gauls in 390 b. c. The Vestals, on being warned 
of their approach, concealed the Palladium and other relics in 
two earthen jars, buried them near the house of the flamen Quiri- 
nalis — the place was henceforth called f/o//o/a — and took refuge 
at Caere. A second fire in 241 destroyed the temple. While the 
Vestals tried to save their lives, Caecilius Metellus, the high priest, 
threw himself into the flames, and saved the Palladium at the 
cost of one eye and one arm, which was charred to the bone. The 
valor of thirteen slaves saved the temple from being gutted for 
the third time in 210, and for this action they were at once lib- 
erated. The architecture of the temple of those days can be seen 
in the coins of the gens Cassia, dating from the commencement of 
the seventh century.' The round structure is covered by a conical 
roof surmounted by a statue, and fringed around with dragons' 
heads. Horace describes an inundation of the time of Augustus, 
by which the temple was seriously damaged. Kero restored it 
after his own fire. Lastly, the terrible conflagration which swept 
over the valley of the Forum in 191 a. d., under the Empire of 
Commodus, destroyed with the temple the house of the Vestals, 
the Temple of Peace, etc. The Vestals fled to the Palatine, 
carrying with them the Palladium, which was thus seen for the 
first time by profane eyes. The reconstruction by Julia Domna, 
the Empress of Septimius Severus, and the mother of Caracalla, 
is the last recorded in history. The " vignettes " of her medals 
(ap. Cohen, Med. imp., 2d ed. n. 239) give an exact idea of its 
architecture and style ; it is also represented on several bas-reliefs, 
reproduced by the aiithors and in the works quoted at the foot 
of this section. After the defeat of Eugenius in 394, Theodosius 
II. shut the gates of the temple and extinguished forever the 
mysterious fire which had been kept burning for over a thousand 

A shapeless mass of concrete of the foundations is all that is 
left of the famous shrine. The responsibility for such a great loss 
1 Babelon, Monnaies de la republ. romaine, vol. i. p. 331, n. 8, 9. 


falls not on the would-be barbarians, but, as usual, on the genial 
masters of the Renaissance. When first discovered, at the time 
of Fra Giocondo da Verona in 1489, it was practically intact, and 
had suffered only slight damage. The Fabbrica di S. Pietro de- 
stroyed it in 1.549, removing or burning into lime not only the 
marble blocks of the cella, the entablature, and the peristyle, but 
even the tufa blocks which strengthened and surrounded the 
concrete of the foundations, like a ring. Thirty-five pieces only 
escaped by a miracle, and we found them scattered over a large 
area in the excavations of 1877. AMth their help, and by com- 
parison with the designs of medals and bas-reliefs, architects and 
archaeologists have attempted the reconstruction of the temple. 
The one I suggest is represented on pp. 159 and IGO of " Ancient 
Rome." Compare it with Jordan's " Der Tempel," pi. 4 ; and 
Auer's " Der Tempel," plates 6-8. This last is reproduced in the 
preceding cut. 

Literature. — Wolfgang: Helbig, Bull. Inst., 1878, p. 9. — Rodolfo Lan- 
ciani, V atrio di Vesta (in Notizie Scavi, December, 1883); and Ancient Rome, 
chaps, vi. and vii. — Heinrich Jordan, Ber Tempel der Vesta. Berlin, Weid- 
mann, 1886. — Hans Auer, Ber Tempel der Vesta. Vienna, Tempsky, 1888. — 
Christian Huelsen, MittlieU., vol. iv., 1889, p. 245. — J. Henrj' Middleton, 
The Remains of Ancient Rome, vol. i. p. 298. — H. Thedenat, in Daremberg 
and Saglio's Bictionnaire, p. 1285, n. 7. 

XIX. The Shrine (XX in plan). — The ancient practice of 
placing shrines of domestic gods at the corners of the main streets 
of each ward of the city, was raised to the dignity of a public 
institution by Augustus.^ Four hundred and twenty-four of these 
popular chapels were numbered in Rome under Constantine. The 
Christians accepted the institution, and developed it to such an 
extent that not less than three thousand two hundred and forty-six 
were registered in Rome in 1853. Although many inscriptions 
belonging to the " sediculae larum " have been found from time to 
time, only two may be said to exist now : the shrine of the Vicus 
Sobrius near S. Martino ai Monti, and that of the Vicus Vestse. 
The latter stands behind the temple on the right of the entrance 
door to the cloisters. The entablature was supported by two 
columns of the composite order. The frieze contains the follow- 
ing inscription, in letters of the golden age : sexatvs popvlvsqve 
KOMANv(.s) • PECVNiA • PVBLicA • FACiENDAM • cvRAViT. Under- 
neath there was, very likely, a statue of Mercury, a socle inscribed 

1 See Pagan and Christian Rome, p. 62 ; and Suetonius, Octav.,1^, "com- 
pitales Lares ornare bis in anno instituit vernis floribus et icstivis." 

V ts 

:- O 


DEO • MERCVRio having been found not far away. An inscription 
discovered in June, 1878, at S. Paolo fuori le Mura tells us the 
name and the history of this monument. It says that in a. d. 223, 
Severus Alexander being Emperor, the street magistrates of the 
eighth region (Forum) had rebuilt ^^edicvlam • reg • viii • vico 
VEST^. Vesta's Temple is separated from that of Castor and 
Pollux by a lane, which is evidently the Vicus Vestae mentioned 

This beautiful shrine could be reconstructed in its entirety, but 
the attempt has not yet been made. 

XX. Atrium Vest^ (House of the Vestals) (XXI in plan, 
and Fig. 92). — The House of the Vestals is an oblong brick build- 
ing, of the time of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, sur- 
rounded by streets on every side : by the Sacra Via on the north, 
by the Vicus Vestae on the west, by the Nova Via on the south, 
and by an unknown lane on the east. The most prominent feature 
of the building is the Atrium ; in fact, its size and magnificence 
were so great that the whole building was named from it, Atrium 
Vestse. The building itself is 115 metres long, 53 wide ; the 
Atrium 67 metres long, 24 wide. The surface of the house amounts 
to 6095 square metres, of which not less than one foui'th (1608 
square metres) is occupied by the Atrium. Its architecture can be 
compared with that of our mediaeval and Renaissance double- 
storied cloisters, which, being the abode of people seldom or 
never allowed to go out, must necessarily be very airy and spacious 
to give the inmates the chance of taking bodily exercise. The 
portico on the ground floor has, or rather had, forty-eight columns 
of cipollino mai'ble, of the Corinthian order. Of this stately col- 
onnade not a piece is left standing. The site and the number of 
the shafts are marked only by the foundation stones (cuscini) of 
travertine. Not a trace has been found of the capitals and of the 
entablature, which was 146 metres long ; and I do not know any 
other instance of such a wholesale destruction of an ancient build- 
ing. The second or upper story had an equal number of columns, 
smaller in size and of the precious breccia corallina. Two whole 
columns and many fragments have been recovered. They have 
escaped destruction because the breccia corallina cannot be burnt 
into lime. 

The Atrium is surrounded by state apartments on the ground 
floor. On the upper it was surrounded by the private apartments 
of the Vestals. Of course, we cannot give their right name to the 


single pieces, or state one by one their former use and place. At 
the east end of the cloisters there is a large hall, twelve metres 
long and eight metres wide, which corresponds to the tablinum of a 
Roman house. Its pavement is laid out in colored marbles, such 
as giallo, porfido, serpentine, etc., and the pattern belongs to the 
style brought into fashion under Septimius Sever us. The walls 
were incrusted also with rare marbles framed by a cornice of rosso 
antico. On each side of this hall there are three smaller rooms, 
making a total of six, a figure corresponding to the number of the 
Vestals. Their destination is doubtful ; certainly they were not 
used as bedrooms, in the first place because the bedrooms have 
been traced in the upper story, and secondly, because the damp- 
ness of these low cells is such that they were absolutely unfit for 
human habitation. 

The position of the house, as regards health and health-giving 
sunshine, is most unfavorable. Being built against the cliff of 
the Palatine, at the bottom of an artificial cutting, its ground 
floor lies thirty feet below the level of the Nova Via ; this street is 
actually supported by the back walls of the state apartments on 
the west side of the Atrium. No wonder that these walls should 
be saturated with damp, which must have told severely on the 
health of the sisters. They did their best to fight the evil. 
Double walls were set up against the buttress of the Nova Via, 
with a free space between them to allow of the circidation of air. 
Ventilators and hot-air furnaces are to be seen in every corner. 
Another precaution taken by the Vestals against rheumatism was 
the raising of the pavements of every room subject to damp, and 
the establishment of hot vapor currents in the free space between 
the double floors. This was done rather awkwardly. Instead of 
the terra-cotta cylinders or brick pillars which were commonly 
used by the Konians to support the upper floor of these hypocausta, 
the Vestals of latter days made use of large amphorje sawn across 
and cut into two portions of equal length. These half jars are 
placed in parallel rows and very near each other, and made to 
support the large tegulce bipedales over which the pavement is laid. 
Hot air was forced to circulate in the interstices between the jars 
by means of terra-cotta pipes from a furnace. In spite of all 
these precautions, the hoiise must have remained unhealthy, es- 
pecially from want of sunshine. Even how it is cast into the 
shade of the surrounding ruins of the imperial palace at an early 
hour of the day ; imagine what must have happened when that 
palace was towering in all its glory fully 150 feet above the level 


of the Atrium. These unfavorable liygieuic conditions allow us 
to exi^lain, with a certain degree of probability, a remarkable 
change in the rules of the order made towards the beginning of 
the fourth century. Physicians were not allowed in former times 
to enter the Atrium. As soon as the fii'st symptoms of a case of 
sickness made their appearance the patient was at once removed 
from the nunnery and put under the care of her parents, or else 
under the charge of a distingiushed matron. In the fourth cen- 
tury we hear for the first time of an archiater or physician attached 
to the establishment. 

When the excavations began in October, 1883, we were in hope 
of discovering some kind of fasti which would tell us the names of 
the Vestal virgins, the dates of their cooptation and death, and, 
above all, the list of the abbesses of the monastery. The expecta- 
tion was disappointed ; and when we consider that amongst the 
forty thousand inscriptions discovered in Rome since the early 
Renaissance there is not a line, not a fragment, which can be 
attributed to the above-named fasti, we may confidently assert 
that they never existed. It is difficult to explain this fact. The 
parallel religious corporations of the Fratres Ai'vales, of the Salii 
Palatini, of the Augiu's, took care that the fasti of their order, 
year after year, should be engraved in marble ; and these marbles, 
more or less injiu-ed by time, have come down to us, and they are 
considered as the most precious documents of Latin epigraphy and 
chronology. Perhaps it was not customary that female corpora- 
tions should have special annals; perhajis these annals were only 
permitted to true collegia, and the Vestals, like the Curiones, were 
not considered as such. At any i-ate, the want of the fasti is 
compensated for, as regards the Atrium, by the magnificent set of 
pedestals, with statues and eulogistic inscriptions, raised in honor 
of the Vestales maximse. The fashion of these dedications seems 
to have come in with the Empire, and was kept until the fall of 
the pagan superstition. The Atrium Vestse must have contained 
more than one hundred "honorary" pedestals, not because there 
were as many abbesses during the last four centuries of Vesta's 
worship, but because many statues represented and many pedestals 
bore the name of the same lady. The stone-cutters and the lime- 
burners of the Middle Ages have destroyed more than four fifths 
of this series. We possess actually the originals or the copies of 
thirty-six inscriptions bearing names of Vestales maxinue of these, 
twenty-eight were found in the Atrium itself, two on the Palatine, 
six in various other quarters of the town. Comparing the infox'- 


mation given by these marbles with tlie accounts of classical 
writers, we can put together an important section of the fasti 
7naximatus (the word maxhiiatus has appeared for the first time in 
one of the new inscriptions). 

1. Occia. She presided over the sisterhood from the year 38 
B. c. to A, D. 19. (Tacitus, Ann., ii. 86.) 

2. Junia Torquata, daughter of Silanus, the noblest of the noble 
Roman ladies ; maxima between a. d. 19 and 48. 

3. Vibidia, the generous protector of INIessalina when the long 
story of her infamies was disclosed to Claudius. (Tacitus, Ann., 
xi. 32.) 

4. Cornelia Maxima, murdered by Domitiau. (Pliny, Ep., iv. 11.) 

5. Prsetextata. Her name appeared for the first time on a ped- 
estal discovered December 29, 1883 : " Prjetextata; Crassi Filise 
Virgini Vestali Maxima*, C. lulius Creticus a Sacris." Her mo- 
ther, " Sulpicia Crassi uxor," is mentioned by Tacitus (Hist., iv. 42). 

6. Numisia Maximilla, a. d. 200. Two pedestals mention her 
name — one found tliree centuries ago, one discovered on Decem- 
ber 29, 1883, "Xumisia? jNIaximillse V.V. Maximaj, C. Helvidius 
Mysticus devotus beneficiis eius." 

7. Terentia Flavola, A. d. 215, whose name is engraved on four 
pedestals, was the great-granddaughter of Lollianus Avitus, con- 
sul in A. D. 114 ; the granddaughter of L. Iledius Rufus Lollianus 
Avitus, consul in a. d. 144 ; the daughter of Q. Hedius Rufus Lolli- 
anus Gentianus, Salius Palatinus and consul of uncertain date. 
She had, moreover, two brothers, Lollianus Plautius Avitus, hus- 
band of Claudia Sestia Cocceia Severiana, and Terentius Gentianus, 
husband of Pomponia Pietina. 

8. Campia Severina, a. d. 240. 

9. Flavia Mamilia, A. d, 242. 

10. Flavia Publicia, a. d. 247. This lady was undoubtedly the 
most famous and venerable chief of the order. Her eulogies and 
her pedestals have been discovei-ed in vast numbers. Judging 
from the appearance of the exquisite statue discovered, together 
with one of her pedestals, on December 20, Flavia Publicia was 
a lady of tall, queenly appearance, of noble demeanor, of a sweet 
and gentle, if not handsome face. Seven pedestals have been 
found, — one in 1497, one in 1.549, five in our own excavations. 
Of these recent ones the first was dedicated on July 11, 247 A. d., 
by her niece ^^milia Rogatilla, and by Minucius Honoratus, son 
of iEmilia ; the second by two captains of the army, Ulpius Yerus 
and Aurelius Titus; the third was dedicated on September 30, 


A. D. 257, by a certain Bareius Zoticus, with his wife Flavia 
Verecunda ; the fourth by a M. Aurelius Hermes ; the last by 
T. Flavins Ajsronius, a sub-iiitendant of the monastery. 

11. Coelia Claudiuna, a. d. 286. This abbess was already 
known from five inscriptions discovered at various times. The 
two others lately found tell nothing remarkable, except that she 
is said to have ruled over twenty years. 

12. Terentia Rufilla., a. d. 300. 

13. On November 5th, a pedestal was discovered bearing the 
following inscription : " Ob meritum castitatis, pudicitise, atque 
in sacris religionib usque doctrines mirabilis . . . [name erased] 
virgini Vestali maxima^, Pontifices viri clarissimi, pro magistro 
Macrinio Sossiano viro clarissimo, pro meritis." Then follows 
the date of June 9, a. d. 364 : " dedicata quinto idus lunias, divo 
loviano et Varroniano consulibus." Now, why should the name 
of this highly praised priestess have been erased? Two reasons 
only can be given : either she happened to forget the vows of 
chastity, or she was converted to Christianity. The first expla- 
nation does not seem satisfactory, not only because she was most 
probably a mature, if not an old woman, when the crime and 
the memorlce. damnaiio took place, but also because the fall of a 
Vestal would certainly have been noticed and registered and pro- 
claimed to the four winds by contemporary Christian writers. 
Conversion to the Gospel seems more probable ; one of these con- 
quests of the new faith in Vesta's Atrium seems to be mentioned 
by Prudentius (Peristeph., hymn 2). 

14. Coelia Concordia, the last Vesialis maxima, or the last bixt 
one. She was a great friend of the great champion of polytheism, 
Vettius Agorius Pmetextatus. Some of her exploits have been 
revealed by the discovery of a pedestal in the house of Prtetextatus 
himself, which house stood where is now the Convento dei Liguo- 
rini, formerly the Villa Caserta, at the corner of the Via Merulana 
and the Via dell' Arco di S. Vito. Ccelia Concordia had raised a 
statue in honor of Prsetextatus in the Atrium itself ; she received 
the same distinction in the house of that nobleman. The statue 
of Prsetextatus was discovered in the Atrium the last day of 1883. 

In tlie four months during whicli the excavations lasted, 36,000 
cubic metres of earth were carted away and the following objects 
discovered : jNIarble pedestals with inscriptions, 13 ; inscriptions 
on marble slabs, 12; brick-stamps, 102; silver coins, 835; gold 
coin, 1 ; pieces of jewelry, 2 ; busts and heads, 15 ; statues, 11 ; 
important pieces of statues, 7; columns or pieces of columns of 
breccia corallina, cipollino, and bigio, 11. 


The most remarkable find was that of a ripostiglio, or hidden 
treasure of Anglo-Saxon coins, made on November 8, 1883, under 
the remains of a mediaeval house built within the northeast corner 
of the Atrium. About a metre and a half above the ancient pave- 
ment our men found a rough terra-cotta jug containing 832 silver 
coins, one of gold, and a piece of jewelry inscribed " Domno 
Marino Papa." 

The gold coin, a solidus, shows on one side the head and the 
name of the Byzantine Emperor Theophilus (827-84"2), on the 
other side the busts of JMichael and Constantine VIII. The piece 
proves only that the treasure was not buried before the first half 
of the lunth centmy, and proves nothing else, as Byzantine solidi 
have been used both in the East and in the West for centuries ; in 
fact, a few of them were still current not many years ago in some 
Turkish provinces. In the Middle Ages they were the standard 
international currency; the Merovingian kings even struck a 
certain number of these coins with the effigies and names of 
.Justinus, of Justinian, and so forth. Of the 832 silver denarii, 
828 are Anglo-Saxon, one from Ratisbon, one from Limoges, two 
from Pavia. The Anglo-Saxon group is subdivided as follows : 
Coins with the legend aelfred rex, 3; with eadvveakd rex, 
217; with aethelstax uex, 393; with eadmvnd rex, 195; 
with oxLAF (Anlaf, Anlef) rex or cvxvxc, G; with sitrice 
CVNVNC, 1 ; with the name of archbishop plegmvnd, 4 ; uncer- 
tain. 10 ; total, 829. Of ^Ethelstan's coins, 2 were struck at Bath, 

1 at Canterbury, 1 at Chichester, 1 at Dartmouth, 4 at Derby, 20 
at Dorchester, 6 at Exeter, 16 at York, 2 at Hertford, 1 at Lewes, 

2 at Longport, 25 at Leicester, 66 at London, 1 at ^Maldon, 14 
at Norwich, 9 at Oxford, 7 at Shrewsbury, 1 at Shaftesbury, 3 at 
Stafford, 14 at Winchester, 13 at Wallingford, 3 at tolie (?). 
The names of the monttarii are nearly as numerous as the coins 
tliemselves. The piece of jewelry is a kind of fibula or broocli, 
witli silver designs and letters iidaid on copper. It is a unique 
piece, not only as a work of art of a Roman goldsmith of the 
tenth century, but because fibula' inscribed with the name of 
the living pope are not to be found. It was certainly used to 
fasten on the shoulder the mantle of some high official belonging 
to the court of ]Marinus II., a pontiff otherwise obscure, who 
occupied the chair of S. Peter from 942 to 946 ; Albericus being 
tlien the Princeps romanorum and Edmund the King of England. 
This official must have been in charge of the pope's episcopium, 
which nestled among the ruins of the palace of Caligula (see 


p. 155), and must have been paid with " Peter's pence " from 
England. His small house, destroyed in 1884, rested on the three 
pedestals of Ccelia Claudiana, of the condemned Vestal, No. 13, 
and of Flavia Publicia, which one finds on the right-hand side of 
the entrance (letter A in plan). 

The foundations of an octagonal shrine, purposely and deliber- 
ately leveled to the ground, appear in the centre of the cloisters. 
This shrine contained probably the " sacra fatalia," the sacred 
tokens of the Roman commonwealth, like the Palladium, intrusted 
to the care of the Vestals. We believe that the destruction of 
this innermost sanctuary was accomplished by the Vestals them- 
selves in the last days preceding the suppression of the order and 
their banishment from the cloisters, A. d. 394:. 

In a room near the southeast corner, marked B in the plan, is 
the ]nill used by the Vestals to grind meal with which the " mola 
salsa," a most primitive kind of cake, was prepared on February 
15 of each year, during the celebration of the Lupercalia. 

The House of the Vestals has lost much of its fascinating 
interest since the best works of art, busts, statues, portraits, and 
inscriptions, pertaining to it, have been removed to the baths of 

Literature. — Rodolfo Lanciani, JJ atria cli Vesta, con appendice delcomm. 
de Rossi. Rome, Salviucci, 1884. — Costantino Maes, Vesta e Vestali. Rome, 

1883. — Henirich Jordan, Dei' Tempel der Vesta und das Haus der Vestalinnen. 
Berlin, 1884. — Hans Auer, Der Tempel derVesta und das Haus der Vestalinnen, 
Vienna, 1888. — J. Henry Middleton, The Remains of Ancient Rome, vol. i. p. 
229. — Joachim INIarquardt, Stuatsverwalfrmg, vol. iii. p. 32-3. — Bull. Inst., 

1884, p. 145.— J/i»Ae?7., 1889, p. 245; 1891, p. 91 ; 1892, t^. 287. — Atti Accad. 
archeoL, 1890, p. 407. 


XXI. Forum Romanum Magnum (XXII in plan, and Fig. 93). 
— We have now come to the most interesting part of our walk, 
to the chief attraction of this attractive district, to the Forum 
Romanum Magnum, where for so many centuries the destinies of 
the ancient world were swayed. 

At the time of the foundation of Rome the bartering trade 
between the various tribes settled on the heights of the left bank 
of the Tiber was concentrated in the hollow ground between the 
Palatine, the Capitoline, and the Quirinal. Around this elemen- 
tary marketplace, bordering on the marshes of the lesser Velabrum, 
were a few conical straw huts, such as the one in which the public 
fire was kept, afterwards the Temple of Vesta. There were also 
clay pits on the north side, from which the neighborhood took 


the name of Argiletuin, and stone quarries under the Capitoline 
called Lautumia% afterwards transformed into a state prison. The 
market-place was well supplied with drinking-water from local 
springs, like the Tullianum (which tradition has transformed into 
a miraculous feature of S. Peter's prison)/ and the spring of 
Juturna, described on p. 124. 

According to the Roman legend, Romulus and Tatius, after the 
mediation of the Sabine women, met on the very spot where 
the battle had been fought, and made peace and an alliance. The 
spot, a low, damp, grassy field, exposed to the floods of the river 
Spinon (p. 29), took the name of " Comitium " from the verb 
coiVe, to assemble. It is possible that, in consequence of the 
alliance, a road connecting the Sabine and the Roman settlements 
was made across these swamps ; it became afterwards the Sacra 
Via. TuUus Hostilius, the third king, built a stone inclosure on 
the Comitium, for the meeting of the Senators, named from him 
Curia Ilostilia; then came the state prison built by Ancus Mar- 
cius in one of the quarries (the Tullianum). The Tarquins 
drained the land, transformed the unruly river Spinon into the 
Cloaca Maxima, gave the Forum a regular (trapezoidal) shape, 
divided the space around its borders into building-lots, and sold 
them to private speculators for shops and houses, the fronts of 
which were to be lined with porticoes. 

These shops, so closely connected with the early life of Rome, 
were at the beginning of the commonest kind: butchers' stalls 
(afterwards replaced by the Basilica Sempronia) and butchers' 
shops, from which Virginius took the knife to stab his daughter. 
Other tabernai were occupied by schools for children, where Ap- 
pius Claudius first saw Virginia reading. As the dignity of the 
place increased, ordinary tradesmen disappeared and their shops 
were occupied by goldsmiths, silversmiths, money-changers, and 
usurers. Hence the name " taberna; argentariae," applied, as a gen- 
eral rule, to all the shops ; as a distinctive name, to those on the 
north side. On the occasion of the triumph of L. Papirius, dic- 
tator in 308 B. c, the gilt shields of the Samnites were distributed 
among the owners of the argentariae to decorate their shop fronts. 
There were two rows of them, on either of the longer sides of the 
Forum : one called the tahernce vetei'es (septem tabernce) on the 
shady or south side ; one called the tahernce novce or argentarice 

1 See Der mamertinische Kerker u. die romischen Traditionen vom Gefdng- 
nisse und den Ketten Petri, von H. Grisar, S. J., in Zeitschrift fur hath. 
Theologie, xx. Jahrgang, 1896, p. 102. 

of Rome. 

B. C. 














on the sunny or north side. The same were designated concisely 
with the formula " sub veteribus, sub novis." 

It does not come within the scope of the present chapter to 
follow stage by stage the develojDment of the market-place into a 
magnificent forum surrounded by stately edifices. The chronology 
of its monumental transformation u^j to the time of Augustus may 
be found in the following table. Compare the " Geschichte des 
Forum Comitium und der Sacra Via " in Jordan's " Topographie," 
i"^, p. 315. 

e. B. c. 

September 17. — 'Eemple of Saturn dedicated by the 

consuls A. Senipronius and M. Minicius. 
Apparition of the Dioscuri by the spring of Juturna. 
January 27. — Dedication of the Temple of the Dioscuri. 
Temple of Vesta burnt by the Gauls and rebuilt. 
Erection of the Temple of Concoi-d voted by the Senate. 
The legendarj- chasm at the northwest corner of the 

416 338 Rostra decorated with beaks from the fleet of the 

Chapel of Cn. Flavins on the Graecostasis. 
Tabula Valeria painted on the east side of the Curia. 
First sun-dial erected by M. Valerius Messala. 
Columna rostrata of C. Duilius. 
Temple of Vesta burnt and rebuilt. 
Regia destroyed hy tire and rebuilt. 
The first Basilica or court-house, built by M. Porcius 

Cato the elder (Basilica Porcia). 
Basilica Fulvia, by M. Fulvius Nobilior. 
Basilica Sempronia, by T. Scmpronius Gracchus. 
Second sun-dial, by L. Marcius Philippus. 
First clepsydra, by P. Scipio Nasica. 
Regia destroyed by fire and rebuilt. 
Reconstruction of tlie Temple of Concord by L. Opimius, 

voted by the Senate. 
Basilica Opimia, by L. Opimius. 
Fornix Fabianus, by Q. Fabius Allobrogicus. 
Temple of Castor rel)uilt by L. Ca'cilius Metellus 

670 78 Basilica Fulvia (/Emilia) restored by M. jEmilius Lepi- 

680 74 Tribunal Aurelium, by L. Aurelius Cotta. 

It is evident that a forum dating from the time of the Kings 
must soon have become inadequate for its purpose, and for the 
requirements of an ever-increasing poisulation ; its area, besides, 
was so crowded with statues, tribunes, altars, putealia, and ob- 


































stacles of every description tliat we wonder how public meetings 
could be held within its precincts. In 159 b. c. P. Scipio and 
M. Popilius, censors, ordered the removal from the Forum of all 
statues of magistrates unless they had been erected by decree of 
the S. P. Q. K. ; and yet we hear, at the Rostra alone, of the 
statues of the four Roman ambassadors murdered by the Fidenates 
in 438 B. c. ; of the two Junii Coruncanii, murdered by Tenta, 
queen of the Illyrians, in 229 ; of Cu. Octavius, assassinated at 
Laodicaea in 162 while on a mission to the Syi'ian court; of 
Servius Sulpicius the jurist, who died in the camp at Mutina in 
43 ; of Camillus the dictator, who, as an example of the ancient 
simplicity of dress, was clothed in a toga without tunic; of C. 
Maenius (equestrian), who conquered the Latins in 338 ; of Sulla; 
of Pompeius ; of Lepidus ; of Julius C»sar ; of young Octavianus ; 
and lastly, of the three Sibyls, which Pliny classifies among the 
earliest works of the kind in Rome.^ 

Besides these obstacles, the Forum and its vicinity were crowded 
by certain classes of people, not very distinguished, who so con- 
stantly haunted certain points and corners of the place that they 
were nicknamed from them. Thus we hear of the Subrostrani, 
lawyers without employment, keeping themselves by the Rostra in 
search of prey ; of the Canalicolce, described by Paul the Deacon as 
" homines pauperes qui circa canales fori consistebaut ; " and in a 
general way of the forenses, so graphically described by Plautus 
(Curculio, iv. 1). 

One of the first steps to refoi'ui this state of things was taken 
in the seventh century of Rome by the construction of a fish-mar- 
ket {forum piscatorium), in consequence of which the fishmongers, 
who poisoned the clients of the court-houses with the offensive 
smell of their merchandise, were driven away from the porticoes 
of the basilica?. These basilicpe, — the Porcia, oldest of all, built 
by the elder Cato in 184 near the Curia; the Sempronia, erected in 
109 on the line of the tabernre veteres ; the Opimia, in 121, by the 
Temple of Concord; and the Fulvia ^-Emilia, 179-178, by the Via 
Argiletana, — as theyM'^ere surrounded by porticoes accessible both 
by day and by night, increased the public accommodation to some 

The grand era of transformation begins with the year 700 (54 
B. c), when L. iEmilius Paullus bought ]irivate property on the 
north side and built his superb Basilica ^Emilia. The reason for 

1 See Nichols, The Roman Forum, pp. 79, 8(5-89, 20-3, 2]7; and Tliedeiiat, 
in Daremberg and Sagliu's Diclionnairc, ]>. 1281. 


such a costly undertaking (about 12,000,000 francs) is given by 
Cicero : ut forum laxaremus, to enlarge the Forum. The work of 
iEmilius Paullus was continued by Julius Caesar, who purchased 
other private property and built an extension — the Forum Ju- 
lium — at a cost of 20,000,000 francs. This happened between 
the years 700 and 708 (54 and 46 b. c). Augustus followed the 
example of Csesar, and, in continuation of the two fora, built a 
third one named Forum Augustum or Forum Martis, from the 
Temple of Mars the Avenger, which stood at one end of it. Au- 
gustus himself explains in his " Res gestae " the necessity of this 
work, by the inadequacy of the two existing fora for the transac- 
tion of business and the administration of justice. It took him 
forty years to finish the structure, from 712 to August 1, 752 (42 
to 2 B. c). During this lapse of time the old Forum Romanum 
had been, in its turn, vastly improved, as is shown by the follow- 
ing summary : — 

Year of Rome. b. c. 

702 52 The Curia, the Basilica Porcia, and several houses 

burnt down by the Clodians. The Temple of 
Felicitas built on the site of the Curia in 705. 
Substituted once more by the Curia Julia in 710. 
Dedicated by Augustus in 725. 

708 46 First Basilica Julia dedicated by Julius Ciesar ; Sub 

Veteribus rebuilt and enlarged by Augustus in 

708 46 Lacus Servilius embellished by Agrippa. 

710 44 The Rostra Julia built at the other (ea-st) end of the 


712 42 Temple of Saturn rebuilt by L. Munatius Plancus. 

718 36 The Regia rebuilt by Domitius Calvinus. Fasti 

consulares engraved the same yeai', fasti trium- 
phales between 736 and 742. 

725 29 August 18. — Temple of Ca-sar dedicated by Au- 

gustus, and triumphal arch of Augustus dedi- 
cated near the temple bj' the S. P. Q. R. 

745 9 Altar of Vulcan dedicated by Augustus on the 


747 7 Temple of Castor and Pollux restored by Tiberius. 

We can add to the list the restoration of the Temple of Con- 
cordia by Tiberius in 763 (10 A. d.) ; that of the state prison by C. 
Vibius and M. Cocceius about the same date ; the erection of an 
altar to Ops by the Temple of Saturn, August 10, 760 (a. d. 7) ; 
and that of a triumphal arch of Tiberius in 769 (a. d. 16). 

From the age of Tiberius to that of Constantine the history of 


the Forum is represented by four great fires followed by three 
great restorations, in the course of which the space for the ac- 
commodation of the crowds is vastly increased, new buildings are 
added, new art collections formed, etc. The first is the fire of 
Nero, A. D. 65, which lasted six days and seven nights, destroyed 
three regions of the city, and damaged seven more. The Regia, 
the temples of Vesta and of Jupiter Stator, the Curia, the Graeco- 
stasis, the Temple of Janus, and the region of the Argiletum as 
far as the Carinse, were devastated by the flames. The second is 
the tire of Titus, a. d. 80. 

Vespasian and Domitian repaired the damages of both, and in 
doing this they added two fora to the three already existing, the 
Forum Pacis and the Forum Transitorium. 

Vespasian began by clearing and rejsairing the streets " deformes 
veteribus incendiis atque minis," ^ and the temples, for which he 
was rewarded with the title of " Restitutor iEdium Sacrarum." ^ 
Then he took up a large section of the burnt land between the 
Sacra Via and the Carina, and erected on it a splendid temple to 
Peace, surrounded by a large open space, which must have served, 
like the fora of Julius and Augustus, to relieve the Forum Ro- 
manum. He also rebuilt the temples of Jupiter Capitolinus and 
of Claudius on the Coelian hill, and began the construction of the 

In a short reign of two years Titus (a. d. 79-81) could do little 
more than complete the buildings which his father had left unfin- 
ished, like the amphitheatre, which he dedicated in the year 80. 
At the same time another frightful conflagration, which raged 
for three days and three nights, stopped all work. The fire of 
Titus was particularly destructive in the region of the Circus 
Flaminius, lying under the Capitoline hill, as well as on the hill 

Domitian, youngest son of Vespasian, rebuilt a large area on the 
north and west sides of the Forum, under a new piano regolatore, 
the orientation of which is parallel with the Via Argiletana (and the 
fora of Augustus, of Csesar, and of Peace), not with the Sacra Via. 
The copious list of his buildings comprises the transformation of 
the Via Argiletana into the Forum Transitorium ; the reconstruc- 
tion of the Temple of Janus, of the Curia Julia, of the Grseco- 
stasis, of the Regia and the House of the Vestals,^ of the Meta 

1 Suetonius, Vesjias., 8 ; and Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. n. 931. 

2 Ihkl., n. 9.34. 

8 Thedenat, in Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire, p. 1290, n. 12-14. 


Sudans ; the construction of the horrea piperataria, of the Temple 
of Vespasian and Titus on the Clivus Capitolinus, of the Ai'ch 
of Titus on tlie Summa Sacra Via ; and the completion of the 
amphitheatre. In memory of these architectural exploits, an 
equestrian statue was raised to him in the middle of the Forum, 
the description of which by Statins (Silv., i. i) is a fundamental 
text for the topography of this classic district. 

Shortly before the end of the reign of Commodus, a. d. 191, 
another fire, which lasted several days, swept over the region of 
the Sacra Via. It began in a house near the Temple of Peace, 
after a slight shock of earthquake. The temple was leveled to 
the ground ; hence the fire spread to the spice-warehouses of Do- 
mitian, and from them, over the Sacra Via and the Atrium and 
Temple of Vesta, to tlie Palace of the Cjesars, a great part of which 
was desti'oyed, together with the archives of the Empire. " It was 
on this occasion that Galen's shop on the Sacra Via was burnt 
down, when, as he tells us himself, he lost some of his works of 
which there were no other copies in I\ome. The fire was extin- 
guished at last by a heavy fall of rain." ^ 

The damages were repaired by Septimius Severus, by his Em- 
press, Julia Domna, and by his son, Caracalla, with the adoption 
of a new piano regolatore, in consequence of which the orientation 
of edifices on the Clivus Sacer was shifted by 33°. This change 
appears most evident in the map of the Clivus Sacer (p. 207, Fig. 
82), in which the ruins anterior to the fire of 191 are marked in 
black, those from 191 downwards in a lighter tint. It is necessary 
to remind the reader that the excavations of the Forum and of the 
Palatine have nowhere been carried to the proper depth. We have 
satisfied ourselves with laying bare the remains of the late Empire, 
without taking care to explore the earlier and deeper strata. The 
foundations of the triumphal arch of Augustus were discovered in 
1888 hardly ten inches below the level at which the excavations of 
1872 had stopped. The water-tank of Mykenean shape discovered 
on the Palatine while this book was in the press (August, 1896) had 
actually been seen in 1876, but not excavated because it lay lower 
than the surrounding ruins. We are still discussing the exact 
location of the Arch of Fabius, when it could be ascertained de 
facto by scraping away a few inches of ground. 

Severus and Caracalla repaired or rebuilt a fundamentis the 
Temple of Vesta, the House of the Vestals, the Templum Sacrse 

1 Thomas Dyer, A History of the Cily of Rome, ed. 1865, p. 203. 


Urbis, that of Vespasian, the Porticus ^largaritaria, and the front 
of the palace on the Xova Via. Their names are commemorated 
forever in the F'oruui, in the triumphal arch erected in 203 on the 
border-line of the Comitium. 

We have no definite account of the fire of 283 under Carinus. 
Judging from the works of repair which it necessitated, it must 
have raged from the foot of the Capitoline to the top of the 
Sacra Via, from the Vicus Jugarius to the Temple of Venus and 

Diocletian repaii'ed the Basilica Julia, the Grjecostasis (?), and 
the Forum Julium, and rebuilt the Senate-house from its founda- 
tions. Maxentius repaired the Temple of Venus and Rome, and 
built the heroon of his son Romidus, and the great basilica after- 
wards named from Constantiue. Tlie monumental columns which 
stand on the edge of tlie Forum, opposite the Basilica Julia, date 
also from the beginning of the fourth century. 

The first incident in the history of the destruction of the Forum 
is the abolition of pagan worship. In 383 Gratianus did away with 
the privileges of temjiles and j^riests, and confiscated their revenues. 
In 391 Valentinian and Theodosius prohibited sacrifices, even if 
strictly domestic and private. This brought the pagan faction to 
open rebellion, as related at lengtli in " Ancient Rome," p. 173. 
After the defeat of the rebel leader Eugenius, which took place on 
September 6, 391, temples were closed forever ; but this measure 
contributed, for the time being, to the embellishment more than 
to the spoliation of the Forum and its surroundings, because the 
beautiful statues of the gods, removed from tlieir altars, were set 
up again, as mere works of Greek art, in public places like law- 
courts, fora, baths, main thoroughfares, etc. Information on this 
point is supplied by — 

G. B. de Rossi, Bullettino di arch, rrisf., ISO.'i, p. 5 : and Bull, della comm. 
arch, com., 1874, p. 174. — Corpus Iiucr. Lat., vol. vi. p. -356, n. 1651-72. — 
Notizie deyli Scavi, 1895, p. 459. 

The Forum was tolerably well jDreserved at the beginning of the 
sixth century. In 500 King Theodoric addi'essed the people from 
the Rostra, promising to maintain the pri\nleges granted by his 
predecessors, and the words of his promise were engraved on a 
bronze tablet, hung probably in front of the Senate-house. The 
Anonym us of Valesius,i in mentioning these events, gives to this 
corner of the old Forum the name ad Palmam, about which have 
written — 


H. Jordan, Tojwgraphie, vol. i"-^, p. 259, n. 01. — Ferdinand Gregorovius, 
Geschichte, vol. i. p. 276. — G. B. de Rossi, Bull, com., 1887, p. 64 ; 1889, p. 

The former name of the corner was in trlbus fails, or tria fata, 
from the statues of the three Sibyls mentioned by Pliny (xxxiv. 11) 
iuxta Rostra, and considered to rank among the earliest works of 
the kind in Rome. The new denomination ad Palmam originated 
from a statue of Claudius Gothicus, wearing the palm of victory 
(statua Palmata), which stood near the Arch of Sever us. It soon 
extended to the whole neighborhood. The promulgation of the 
Codex Theodosianus is said to have taken place in 438, in the house 
of Anicius Glabrio Faustus, qum est ad Palmam, viz., near the 
Senate-house. The same house is called domus palmata in a 
letter of King Theodoric.^ The meeting of a committee of 
bishops with a committee of senators, which took place here in 
502 to discuss the schism of Lawrence, is called palmaris, for the 
same reason. 

The first solemn transformation of an historical building near 
the Forum into a Christian place of worship took place about 526, 
when Pope Felix IV. dedicated to SS. Cosmas and Damianus the 
Templum Sacrse Urbis, or Record Office. In 630 the Senate-house 
was dedicated to S. Hadrian by Honorius I. ; in 731 Gregory III. 
rebuilt the oratory of SS. Sergius and Bacchus by the Temple of 
Concord and the chapel of the Mamertine Prison ; in 760 Paul I. 
rebuilt the church of S. Maria Antiqua in the inner hall of the 
Augusteum, and raised a new one to S. Peter in the vestibule of 
the Temple of Venus and Rome (transformed in 850 by Leo TV. 
into that of S. Maria Nova). The Temple of Antoninus likewise 
was placed under the patronage of S. Lawrence, that of Janus 
under that of S. Dionysius, the offices of the Senate under that of 
S. Martina, the Basilica Julia under that of S. Maria de Foro, the 
^rarium Saturni under that of the Saviour. The Heroon of 
Romulus, son of Maxentius, became the vestibule of SS. Cosmas 
and Damianus ; the so-called Baths of Heliogabalus on the Sacra 
Via became the church and convent of S. Csesarius in Palatio; 
the Basilica of Constantine was christianized under a name un- 
known to us. (See Pagan and Christian Rome, p. 162.) 

The buildings mentioned by Procopius, about 537, are, besides 
the Forum itself, the Senate-house, the Temple of Janus, etc. 
He also states that many statues by Pheidias and Lysippos could 

1 Quoted by Nibby, Roma antica, vol. ii. p. 58. 

2 Cassiodorus, Var., iv. 30. 


still be seen in Rome, after it had been so often sacked. In 546 
the barbarians of Totila looted the city once more ; still the 
Forum, free of ruins, continued to be used as the meeting-place of 
the remaining population. In 608 the last " honorary " monu- 
ment, the column of Phocas, was erected in the middle of it, with 
marbles taken from some neighboring edifice. A few years later 
Pope Honorius I. (625-640) stripped the roof of the Temple of 
Venus and Rome of its bronze tiles, which could not but hasten 
the destruction of that glorious building. In 663 a Christian em- 
peror, Constans II., held the starving and ruined city to ransom 
for twelve days, inflicting upon it more damage than it had suf- 
fered at the hands of the Goths and Vandals. In 768 Stephen III. 
was elected pope in a popular meeting, held in tribus fails by the 

If the so-called " Itinerary of Einsiedlen " dates really from the 
time of Charlemagne, it gives us a very detailed account of the 
state of the Forum at the beginning of the ninth century. The 
monuments registered in this document are : the arches of Severus, 
of Titus, and of Constantine ; the umbilicus RomjB, a " pendant " 
to the golden milestone ; the equestrian statue of Constantine ; the 
Curia (S. Adriano) ; the Augusteum (S. M. Antiqua) ; the Tem- 
jilum Sacrte Urbis (SS. Cosmas and Damianus) ; the Temple of 
Venus and Rome (Palatium Traiani) ; and the Meta Sudans. 
This is the last evidence we possess of the Forum retaining its 
original level. 

An examination of the state of its pavement shows that in 
former times carriages could not cross it, on account of police 
regulations and of the steps (and occasional palisades) by which 
the travertine floor was surrounded. However, all obstacles were 
removed after the fall of the Empire. Vehicles were then allowed 
to cross the Forum diagonally from the Argiletum (by S. Adriano) 
to the Vicus Tuscus (by S. Teodoro) and vice versa, coming in and 
out between the fii'st and second pedestals of the " honorary " 
columns on the Sacra Via, where the pavement is deeply furrowed 
by the friction of wheels. A curbstone, made of a broken column 
of African marble, is set up at the corner of the first pedestal at 
the turn of the Sacra Via. 

What happened to the Forum from the ninth to the fourteenth 
century it is exceedingly difficult to say. It is unnecessary to 
remind the student how negligently excavations were made up 
to a recent date. Their purpose wa^ to reach and lay bare the 
classic remains of the Empire, and if mediaeval or decadence monu- 


ments barred the way, they were mercilessly sacrificed. We have 
careful descriptions of the objects discovered in these excavations, 
— inscriptions, pedestals, statues, bas-reliefs, columns, etc., — but 
not a word is said about the way they were lying in their bed 
of ruins, at what depth, whether in situ or overthrown, whether 
belonging to the place of discovery or brought from some distance 
to be used as building-materials, etc. The archaeologists and the 
excavators of the Napoleonic period, Fea, Nibby, and Amati, 
were far more careful in noting these particulars, the only means 
we have of I'econstructing the history of the decline and fall of 
the city. 

Take the Basilica Julia, as an illustration : what is left of 
the noble building to tell the tale of its downfall? The steps 
leading to it are modern for the greater jaart, and so are the 
pavement, the pilasters of the nave and aisles, the brick arches 
towards the Vicus Jugarius, the marble pillars of the Doric order 
on the Sacra Via, tlie opening of tlie Cloaca Maxima, etc. Even 
the fragments ari'anged on the pilasters are not all found on 
the spot. But we do not complain of restorations so much as of 
destructions. I have just said that part of the Basilica was dedi- 
cated to S. Maria de Foro ; the elegant little church was found 
almost intact in 1880 in the northern aisle on the Vicus Jugarius, 
with its double row of columns, apse, presbyterium, marble tran- 
sennse, fresco paintings, main and side doors, etc. The only trace 
left standing by accident is one of the columns of the presby- 
terium. The remaining portion of the Basilica had been taken 
possession of by the Koman marmorarii of the eleventh century, 
who prepared there the materia jn-ima for their cosmatesque clois- 
ters, ambones, pavements, etc. They had provided themselves 
with booths and workshops by closing with mud walls the spaces 
between the pilasters of the western aisles. There were about 
twenty such shops. The great nave was covered with a layer of 
chips and fragments of historical marbles, destined to feed the 
lime-kilns, two of which were discovered full of half-charred blocks. 
The east aisles towards the Sacra Via were foimd unencumbered 
by mediaeval partition w^alls, and we know the reason why. They 
were used as rope-walks, from which the place derived its name 
of Cannaparia. The upper strata of rubbish was composed inostly 
of human bones ; because, after the last devastations of Cardi- 
nal di Corneto, the site had been turned into a burial-ground for 
the Ospedale della Consolazione. The chain of historical events 
which made the building pass from the hand of the Roman magis- 


tra+es into that of the priests of S. Maria de Foro, and then of 
ropemakers, of luarniorarii, of lime-burners, of the guardians 
of the Ospedale delta Consolazione, was thus illustrated by actual 
remains. They have all been sacrificed to the desire of bringing 
into evidence one period only in the history of the building, the 
classic. Another subject of discussion about this place was the 
roof. Was the Basilica vaulted over, like that of Constantine, or 
roofed with tiles supported by a wooden framework ? The answer 
was given materially, by the huge blocks of the vault with panels 
and lacunaria in stucco, which lay scattered on the floor of the 
aisles. They were destroyed for fear that they would obstruct the 

The Forum has had the same experience. The southeast side 
of it, facing the Temple of Caesar, was found in 1872 closed by a 
line of shops of the beginning of the fifth century, and of the 
utmost importance for the history of the place. They were mis- 
taken for a mediajval fortification (see Bull. Inst., 1872, pp. 234, 235) 
and destroyed. The same mistake was made with regard to the 
walls winch supported tlae platform of the Rostra. The pedestal 
of an equestrian statue in the middle of tlie Forum — wrongly 
attributed to Domitian — was likewise dismantled for the sake of 
some blocks of giallo antico used in its masonry. If such errors 
were committed in so recent an age, it is easy to understand what 
must have happened in centuries gone by, and what opportunities 
of reconstructing the Forum have been lost. 

The accumulation of soil began, as far as W'e can judge, after the 
visit of Charlemagne (800). When an officer of Pope ]\Iarinus II. 
built in 916 a small house within the cloisters of the Vestals, there 
were already five feet of rubbish above the old pavement. After 
tlie fire of Robert Guiscard in 1081, the Forum and its surround- 
ings disapi^eared altogether from the sight, and almost from the 
memory, of tlie living. The Frangipani and other turbulent barons 
occupied the ruins of temples and arclies, ci'owning and surround- 
ing them with battlemented towers, many of which were in their 
turn leveled to the ground in 1221, 1257, and 1536. See, also, upon 
this point — 

Ferdinand rircgorovius, Geschichte, iv. :J70: v. .31fi. — Heiurich .Jordan, 
Topographie, ii. 480; and Ephemeris epigr., 1876, p. 2-38. 

The Forum was then turned into a vegetable garden. In the 
inventory of the possessions of the Lateran basilica, -viTitten by 
Nicolo Frangipani about 1300, we find mentioned : " Two small 
houses near the image of Phocas (face magina), with their orchards ; 


two orchards near the arch by the image of Phocas ; others near 
the church of SS. Cosma e Damiano ; one near S. Adriano, where 
stand the four columns," etc. The " Res gestae " of Innocent III. 
mention, vol. ii. p. 102, an orchard behind the church of SS. Sergio 
e Bacco, and another " among the columns " in the direction of 
the Mamertine prison. The ground was still cultivated in the 
middle of the sixteenth -century, when we hear of the inscription 
of Nsevius Surdinus found " in the gardens of the columna Maenia," 
viz., of Phocas ; and of the pedestal (Corpus, 1458, o) found " in 
the gardens by the three columns," viz., of Castor and Pollux. The 
area of the House of the Vestals was occupied by a harundinetum, 
or bamboo shrubbery. 

It has been said that the earth and rubbish fi-om the foundations 
of public and private buildings were regularly thrown into the 
area of the Porum, from the time of Eugenius IV. (1431-47), but 
no documents have been produced to prove this. I have found 
one — the first within my knowledge — in the account-books of 
Pope Paul II. (1464-71). It appears from them that the earth 
and rubbish excavated from the foundations of the Palazzo di 
Venezia were regularly thrown out " ad tres coluninas," viz., in the 
neighborhood of the Temple of Castor and Pollux. Considering 
the state of the city in the fifteenth century, the want of police 
regulations, and the freedom of building, destroying, and exca- 
vating which every one enjoyed, it is no wonder that rubbish was 
thrown out in the nearest convenient place, and no place was more 
convenient than the hollow of the Forum. I have collected many 
data about the periodical increase of its level ; but two instances 
will give the reader an idea of them. It appears that, after the 
obstruction of the Cloaca Maxima,^ the only outlet for rain and 
spring water in the district of the fora was a channel or furrow 
cut by the rushing stream through the bed of rubbish, on the line 
of the Via di S. Teodoro, passing right in front of this church. 
Communication between the banks of this ditch was assured by 
means of a bridge, called il ponticello. Albertini speaks of a dis- 
covery made about 1.510 ad ponticulum, between S. M. Liberatrice 
and S. Teodoro. Martin Heemskerk made a sketch of the bridge 
in 15.34.2 -pi^g if^gj; mention of it occurs in 1549 (Corpus, vi. 804) 
apropos of the discovery of the Vortumnus prope ponticulum ante 

1 The Forum of Augustus could not have been turned into a marsh — il 
Pantano — unless the Cloaca Maxima, which runs under it and drains it, had 
ceased its functions. 

2 See Mittheilungen, 1894, p. 10, n. 1. 


mdificium quadralum, " near the ponticello in front of the Temple 
of Augustus." Bridge and ditch had disajjpeared under the ever 
increasing deposits of rubbish in 1593, when Cardinal Alessandro 
Farnese made a present of the ground to the S. P. Q. R. for the 
erection of a fountain and of a watering-trough for cattle. We 
have the evidence of these facts to the present day in the church 
of S. Teodoro, built in the sixth (?) century at the level of the 
Vicus Tuscus ; and rebuilt in 1450 by Pope Nicholas Y. ten or 
twelve feet higher. In the vignette of Martin Heemskerk, just 
mentioned, the threshold of the church appears still above the 
street (1534). In 1674 it was considerably below it. Finally, 
to save the building from filtering waters and from the pressure of 
earth, Pope Clement XI. was compelled to cut a ditch round and 
to open a court before it, to which we now descend by a flight of 

Such has been the fate of all ancient churches in this region. 
Built originally ten or twelve steps higher than the Forum, by the 
end of the fifteenth ceiitury they had sunk deep in the ground, 
and many were deserted by their attendants. The third vignette 
of Etienne Duperac shows people descending to the Chiu-ch of S. 
Adriano, the ground being almost level with the architrave of the 
door. A strong remedy alone could save the buildings from de- 
struction, and that of raising them to the level of the new city was 
decided upon. The thing was done, but in a reckless way, so that 
the present chiu'ches have nothing but their name in common 
with their predecessors. Those who know what the word " restora- 
tion " means with reference to the seicento will understand what 
those venerable buildings must have gone through at the hands of 
their restorers. 

The second instance I propose to quote is this. The greatest 
centre of traffic in ancient times was the Argiletum, a thoroughfare 
which ran along tiie bottom of the valley between the Quirinal, 
Viminal, and Esquiline, and entered the Foi'um between the Curia 
and the Basilica ^Emilia.^ It retained its importance throughout 
the centuries until Cardinal Michele Bonelli cut through the Curia 
the street which bears his name (Via Bonella), and led the traffic 
into a new thoroughfare, better leveled, paved, and drained. A 
search made in 1809 at the point where the Ai-giletum fell into the 
Comitium showed the existence of four pavements, one above the 
other, viz., the stone floor of the Comitium ; another, 9 feet higher, 

1 The lower section of the Argiletum was transformed bj' Domitian into the 
Forum Trausitorium. 


dating probably from tlie time of llobert Gui.scard (1084) ; a third, 
7 feet higher still, with medireval walls on each side and a curb- 
stone at the corner made out of a broken column ; the fourth and 
last pavement, at the present level, dates from the time of Paul 
III., who, on preparing the ground for the triumphal entry of 
Charles V. (1536), did not remove the materials of the several 
churches, houses, and towers demolished for the occasion, but 
leveled them on the spot. In the excavations made by Mbby 
between 1827 and 1834 many coins of Paul III. were discovered 
at a considerable deptli on the line of the Sacra Via. 

I have mentioned above the fountain and water-trough estab- 
lished by the 8. P. Q. R. about 1593, near the three columns of 
Castor and Pollux, on a piece of ground granted by Cardinal Ales- 
sandro Farnese. The fountain consisted of a large granite basin, 
23 metres in circumference, placed on a high pedestal of travertine. 
The basin had been discovered oj^posite the Mamertine prison, 
together with the Marforio, in the fifteenth century. AVhen the 
architect Antinori suggested to Pius VII., in 1816, the removal of 
the basin to the Piazza del Quirinale (where it was actually placed 
at the foot of the obelisk two years later), the basin was sunk in 
the earth, so that carters used to drive their teams right across it, 
to refresh them in the heat of the summer. I have myself seen a 
portion of tlie area of the Forum increase by two metres at least 
in 1868, when Baron Visconti, then engaged in discovering the 
site of the Porta Romanula, deposited the earth on the site of the 
House of the Vestals, instead of carting it away. 

As regards the search for antiquities, we can safely say that, 
from the time of Urban V. (1362-70) to the end of the last cen- 
tury, every year is marked by a plunder of some kind or other, the 
worst deeds of destruction being connected witli the golden age 
of the cinquecento. The history of these excavations has not been 
written yet. Materials for such a history, however, have been 
collected by — 

Heinricli Jordan, SyUoge inscripf. fori romani (in Ephem. epigr., "1876, pp. 
238-248). — Charles Biinsen, Le forum romanum, 1835, pp. 4-6. — A. Zahn, 
BuUeUino Instituto, 1867, p. 189. — Eugene Miintz, Les arts a la cour des 
Pnpes, vols, i.-iii.; and Revue archcoL, 1876, p. 158. — Orazio Marucchi, Bes- 
r.rizione del foro romano. Rome, Befani, 1883. 

But they hardly cover one tenth of the ground. Students will find 
a complete chronology of the facts in the " Storia degli Scavi di 
Roma," which I hope soon to publish as a companion text to the 
" Forma Urbis." 


The oldest official record dates from the year 1364, when Urban 
V. granted the materials of the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina 
to the rebuilders of the Lateran, provided they would not touch 
the chapel of S. Lorenzo in Mu-anda, which had been set up in the 
portico. As an account of excavations is appended to the descrip- 
tion of each building, I need not enter into many particulars. In 
general, however, let us distinguish three periods. In the first, 
from Urban V. to July 22, 1540, the popes grant to building con- 
tractors or lime-burners the destruction of such and siich a monu- 
ment, one third of the profits being reserved for the Apostolic 
Chamber. Thus in 1431-62 the great travertine wall separating 
the Senate-house from the Forum of Caesar was legally destroyed 
by jiermissiou of Eugenius lY. and of his successors ; in 1461-62 
the same fate befell the Tempi uni Sacrfp Urbis or Record Otfice ; 
in 14.50 the Temple of Venus and Rome ; in 1499 the House of the 
Vestals, etc. If the government treated the antique remains in 
this fashion they could certainly not expect mere}' from private 
hands. In reading the contracts signed between the owners of 
ruins and their excavators, one is reminded of the expression of 
PiiTO Ligorio, that " ruins were sold like oxen for the meat-mar- 
ket." What I may call " excavation fever " had seized every class 
of citizens, from the cardinals and noblemen, who wanted to link 
their name to a museum or a villa, to the poor w'idow, who sought 
to relieve her miseries by some unexpected find. Excavations 
may be called the '' lotto " of the sixteenth century. 

Sentence of death on the monuments of the Forum and of the 
Sacra A"ia was passed on July 22, 1540. By a brief of Paul III. 
(Farnese) ' the privilege of excavating or giving permission to ex- 
cavate is taken away from the Capitoline or Apostolic chambers, 
from the "magistrates of streets," from ecclesiastical dignitaries, 
etc., and given exclusively to the " deputies " for the Fabbrica di 
S. Pietro. The pope gives them full liberty to search for ancient 
marbles wherever they please within and outside the walls, to 
remove them from antique buildings, to pull these buildings to 
pieces if necessary; he orders that no marbles can be sold by 
private owners without the consent of the Fabbrica, under the 
penalty of excommunication lakf sententice, of the wTath of the 
pope, and of a fine of 1000 ducats. No pen can describe the 
ravages committed by the Fabbrica in the course of the last sixty 

1 Published by Miintz, Revue nrcheol., mai, 1884, from the original of the 
Vatican archives. The importance of the docmnent has not yet been fully 
appreciated by archaeologists. 


years of the sixteenth century. The excesses roused the execra- 
tion of the citizens, but to no purpose ; on May 17, 1580, the con- 
servatori made an indignant protest to the town council, when a 
portion of the Palace of the Caesars had fallen, in consequence of 
its having been undermined by the searchers for marble. A depu- 
tation was sent to Gregory XIII. to ask for the revocation of all 
licenses (" ad perquu*endos lapides etiam pro usu fabricse Principis 
apostolorum"). We may imagine what answer was given to the 
protests of the city when we learn that by a brief of Clement 
VIII., dated July 23, 1598, the archaeological jurisdiction of the 
Fabbrica was extended over tlie remains of Ostia and Porto ! 
The Forum Romanum was swept by a band of devastators from 
1540 to 1549 ; they began by removing the marble steps and the 
marble coating of Faixstina's Temple (1540), then they attacked 
what was left standing of the Arch of Fabius (1540). Between 
1546 and 1547 the Temple of Julius C»sar, the Regia, with the 
Fasti Consulares et Triumphales, fell under their hammer. The 
steps and foundations of the Temple of Castor and Pollux were 
next burnt into lime or given up to the stone-cutters, together 
with the Arch of Augustus. The Temple of Vesta, the Augus- 
taeum, and the shrine of Vortumnus, at the corner of the Vicus 
Tuscus, met with the same fate in 1549. 

The chronology of subsequent excavations is given by Charles 
Bunsen, "Le forum ronumum explique selon I'etat des fouilles," 
Rome, avril 21, 1835, p. 4 ; Antonio Nibby, •' Roma antica," vol. 
ii. p. 178 ; Pleinrich Jordan, " Topographie," vol. i^, p. 154, n. 1 ; 
and " Sylloge inscript. fori Romani " (in Ephem. epigr., 1876, p. 
244) ; Orazio Marucchi, " Descrizione del foro romano," Rome, 
Befani, 1883, ch. ii. p. 9 ; but their accounts are only summary 
sketches. A great many unknown documents will be published 
in volumes iii. and iv. of " Storia degli Scavi di Roma," the pub- 
lication of which has been announced above. 

Froln the end of the sixteenth century downwards the more 
noticeable events are, first of all, the raising of christianized pagan 
edifices to the level of the modern city, by which they suffered 
great damage. Urban VIII. is responsible for the modernization 
of the Heroon Romuli, of the Templum Sacrae Urbis (SS. Cosma 
e Damiano), of the Secretarium Senatus (S. Martina), and of 
the Senate-house (S. Adriano) ; Paul V. and the architect Carlo 
Lombardo for that of S. Maria Nova in 1615; the corporation 
of apothecaries and their architect Torriani for that of S. Lorenzo 
in Miranda (Temple of Antoninus and Faustina) in 1602 ; Cardi- 


nal Marcello Laute and his architect Onorio Longhi for that of 
S. Maria Antiqua (S. M. Liberatrice) in 1617 ; the trustees of the 
Ospedale della Consohizioiie for that of S. Maria in Cannapara 
(S. M. delle Grazie) in 1609. 

Under Alexander VII. (1655-67) Leonardo Agostini excavated 
and destroyed the greater part of the Portions Margaritaria. In 
1742 a trencli ten metres deep was cut across the Forum to put 
in order the Cloaca Maxima, which had become choked. The 
Chevalier Fredenheim excavated the Basilica Julia between No- 
vember, 1788, and March, 1789. 

The end of the eighteenth century marks also the end of the 
era of destruction in the valley of the Forum. Pius VII., whose 
memory is dear to all lovers of art and antiquities, seconded by 
Carlo Fea, his "commissario per le antichita," determined that 
the historical monuments from the Capitol to the Coliseum should 
be laid bare and their foundations strengthened if necessary. His 
work, interrupted by the French invasion of 1809, was continued 
by Comte Toiu'uon, the prefet of the Departement du Tibre. 
Leo XII. began in 1827, and Gregory XVI. completed in 18.35, 
another section of excavations from the Basilica Julia to the 
Clivus Capitolinus. The Republicans of 1848—49 extended the 
belt of discoveries along the north side of the Basilica Julia, and 
Pius IX. completed their work between 1851 and 1852. 

The Italian government undertook the general excavation of 
the ground crossed by the Sacra Via from one end to the other a 
few weeks after Rome was made the capital of the united king- 
dom. Thirteen years' untii-ing labor and a sum of 2,000,000 lire 
were required to accomplish the task. The progress of the works 
can be followed by referring to the dates appended : — 

1870. December; 1871, November. — Basilica Julia. 

1871. — Streets adjoining the Temple of Castores, steps of temple, monumen- 

tal columns on the south side of the Forum, Cloaca Maxima. 

1872. — Space between temples of Castores and of Divus Julius, Rostra Julia, 

shops on the east side of the Forum (destroyed in 1874). 

1873. — Area of the Forum, sculptured plutei, pedestal of Caballus Constan- 

tini. Temple of Vesta. 

1874. — The neighborhood of Temple of Julius, site of Regia. 
187f>. — Steps of Temple of Antoninus, and neighborhood. 

1877-1879. — The Clivus Sacer from the Heroon Romuli to the Arch of Titus, 
Basilica Xova, Arco di Latrone, front of Porticus Margaritaria, etc. 

1882. — The Sacra Via by the Arch of Fabius, Arch of Fabius, shops of the 
House of Vestals, shrine of the Vicus Vestae. 

1883-1884. — House of Vestals, Nova Via. 


We shall first study the area of the Forum, and the various 
monuments which it contains ; then the edifices on the north side 
(Senate-house, Temple of Janus, Basilica iEmilia) ; those of the 
east side (Temple of Julius Cfesar, Ai-ch of Augustus, Temple of 
Castores) ; those of the south side (Basilica Julia between the 
Vicus Tuscus and the Vicus Jugarius) ; and lastly, those of the 
west side (Temple of Saturn, Rostra, Arch of Severus, Tullianum) 
and of the Clivus Capitolinus (Tenrple of Concord and of Ves- 
pasian, Porticus Deorum Consentium, Tabularium, Capitolium, 

The bibliography of the Forum is particularly rich. There is 
no book connected with Roman archaeology without a reference to 
it. The works must be divided into three classes : (a) accounts of 
discoveries of single buildings, sculptixre, inscriptions, etc., with 
no attempt at a general reconstruction of the Forum ; (b) attempts 
at a general i-econstruction of the Forum before the final excava- 
tions of 1870-84 ; (c) works published after the excavations of 

In the first class we find a precious source of information. The 
series begins with an " Expose d'une decouverte de m. le chev. 
Fredenheim faite au Forum romanum en Janvier, 1779," published 
by Oberlin at Strassbourg in 1706, and ends with Pietro Pericoli's 
" Storia delF Ospedale della Consolazione di Roma," 1879, where 
the histoiy of the destruction of the Basilica Julia is I'elated from 
unedited documents. Works of this class will be quoted in con- 
nection with the single discoveries or monuments which they throw 
light upon. 

The second class has lost much of its importance, its elements 
being necessarily rather speculative than founded on fact ; yet 
students will find in works of this kind wonderful erudition, and 
copious references to classic texts. Consult, among others — 

Antonio Nibby, Bel foro roviano, della via sacra, etc., Rome, 1819; and 
Roma nelV anno 1838, part i. vol. ii. p. 277. — Stefano Piale, Del foro romano, 
ma posizione e f/randezza, Rome, 1818 (18.32); Delia basilica Giulia, 1824 (1833); 
Dei tempi di Giano, etc., 1819 (1833). — Auguste Caristie, Plan et coupe d'une 
partie du forum remain. Paris, 1829, fol. — Luigi Canina, Descrizione storica 
del foro romano e sue adiacenze. Rome, 1834. — Charles Bunsen, Les forums 
de Rome restaures et eapliques. Rome, 1837; and Beschreihung d. St. Rom, 
vol. iii. B. — Ravioli and Montiroli, Ilforo romano. Rome, 1852. — Emil Braiin, 
Das Forum (in Philologus, suppl. ii., 1862, p. 381, 6-^.). — Etfisio Tocco, Ripri- 
stinazione del foro romano. Rome, 1858. 

The excavations of 1870-84 have called forth a number of 
works. Leaving aside those that refer to single discoveries or to 



single monuments, mention of which will be found in the proper 
place, the few of a general character are — 

Heinrich Jordan, Capitol, Forum, und Sacra Via, Berlin, Weidmann, 1881 ; 
Die uberreste des Forum (in Topographie, vol. i'-^, p. 154) ; and Sylloge inscript. 
fori romani (in Ephem. epigraph., vol. iii., 1876, p. 237). — Edoardo Brizio, 
Relazione . . . stille scoperte archeolor/iche dtlln citta . . . di Roma, 1873. — 
Ferdinand Dutert, Le forum romnin tt les forums dt Jules Cesar, etc. Paris, 
1876. — John H. Parker, The Roman Forum (in Archseology of Rome, vol. ii. 
1876). — Francis M. Nichols, The Roman Forum. London, 1877. — Orazio 
Marucchi, Descrizione delforo romano e guida per la risita dei suoi monumenti. 
Rome, 1883. French edition. — John H. Middleton, The Forum Romanum, 
and its Adjacent Biiildinys (in Remains of Ancient Rome, vol. i. chap. vi. p. 
231). London, 1892. — Levy and Luckenbach, Forum romanum. Munich, 1895. 

tm mm 

«*-,•-©-■&-*_♦ 6 

• ©llilLilMimsiiCli^ BASILICA. IVLIA 

Fig. 93. — Map of Forum and of Basilica Julia, 

XXII. Area of the Forum. — The Forum is not rectangular, 
as prescribed by A'itruvius (v. 1), but in the form of a trapezoid. 
Before the construction of the Temple of Csesar, on the site where 
his body had been cremated, it was 160 metres long. After the 


temi^le was built, its area was severed from that of the Forum, and 
the Sacra Via made to pass between them ; by which measure the 
Forum was reduced to a length of 102 metres. The breadth varies 
from a maximum of 45 metres on the west side to a minimum of 
36 metres at the east end.^ It is surrounded by streets on three 
sides : by the Street ad Janum on the north, by the Sacra Via on 
the east and south, while the Area Concordise and the winding 
Clivus Capitolinus constitute its western boundary line. 

The Sacra Via has been already described in the opening section 
of this Book. The Street ad Janum took its name from the temple 
of that god which stood at the entrance to the Via Argiletana, 
between the Senate-house and the Basilica Fulvia-^milia. It ex- 
tended from the Comitium to the Temple of Antoninus, limiting 
the area of the Forum on the north side. At the beginning of 
the seventh century of Rome it became the rendezvous of brokers, 
money-changers, bankers, and usurers, who could find shelter from 
rain or sun under the porticoes of the basilica. Cicero and Horace 
describe the centre of the street — ad Janum medium — as the 
Bourse or Exchange of ancient Rome. Modern writers, forgetting 
that the adjectives " summus, medius, imus," applied to a slightly 
inclined road, mean its highest, middle, and lowest point, have 
imagined the existence on this road of three "jani" or four-faced 
archways, and have even produced drawings of them. Bentley on 
Horace (Epist., i. 1, 54) is the first to have found and suggested 
the true meaning of those adjectives. 

Literature. — F. M. Nichols, The Roman Forum, p. 240. — H. Jordan, 
Una rettijicazione alia jnanta del for o (in Bull. Inst., 1881, p. 10.3). — Rodolfo 
Lanciana, La cloaca maxima (in Bull, com., 1890, p. 98). 

The Forum is paved negligently with slabs of travertine wliich 
must date from the time of Diocletian, who repaired the ravages 
of the fire of Carinus. The pavement was edged with a raised 
border also of travertine, which, being only 0.72 metre wide, cannot 
be called sidewalk, semita, but simplv margo. or border. Its most 
noticeable feature consists of a series of square holes, which line 
the edge (letter A) and look like the sockets in front of our palaces 
and public buildings which held the fiaccole on the occasion of 
festivities. Such holes are also to be found at Pompeii in the street 
which runs along the so-called " Scuola al foro." Schoene thinks 
they may have served to hold a wooden fence, to direct and contain 

1 According to Varro the Forum originally measured septem jugera'= 
17,539.20 square metres ; its actual surface does not exceed 41.31 square 



the crowd in election days ; but such cannot have been their pur- 
pose in Rome, because they are to be found also in front of the 
temples of -Julius Cfesar and of Castor and Pollux. It is more 

Raised border (margo) 

Pauement of 
-045 V Sacra Via 

Fig. 94. — The Margo of the Forum. 

probable that the poles around our Forum and its neighboring 
temples were used to support awnings during the summer months. 
The situation of the Forum is such that, while it is exposed to the 
full violence of the rays of the sun, the Capitoline and the Quirinal 
shelter it from the north, and shut off refreshing breezes. In 
summer the temperature is often above 100° in the shade. To 
save the citizens from sunstroke, and to make it possible for judges 
and advocates to discuss their cases, and for orators to address 
their audience, the velaria were brought into use towards the end 
of the Republican period. The merit of the invention seems to 
belong to Julius Cjesar, who "totum forum romanum intexit, 
viamque sacram." INIarcellus, the nephew of Augu.stus, while aedile 
in 23 B. c, " veils forum inumbravit, ut salubrius litigantes con- 
sisterent." ^ The same thing occurred in a. d. 39, as related by 
Dion Cassius (lix. 23). At all events, we must not picture the 
Forum to ourselves as being always a grave and solemn place, only 
fit for legal discussions, for criminal prosecutions, popular indigna- 
tion meetings, and so forth. The Forum could be also a gay and 
festive place. Religieus ceremonies and pageants occasionallj^ took 
place in it ; sacrifices were offered on temporary altars ; statues of 
gods moved round in processions among the smoke of incense and 
the singing of hymns ; military reviews, hunting-scenes, gladiatorial 
fights, and games of every description were scenes in the drama of 
this great stage. Thousands of citizens would sometimes sit down 
in it at political or funeral banquets. Works of art and curiosities 
were also exhibited in the Forum. L. Hostilius Mancinus, for 
instance, the first Roman who entered Carthage, had a grand 
panorama of the siege and capture of the Punic capital set up here, 
while he would describe viva voce to the crowd the details of the 
1 Pliny, Hist. Nat., xv. 20 ; xix. 6. 


assault. Famous pictures and bronze or marble statues brought 
over from Greece were also shown to the multitudes ; and such 
wonders of nature as the serpent fifty cubits long, described 
by Suetonius (Aug., 43). On the occasion of triumphs or proces- 
sions, private citizens would lend their ai'tistic treasures and dra- 
peries and carj)ets for the decoration of the Sacra Via. At night 
the Forum was brilliantly illuminated. 

Literature. — Th(5denat, in Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire, p. 1280. 
— F. M. Nichols, The Roman Forum, pp. 85-93. 

The area of the Forum was encumbered with monuments of 
various kinds. Leaving aside those of early Republican times, 
which disappeared under the Empire (the columna Mcenia, the pila 
Horcitla, the Venun Claarina, etc.), I shall only mention the few 
the remains of which have been or can still be traced in our days. 

XXIII. Columna Rostrata, or Columna Duilia, a marble pillar 
ornamented with beaks of war-ships, erected in memory of the 
naval victory gained by C. Duilius over the Carthaginians in 260 
B. c. A fragment of its inscription was discovered in July, 1565, 
between the Arch of Severus and the Column of Phocas, and re- 
moved to the vestibule of the Palazzo dei Conservator!, where it is 
to be seen at the foot of the stairs, under a more or less fanciful 
model of the column. The inscription, although dating from the 
time of Claudius, is not a copy of the original one. It is prolix, 
slightly incorrect, and seems to have been made up by a gram- 
marian from passages of early annalists. (See Corpus Inscr., vol. 
i. pp. 37-40.) 

XXIV. The Sculptured Plutei. — Between the Column of 
Phocas and the Street of Janus, one of the most interesting monu- 
ments was brought to light in September, 1872. It consists of two 
screens or plutei of white marble, with bas-reliefs on either side, 
surmounted with a richly carved cornice. Each screen, composed 
of several pieces of marble (a few missing), stands on a foundation 
of travertine, and a plinth of marble, which is a modern and doubt- 
ful addition. The exact state in which the bas-reliefs were found 
in September, 1872, is shown in the following cut (Fig. 95). The 
inside panels represent the three animals sacrificed in the great 
lustral ceremony of the suoi^etaurilia — the sow, the ram, and the 
bull — all adorned with ribbons, and all moving in the direction of 
the Basilica Julia. The outer reliefs represent historical scenes, 



with a view of the Forum itself on the background. Their mean- 
ing has given rise to much controversy. Consult — 

Wilhelm Henzen, Rilievi cU inarmo scoptrti nel J", r. (in Bull. Inst., 1872, 
p. 273). — Edoardo Brizio, in Annal. Inst., 1872, p. 309, pi. 47. — Camillo 
Ravioli, II soggetto esposto nei bassorilievi del J", r. (in Corrispondenza scien- 
tilica, 1872, anno 25, n. 14, 15). — C. Ludovico Visconti, Beux actesde Domitien 
en qualite de censeur, etc. Rome, 1873. — F. M. Nichols, The Roman Forum, 
pp. 60-68. — .1. H. Parker, The Forum (in Archeology of Rome, vol. ii. pi. 
13). — Orazio Marucchi, Importanza topografica del bassorilieiil delf.r. (in Gli 
studi in Italia, 1880, i. p. 678); and Bull. Inst., 1881, pp. 11, 33. — Heinrieh 
Jordan, Topographie, i^, p. 220. — Luigi Cantarelli, Osservazioni sitlla scene net 
bassorilievi del/, r. (in Bull, com., 1889, p. 99). 

It seems almost certain that the scene facing the Capitol 
alludes to the provision made by Trajan for the education and 
maintenance of children of poor or deceased citizens (" pueri et 
puellse alimentarii "). The J^niperor is seated on a suggestum 
addressing a female figure, a personification of Italy, who carries 
an infant on the left arm, while another child probably stood on 
her right. On the opposite side of the same picture the Empei-or 

Fig. 95. — The Fragments of the Marble Plutei, discovered in September, 1872. 

is represented addressing the crowd from the Rostra. The second 
bas-relief, facing the south, represents the burning of the registers 
in which the sums due to the Fiscus by negligent tax-payers -were 
recorded. This act of generosity of Trajan is praised by Ausonius. 



The importance, however, of these panels rests in the view of the 
background, which represents the scene that was in reality before 
the spectator, the Forum and its surroundings. 

The view begins on the left with the Rostra Julia, from which 
the Emperor is addressing the crowd ; behind him we see (a) the 
Arch of Augustus, (h) the Temple of Castor and Pollux, (c) the 



opening of the Viciis Tuscus, {<!) the Basilica Julia. The design 
of the latter is continued on the second bas-relief facing the Capi- 
tol. Next comes (e) the Temple of Saturn, (y') a fragment of tlie 
Tabularium (?), {g) the Temple of Vespasian, (Ji) the Rostra 
Vetera, represented in a conventional form. The statue of Mar- 
syas and the Ficus Ruminalis, which appear in both panels, sym- 
bolize the Forum and the Comitium. (See Jordan's Marsyas auf 
den Forum. Berlin, 1883.) 

Opinions differ very much as to what purpose — beyond a com- 
memorative object — these two screens served. Nichols suggests 

Fig. 97. —The Rostra as represented in a Bas-relief of the Arch of Constantine. 

that they "formed a sort of an avenue leading to an altar and 
statue of the Emjieror, in whose honor the monument may have 
been erected after his deification." Middleton supposes " that they 
formed a sort of gangway through which voters had to pass to 
reach the ballot-boxes on the Comitium, in order to facilitate the 
onward movement of the crowd of citizens in an orderly stream." 
Tt is almost certain, however, that the plutei are not in their 
original place ; so that all speculation about their scope is useless. 
They must have been placed on their rough travertine socles by 
Diocletian in his restoration of the Forum after the fire of Carinus. 


Thedenat seems to attribute them to the Rostra Vetera (Diction- 
naire, p. 1305). 

XXV. Monumental Columns on the Sacra Via. — Near 
and along the margo which limits the j)avement of the Forum 
on the south side stand eight square pedestals of monumental 
columns, the shafts of which, varying in size and quality, are lying 
close by. The first column near the southeast corner was covered 
with ornaments of gilt bronze, as shown by the holes of the clamps 
to which they were riveted. Other shafts are of gray or red gran- 
ite, and one is of white marble. Professor Jordan has been able to 
date the erection of these pillars by means of brick-stamps which 
can still be seen at the foot of the fii'st and third pedestals : 
they belong to the age of Constantine. Five pillars of this kind 
are represented in a bas-relief of the triumj)hal arch of that Em- 
peror, the background of which is almost as interesting for the 
topography of the Forum as that of the plutei described abo\'e. 
The first building on the left is the Basilica Julia ; the second is 
the Arch of Tiberius (?) ; then come five monumental columns, 
supporting statues, and last of all the Arch of Severus. The 
Emperor is delivering a speech from the Rostra Vetera. If these 
columns were raised on their pedestals the picturesqueness and 
interest of the Forum would be greatly enhanced. 

Literature. — Carlo Fea, Varietadi Notizie, p. 71. — Francesco Ficoroni, 
Memorie, n. 80. — Heiurich .lordau, Bull. Inst., 1881, p. lOG; Ann. Inst., 1883, 
p. 49; and Ephemeris ejjigraphica, p. 259. — Otto Richter, Die romische Red- 
nerbiihnt (in .Jahrbueh, 1889, pp. 8-14). 

XXVI. The Caballus Constantini (Equestrian Statue of 
Constantine). — In 1873 an official announcement was given to 
the archaeological world of the discovery of the "pedestal of 
Domitian's equestrian statue " in the middle of the Forum. (See 
Pietro Rosa, Relazione, p. 71.) They did not hesitate to identify 
as a famous work of art of the golden age a rough and ugly bit of 
masonry, resting, without foundations, on the travertine pavement 
of the time of Diocletian ; they did not recollect that the eques- 
trian statue cannot have survived the " memorise damnatio " of 
Domitian ; that it must have perished the very day of his death ; 
and that, if it had not been described accidentally by a contem- 
porary poet (Statins, Silv., 1). no one would ever have had a sus- 
picion of its existence. The pedestal belongs very likely to the 
Caballus Constantini, mention of which occui's in documents of 
the seventh and eightli centuries. The equestrian group was 


raised in 334, and its commemorative inscription is given by the 
" Corpus," vol. vi. n. 1141. 

Beferences. — Carlo Fea, in Winckelmann's Htoriii dcW arte, vol. iii. p. 
410. — Charles Bunsen, Forum, \). 15. — Heinrich Jordan, Ephe7n. epiyr., vol. 
lii. p. 256. — Gio. Battista de Rossi, Inscript. christ., vol. ii. 5. — Rodolfo Lan- 
ciaui, Itinerar. Einsiedltn, p. 20. 

XXVII. Unknown Building on the east side, opposite the 
Temple of Julius. — Three buildings of the late J]mpire, not later 
at all events than the end of the sixth century, were raslily de- 
stroyed in 1872-74, under the pretext that they did not belong to 
the classic age. Jordan has described them carefully, p. 252 of 
vol. iii. of the " Ephemeris epigraphica," and considers their dis- 
appearance as a " maximum detrimentum " to the study of the 
P"'orum. The first stood near the marble plutei, the second near 
the Column of Phocas, the third extended over the whole east side 
of the Forum, from the Vicus Tuscus to the Street ad Janum, and 
consisted of five large rooms, handsomely decorated with marble 
cornices, pieces of which are still left in situ. Rather than shops 
I would consider them used for a public office like that of the 
"scribfe sedilium curulium " at the opposite end of the Forum. 
An inscription discovered here on May 13, 1872, engraved on an 
architrave 3.44 metres long, relates how Lucius Valerius Septi- 
mius Bassus, pi'efect of the city between 379 and 383, had dedi- 
cated the structure to which the architrave belongs, in honor of 
Gratianus, Valentinian, and Theodosius. Perhaps this is the date 
of the building destroyed by Rosa. 

XXVIII. Monuments of the Gothic and Gildonic Wars. 

— On the Street ad Janum, opposite the Senate-house, stands an 
historical monument, relating to the Gothic wars of the beginning 
of the fifth century. The inscription, fifteen lines long, praises 
the fidelity and valor shown by the army of Arcadius, Ilonorius, 
and Theodosius, in the mighty struggle which ended with the 
defeat of Radagaisus in 405. The victory is attributed to Stilicho, 
the Roman leader : " confectum gothicum bellum . . . consiliis 
et fortitudine magistri utriusque militife Flavii Stilichonis." The 
memorial set up by decree of the S. P. Q. R. under the care of 
Pisidius Romulus, prefect of the city in 405, is the meanest and 
poorest in the whole Forum, and shows how low Roman pride, 
taste, and finance had fallen in those days. It is made of two 
blocks — one of travei'tine, which forms the base, and one of 


marble above it. This last had been already used as a pedestal to 
an equestrian statue of bronze ; the statue was knocked off, the 
pedestal set negligently upright on one of the ends, its cracks re- 
adjusted with iron clamps, and the new inscription written across 
the old one after the latter had been obliterated with care. 

The details of the struggles which mark this period of the agony 
of the Western Empire are copiously described by the monuments 
found or existing in this corner of the Forum. In August, 1539, 
two pedestals were found between the Arch of Severus and the 
church of SS. Sergio e Bacco : one recording the African ex- 
ploits of Stilicho, the other set up by the same Pisidius Romulus 
" pro singulari eius (Stilichonis) amore atque providentia." The 
first was removed to the Palazzo Capranica alia Valle, the second 
to the Villa Medici. In 1519-65, a few feet from the monument 
of 405, Cardinal Fai'nese found the base of an equestrian group 
raised to Arcadius and Honorius, in commemoration of their vic- 
tory over Count Gildo, the African rebel of 398. The inscribed 
slabs of this monument are still lying abandoned in disorder in 
this vicinity. In the same year 405 a triumphal arch w^as raised 
to the three Emperors, "because they had wiped off from the 
face of the earth the nation of the Goths." Four years later Rome 
was stormed by the very barbarians whom they boasted to have 

Literature. — Christian Huulsen, // monumento della (juerrn f/ihioiiica sul 
foro Romano, in Mittheil., 1895, p. 52. — Notizie degli Scari, 1880, p. 53. — 
Heinrich Jordan, Silloge inscr. fori romani, n. Ill, Ilia, 122. — Corpus Jn- 
script., vol. vi. n. 1187,1730, 1731. 

XXIX. The Column of Phocas. — The pedestal of this 
column, to which the most conflicting names had been given by 
early topographers, was discovered in the morning of February 
23, 1813, with the inscription which tells the tale of its erection. 
According to this document, the pillar was set up in honor of 
Phocas by Zmaragdus, exarch of Italy, "jDro innumerabilibus 
pietatis eius beneficiis, et pro quiete procurata Italise," and dedi- 
cated on August 1, 608. It is the last monument ei'ected in the 
Forum yet free from the ruins which were to bury and conceal it 
so soon after : it marks the close of the ancient period and the 
beginning of the Middle Ages. The brick pedestal is exactly like 
the eight others which line the Sacra Via ; it was concealed from 
view by a flight of nine marble steps, each 0.36 of a metre high. 
The inscription is engraved on the marble base which stands at 



the top of the steps. Tlie cohimu is fourteen metres high, with a 
diameter of 1.89 metres, and leans considerably towards the south- 
east. Its style (and that of its capital) is certainly better than 

Fig. 9S. - The Column of Phocas- The Marble Plutei in the Foreground. 

that prevailing in the seventh century; therefore, either the 
column has been removed bodily from a classic edifice, or else 
Zmaragdus dedicated to Phocas a monument which, up to his 
time, had borne another name. I believe that the words of the 


inscription, " Zmaragdus has placed a gilt statue of liis Emperor 
on the top of this sublime column," must be understood in the 
latter sense. 

References. — Diario di Roma, .5 marzo, 1817 ; 4 agosto, 1818. — F. Au- 
relin Visconti, Lettera sopra la cohmnn di Fuca. Rome, de Romani.s, 181-3. — 
Carlo Fea, Osservaz. suW anfiteatro Flavio, p. 63, n. 3. — Iscrizioni di monu- 
nienti pubblici. Rome, Contedini, 1813, ii. 2. — Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. ii. 1200. 


XXX. Curia Hostilia — Curia Julia — Senatus (XXIII 
in plan). — The Senate-house was, politically speaking, the most 
important building in the Roman world. The place where it 
stands was occupied at an early age by a small wood, by a cave 
overgrown with ivy, and by a spring, at which Tarpeia was draw- 
ing water when she saw Tatius for the first time. The first sena- 
tors met here, dressed in sheepskins, in a square hut covered by a 
thatched roof. TuUus Hostilius gave the patres conscrlpti a better 
seat, an oblong hall, built of stone on the northeast side of the 
Comitium, raised on a platform above the reach of floods, and 
accessible by a flight of steps, down which the body of Servius 
was hurled by Tarquinius. Inside, it contained several rows of 
benches, the Speaker's chair, a small apartment for the archives, 
and a vestibule. The outside wall on the Argiletum was decorated 
in 264 B. c. with a picture representing the victory of M. Valerius 
Messalla over King Hieron of Syracuse. Hence the name ad tahu- 
lam Valeriam popularly given to the place. We must remember 
also that, the Senate being forbidden to vote a measure unless 
assembled in a temple, their hall was consecrated. Cicero calls it 
sometimes a templum inauguratum, sometimes templum puhlici ron- 
cilii. So extreme was the frugality and self-denial of Republican 
senators that they had never allowed their hall to be warmed in 
winter. On January 6, 62 b. c, Cicero wrote to his brother that 
the Speaker Appius had summoned the senators to an important 
meeting, when it grew so cold that he was obliged to dismiss the 
assembly, and expose its members to the railleiy of the populace. 
Such was the Curia Hostilia. 

Sulla repaired and perhaps enlarged it in 80 b. c. 'Twenty- 
eight years later, it was burned down by the partisans of Clodius. 
The revolutionary instincts of the mob having been aroused by 
fiery speeches from the Rostra, a certain Sextus Clodius, a scribe, 
broke into the Curia at the head of a band of roughs carrying the 
body of the murdered anarchist, and, having made a pp-e of the 



benches, tables, books, and shelves, set the building ablaze and 
destroyed it Avitli the adjoining Basilica Porcia. 

The task of reerecting it in a more splendid form was given 
by the Senate to Faustus, son of Sulla, with the promise that it 
should be called, from both of them. Curia Cornelia. The works 
were interrupted a few years later, and Lepidus the triumvir was 
asked to substitute for the Curia a temple of Felicitas. In M b. c, 
however, Julius Cfesar, who hated to see the name of the Cornelii 
attached to the Senate-house, obtained for himself the commission 


Fig. 99. — Plau of the Senate-House, rebuilt by Diocletian. 

to rebuild it under the name of Curia Julia. The works inter- 
rupted by the death of the dictator, on jNIarch 15, 44, were con- 
tinued by the trium^-irs, and completed by Augustus. The solemn 
dedication took place in 725 ('20 a. d.). a j'ear famous for the three 
triumphs celebrated by the founder of the Empire, and for the 
closing of the Temple of Janus pace terra marique parta. Au- 
gustus added to the Curia Julia a chalcidicum (called in later times 
Atrium Minervoi), a court surrounded by a colonnade ; placed in 
the hall two famous pictures signed by Nicias and Philochares, the 
statue of Victory from Tarentum, and an altar before it, which 
was inaugurated on August 28 of the same year, 29. It is need- 
less to state that the Curia Julia occupied absolutely the same con- 
secrated space, the same templum inauguratmn as the old Curia Hos- 
tilia, and that the new inauguration mentioned by Gellius (xiv. 7) 
refers not to the hall itself, but to the additions made to it. 

The Curia Julia suffered great damage from the fire of Xero, 



and was repaired by Domitian. Another fire burnt it to the 
ground under Carinus, and Diocletian reconstructed it under the 
name of Senatus. I have found in the Ufiizi at Florence and in 
the Kunstgewerbe Museum at Berlin, a precious set of drawings 
by Antonio da Sangallo, Baldassarre, Sallustio Peruzzi, and others, 
in which Diocletian's work is illustrated in every architectural and 
decorative detail. 

Literature. — Rodolfo Lanciani, L' aula e gli uffici del Senato romano, 
Rome, Salviucci, 1883 (Atti Lincei, vol. xi. 28 genn. 1883) ; and Ancient Rome, 
p. 77. — Tliedenat, in Daremberg and SagUo's Dictivnnaire, p. 1293. 

The Senate-house formed a rectangle .51.28 metres long and 27.54 
metres wide, with the front on the Comitium, and the back resting 
against the inclosure wall of the Forum Julium, a huge construc- 
tion of tufa and travertine (see Fig. 99). 

On the right side it touched the Argiletum, viz., the open space 
preceding the Forum Transitorium, in the middle of which stood 
the Temple of Janus ; on the left it bordered on a small square 
ornamented with a fountain, composed of a river god (the Marfo- 
rio of the Capitoline Museum) from whose urn the water fell into 
a tazza of granite (now in front of the Quirinal palace). The hall 
itself was 25.20 metres long, 17.61 metres wide. Its walls were 
covered with marble incrustations like those of SS. Cosma e 

Damiano, of the Hierusa- 
lem (S. Croce), of the 
Basilica of Junius Bas- 
sus, etc., and they are de- 
scribed by A. da Sangallo 
and Etienne du Perac. 
Cardinal du Bellay de- 
stroyed them about 1550. 
I have discovered a sketch 
of three panels in a draw- 
ing formerly in the Des- 
tailleur collection, now 
in the Kunstgewerbe at 
Berlin (portfolio f. A. 
376, pi. 35). The quality 
of the marbles is carefully noted : " sei'pentin, porfide, marmo," 
etc., and also the position of the panels : " deli dui bande de la 
nice " on either side of the apse. 

The hall was covered by a vaulted ceiling, with heavily gilt 

Fig. 100. - 

- The Marble Incrustations of the Senate 



Fig. 101. — Details of Cornice of the Senate Hall. 

lacunaria. On the outside, the building appeared rather shabby : 

plain brick walls were plastered over in imitation of marble. The 

cornice was more elaborate, 

as shown by the following 

sketch of the Anonymus of 


The bas-reliefs of the ped- 
iment represented, accord- 
ing to Ligorio (Bodl., p. 7), 
" certi mostri marini chia- 
mati Tritoni quali suona- 
vano certe bucine. ..." 
Traces of the stucco work 
can still be seen in the up- 
per part of the fa9ade. The Senate-house was doubly christian- 
ized : the hall of assembly at the time of Pope Honorius I. (circa 
630), under the invocation of S. Adriano ; the offices or secreta- 
7-ium ajiiplLssimi Senatus, about the same epoch, under the invoca- 
tion of S. Martina. They kept their classic form and retained 
their classic adornments until the beginning of the seventeenth 
centm-y. Cardinal Michele Bonelli under Sixtus V. cut the build- 
ing in two with his new " Via Bonella." The church of S. Adri- 
ano was modernized jiartly in 1580 by Cardinal Agostino Cusano, 
partly in 1654 by Alfonso Sotomayor ; that of S. Martina by Ur- 
ban VIII. and Piero da Cortona. 

The bronze gates of the Curia were removed to S. Giovanni in 
Laterano by Alexander VII., but as the folds measured only 5.79 
metres in height and 3.56 in width, while the size of the Lateran 
door was considerably larger, Borromini was obliged to add a band 
to the ancient metal work. The band is ornamented with the 
typical stars of the Chigi. Martinelli says that while the bronze 
folds were thus adapted to their new destination, several coins 
were discovered hidden between the inside and outside panels, one 
of which bore the name and the image of Domitian. 

Literature. — Giuseppe Biaiichini, Dissertazione sopra In Curia (in Cod. 
Vat., 8113, f. 113). — Lucas Holstenius, De origine ecclesim S. Hadriani (in 
Fea's Miscellanea, vol. i. p. 306). — Luigi Canina, Sufili edijici esistenti nel 
luogo ora occupato dalln chiesa di S. Martina. Rome, 1830. — Theodor Monimsen, 
De Comitio romano, curiis, Janique templo (in Annal. Inst., 1844, p. 288). — 
Franz Reber, Die Larje der Curia Hontilia iind der Curia Julia, 18.58. — Detlef- 
.sen, De Comitio romano (in Annal. Inst., 1860, p. 138). — Auer, Der Altar der 
Gottin Victoria in der Curia Julia zu Rom. Vienna, 18.59. — Rodolfo Lanciani, 
Z,' aula e gli uffici del Senato romano, Rome, Salviucci, 1883 (Atti Lincei, 


vol. xi. "28 gean. 188;3). — J. H. Middletoii, The, Remains of Ancient Rome, 
vol. i. p. 239. — Christian Huelsen, D<is Comitium und seine Denkmdler (in 
Mittheil., 1893, p. 279, pi. 4) with the comments of Th^denat, in Daremberg 
and Saglio's Dictionnaire, p. 1292, n. 7. 

XXXI. The Comitium (XXIV in plan). — The space between 
the Rostra Vetera and the front of the Senate-house, neatly paved 
with slabs of travertine, marks the site of the Comitium. It must 
be remembered that the street passing through the Arch of Sejv 
timius Severus, by which the Rostra and the Forum are separated 
from the Comitium, is an addition of the third century after Christ. 
Before it, the two places were separated only by a few steps. In 
the early days of Rome the Comitinm was the centre of civil and 
political business, while the Forum was simply used as a market- 
place ; but with the increase of the population and with the spread 
of democracy the centre was shifted to the Forum, and the Co- 
mitium lost forever its importance. Its main ornaments wei'e the 
statue of Atta Navius, the augur who cut the whetstone with the 
razor, and the puteal under which whetstone and razor had been 
buried ; and the Jicux Naria, a hg-tree which the popular fancy 
believed to have been transplanted here from the banks of the 
Tiber by the same miracle-working augur. It was considered to 
represent the Jicus ruminalis which had sheltered with its shade 
the infant twins sucking the she wolf ; and this event was recorded 
by a bronze group not unlike the one now preserved in the Palazzo 
dei Conservatory (Compare Ilelbig's Guide to the Collection of 
Antiquities in Rome, vol. i. p. 459, n. 618.) There were also the 
statues of Porsena, of Iloratius Codes, of Hermodoros from Ephe- 
sus, who had lielped the decemvirs in the codification of the laws, 
of Pythagoras, Alcibiades, and others. Concerning the last men- 
tioned, Emiio Quirino Visconti observes that the noble statue of 
the Museo Pio Clementino, known as the " Gladiatore " or the 
" Atleta Mattel" (No. 611 sala della Biga), is nothing else than a 
marble copy of the bronze figure of Alcibiades in the Comitium, 
and corroborates his statement by comparing the features of the 
head with those of bust Xo. 510 in the Hall of the Muses, inscribed 
with the name of the Greek hero. Eniil Braun (Ruins and Muse- 
ums, p. 282, n. 166) says : " It is not impossible that this statue, 
originally in the Villa Mattel, is a repetition of that placed upon 
the Comitium, although positive proofs are wanting." Wolfgang 
Helbig (Guide, etc., vol. i. pp. 192 and 235) denies any connection 
between the marble of the Vatican and the bronze of the Comitium. 

The only monuments visible in the narrow ledge of the Comi- 


tium yet excavated are two marble pedestals of statues dedicated, 
one to Flavins Julius Coustantius (350-361), by Memmius Vitrasius 
Orfitus, prefect of the city in 353-354 ; the other to Arcadius (395- 
408), by Ceionius Rufius Albinus, prefect in 398. These and other 
pedestals lined the border of the Comitium towai'ds the Argiletum, 
the pavement of which has been excavated for a length of ten or 
fifteen metres only. 

References. — Brecher, Die Lage des Comitium, etc. Berlin, 1870. — H. 
Dernburg, Uber die Lage des Comitium und des prdtorischen Tribunals (in 
Bull. Inst., 1863, p. 38). — Theodor Mommsen, Be Comitio romano, etc. (in 
Aunal. Instit., vol. xvi., 1844, p. 288). — Franz Reber, Bie Lage der Curia. 
1858. — Detlefsen, Be Comitio romano (in Ann. Inst., vol. xxxii., 1860, ]). 
138, pi. D). — Rodolfo Lanciani, Atti Lincei, vol. xi. 28 genn. 1883.^Thonias 
Dyer, Roma (in Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, vol. ii. p. 775). — 
Orazio Marucchi, Bescript. du forum romain, p. 51. — Christian Huelsen (in 
Mittheilungen, vol. viii., 1893, p. 279). 

The other two buildings on the north side of the Forum were 
the Temple of Janus (XXIV A) and the Basilica Emilia (XXV). 
Both still lie buried under the modern embankment ; and as it is 
not my scope to write a manual on Eoman topography, but simply 
to guide the student and the traveler in their visit to monuments 
and ruins which have been made accessible by modern excavations, 
I shall proceed at once to describe the 


XXXn. ^DES Divi luLii (Temple of Julius Caesar) (XXVI 
in plan). — The spot where the body of Caesar had been cremated 
on March 17. 44, was consecrated by the erection of an altar and 
of a column of Xumidian marble, on which the words parenti patrice 
were inscribed. The illicit worship was stopped by Antonius ; C. 
Amatius, the leader of the populace, was put to death, and many 
of his partisans were crucified, if slaves ; or, if citizens, hurled 
from the Tarpeian rock. In 42 b. c, however, the triumvirs 
decided to erect a temple on the historical spot; Augustus began 
its construction in 33, and dedicated it on August 18 of the 
memorable year 725 (29 a. d.). The programme of the ceremony 
included, among other performances, the Trojan games, gladiato- 
rial and theatrical shows, and an exhibition of wild beasts upon 
which the Romans had never set eyes before. The temple was 
enriched with treasures conquered in the Egyptian campaign and 
with pictures representing the Dioscui-i, the Victory, and the Venus 
Anadvoraene. This last, a masterpiece of Apelles, having been 



injured by damp and age, was removed from the temple by Nero, 
who substituted in its place another by Dorotheos. 

The temple, being in the lowest portion of the Forum and of the 
Sacra Via, was raised on a high platform to protect it from the 
inundations of the Tiber. This platform of concrete was strength- 
ened by perimetral and cross-walls made of blocks of tufa and 
travertine, which were stolen away in the excavations of 1543, so 
that it is hardly possible to-day to recognize the former shape of 
the temple. The fragments of its entablature (one of which is 
lying on the platform) belong to a very late restoration. The 
following view of the platform was taken in 1872 at the very 
moment of its discovery. 

The remains of a semicircular tribune on the edge of the podium 
pertain to the celebrated Rostra Julia, ornamented by Augustus 
with the beaks of the ships captured in the battle of Actium. It 



Fig. 102. — The Rostra Julia aud the Temple of Caesar. 

was from this tribune that the same emperor pronounced the ora- 
tion on the death of his sister Octavia. Tiberius likewise spoke 
from it on the occasion of the funeral of Augustus. A medal 
struck in the year 119, repi'esenting an allocution of Hadrian, from 
the same rostra, proves that they continued to be used for Imperial 
communications for a lona; time. 



References. — Babelou, Moiin. de la republique, ii. p. 59, ii. 138. — Cohen, 
Monn. impth:, Hadrian, n. 416—119. — Edoardo Brizio, in Rosa's Relazione suite 
scoperte archtologiche, etc., Rome, 1873, p. 59 ; and Bulleit. Instit., 1872, pp. 
225, 237. — Heinrich Jordan, Der Tempel des d. Julius (in Hermes, ix. p. 342). 

— Otto Richter, Die Augustbauten auf dem Forum (in Jahrbuch Arch. Instit., 
1889, p. 140 ; and Mittheilungen of the same Institute, 1888, p. 99). 

XXXIII. Triumphal Arch of Augustus (XXVII in plan). 

— In the same year (725) in which the dedication of the Temple 
ot" Cfesar and of the Curia Julia took place, Augustus celebrated 
three triumphs for his victories in Dalmatia, in Egypt, and at 
Actium, and the Senate offered him a triumphal arch in the Forum. 
The same honor was granted to him in IS b. c. for the recovery of 
the flags and of the j^risoners lost by Licinius Crassiis in the Par- 
thian war. Otto Richter discovered the foundations of the arch of 
725 in 1888, in the narrow space which separates the Temple of 
C?esar from that of the Castores. I myself proved, as far back as 
1882, that this arch had been found and destroyed by the workmen 
of the fabbrica di S. Pietro between 1540 and 1546 exactly in that 
place, and that the inscription in " Corpus," vol. vii. n. 872, belonged 
to it. The arch had three openings like the one of Severus. 

Literature. — Rodolfo Lanciani, Notizie degli Scavi, April, 1882. — Otto 
Richter, Mittheil., 1888, p. 99; and Jahrbuch, 1889, pp. 153-157. — F. Nichols, 
The Roman Forum, p. 140; Bull, com., 1888, p. 117. — Theodor Mommsen, 
Res gestm, 9. — Christian Hueisen, Mittheil., 1889, p. 244. 

XXXIV. ^DES Castorum (Temple of Castor and Pollux) 
(XXVIII in plan). — 

This was dedicated by 
A. Postumius on January 
27, 482 B. c, on the spot, 
near the pool of Juturna, 
where the Dioscuri had 
appeared in 496 to an- 
nounce the victory of 
Lake Regillus. It was 
rebuilt in 119 by L. Me- 
tellus Dalmaticus with 
the prize money of the 
Dalmatian war, and or- 
namented with statues 
and pictures, among 

which was the portrait of Y\g. 103. — Fragment of the Marble Plan with Tein- 
Flora the courtesan. Al- pie of Castores. 


though named officially from both the Dioscuri, it went usually 
by that of Castor alone, as shown, among other documents, by the 
fragment of the marble plan discovered in 1882 (Fig. 103). 

Bibulus, whose name was never pronounced with that of Caesar, 
his more famed colleague in the a3dileship, used to say that he 
shared the same fate as Pollux. It is interesting to follow the 
story of the extortions of Verres in connection with this temple, 
as related by Cicero, because it throws much light on the system 
adopted by the Romans to keep their buildings in repair. The 
censors had entered into a contract with P. Junius, to take charge 
of the temple and of its contents for a fixed yearly sum of money. 
Junius died leaving a son, a minor, in w^hose name the contract 
was transferred to a L. Rabonius. Verres, who, as praetor urba- 
nus, had special cognizance of repairs to public buildings, thinking- 
it intolerable that out of so great a temple and so large a contract 
he should not obtain some plunder, summoned Rabonius before 
him to declare what could be required from his ward that he 
had not fulfilled. The answer was that no difficulty whatever had 
arisen from the contract and that the temple was in perfect repair. 
Verres goes himself to inspect the building. " The only thing 
you can do here," suggests one of his accomplices, " is to require 
the columns to be made perpendicular." In Junius' contract, 
though the number of columns was specified, not a word was said 
about the perpendicular ; yet, overpowered by Verres, L. Rabonius 
agrees to do the work at 560,000 sesterces, the sum to be taken 
out of the minor's estate, and to find its way, for the greater part, 
into the praetor's hands. The work done, under these circum- 
stances, is thus described by Cicero : " Those columns which you 
see freshly whitened have been taken down by machinery and 
erected again with the same stones. Nay, some of them have not 
been touched at all. There is one from which the old plastering 
only has been removed, and new stucco applied." We gather 
from the words of Cicero that the columns of the temple of 
Metellus were of stone covered with fine stucco, like those of the 
temples of Fortuna Virilis, of Hercules Magnus Custos, and of 
Cybele on the Palatine. 

The Temple of Castor, with its lofty substructures and com- 
manding situation, was one of the most conspicuous objects of the 
Forum, and became in turbulent times a rallying-point of great 
political importance. Popular meetings were often held in front 
of it, when its pronaos served the purpose of the Rostra. In 88 
B. c. Sulla and Q. Pompeius Rufus, his colleague in the consvil- 


ship, were attacked here by the partisans of jNIarius. The contest 
between Cato and Metellus, respecting the recall of Pompeius 
fi'om Asia, also took place on the terrace before the temple. In 
68 B. c, during the troubled consulate of Piso, when Cicero's 
banishment was discussed, the temple fell into the hands of the 
partisans of Clodius ; its steps were torn up and used as missiles, 
and the building became, in the words of Cicero, a citadel in the 
hands of his political enemies. 

The present ruins, considered to be a gem of art, date from the 
reconstruction of Tiberius and Drusus, 7 b. c. Caligula opened 
a communication between the cella and his palace, pretending he 
would make the sons of Jupiter and Leda his private doorkeepers. 
He also used to place himself unobserved between the statues of 
the divine twins, so as to get a share in the honors paid to them. 
Claudius restored the temple to its former state. 

Two annual celebrations were connected with it, — one on Janu- 
ary 27, the anniversary day of the dedication ; another on July 
15, in memory of the battle of Lake Regillus. The Roman 
knights, five thousand strong, waving olive branches, clad in pur- 
ple garments, and wearing the decorations gained on the battle- 
field, mustered at the Temple of Mars outside the walls, and, after 
marching through the city, passed in front of the Temple of the 
Dioscuri, presenting a sight worthy, as Dionysius says, of Rome's 
Imperial greatness. 

No remains of a classic edifice have been studied, sketched, ad- 
mired by artists as have the three standing columns of this temple. 
Baldassarre Peruzzi calls them la piti hella e meglio lavorata ojjera 
di Roma. The temple must have fallen at a very early period, 
because the lane between S. M. Liberatrice and S. M. della Grazie 
has been called via trium coiumnarum at least since the end of the 
fourteenth century. The first excavations of which w"e have posi- 
tive knowledge date from tlie end of the quattrocento. They are 
described by Pomponio Leto and Francesco Albertino. The sec- 
ond date from 1516-49, wlien, according to Ligorio, two pieces of 
the entablature were discovered, one of which served Loi-enzetto 
for his Jonah in the Chigi chapel at S. M. del Popolo ; the other, 
Michelangelo for the pedestal of the equestrian statue of M. 
Aurelius. Ligorio, as usual, tells a falsehood, because the Jonah 
was finished in the lifetime of Raphael (f 1520). In 1773 part of 
the walls of the cella w'as destroyed, the marble coating removed, 
and even some of the foundation walls demolished for the sake of 
the blocks of stone of w hich they were built. In consequence of 



this last spoliation, the size of the substructures is reduced by 
half, that is to say, it is reduced to only the central mass of con- 
crete ; but the impressions left against this mass by the blocks of 
stone of which the outside wall was built enable us to get an 
idea of the original size. (See Fig. 104.) 

Fig. 104. — The Substructure of the Temple of Castores. 

Other excavations took place in 1799, 1811, 1816, and 1818. 
The temple was finally liberated from the accumulation of mod- 
ern soil in December, 1871 (on three sides only). 

The temple, in common with other religious edifices, was used 
as a safe or repository for objects of value, which private owners 
were afraid of retaining at home. There was also a poyiderarium 
of standard weights and measures, many of which are found in 
our excavations inscribed wdth the words 'EXACtum ad CASXORes. 
A fragment of the great inscription of the frieze lies at the foot 
of the stairs ; it contains traces only of two letters, which have 
been completed by Professor Tomassetti : — 
(PoUuci • e)T • c(astori). 

Literature. — Maurice Albert, Le culte de Castor et Pollux en Italie. 


Paris, 1883. — Luigi Canina, Supplem. al Besgodets, chap. x. pi. 33. — Antonio 
Nibby, Roma neW anno 1838, part i. vol. ii. p. 82. — Pietro Rosa, Rduzione 
mile scoperte. Rome, 1873, p. 53. — Rodolfo Lanciani, Bull. J)i.-<t., 1871, p. 11. 
— Giuseppe Gatti, Annal. Inst., 1881, p. 181, pi. N. — Giuseppe Tomassetti, La 
epigrafe del tempio dei Castor-i (in Bull, com., 1890, p. 209). — Orazio Maruc- 
chi, Guide du Forum. Rome, 1885, p. 119. — Notizie degli Scavi, 1896, p. 290. 


XXXY. Between the edifice just described and the Basilica 
Julia runs the Vicus Tuscus, or street of the Tuscans (XXIX in 
plan), which led from the Forum to the Circus Maximus. The 
origin of its name is variously explained by different authors, but 
there is no doubt that it came from a colony of Tuscans who set- 
tled in its vicinity, at the time either of Cseles Yibenna or of Por- 
senna. The tradition on this point seems justified by the presence 
of the shrine and statue of Vertumnus, at the entrance to the 
street, whose worship woidd have been imported by the Etruscans, 
as that of Semo Sancus had been imported on the Quirinal by the 
Sabine colonists, bvtt the Etruscan origin of the god Vertumnus is 
more than doubtful. 

The street vied with the Sacra Yia in religious importance, being 
the route followed by the great procession of the Ludi Romani, 
in which the statues of the gods placed on thensce (four-wheeled 
chariots) were carried from the Capitol to the Circus. It was also 
a busy trade quarter. Horace calls these tradesmen Tusci turba 
impia vici, and alludes to the street as the place to which the works 
of unappreciated poets were carried, to wrap up parcels of spices 
or perfumes. 

XXXA^'I. Basilica Julia (XXX in plan), begun by Cgesar 
about 54 B. c, on the site of the Tabernae Veteres, of the Basilica 
Sempronia, and of the house of Scipio the African (?), and dedi- 
cated in an unfinished state in the year 46, together with the 
Forum Julium and the Temple of Venus Genetrix. Augustus 
rebuilt and enlarged it after a fire, and opened it for public use in 
the year 12, under the name of his grandsons Cains and Lucius. 
It consists of a nave and four aisles divided by square pilasters of 
travertine, once coated with marble. The fronts and sides were 
built of solid marble, with half columns of the Doric order, pro- 
jecting out of square pilasters. The half column which stands 
alone and perfect on the side of tlie Sacra Via was reconstructed 
by Rosa in* 1873 ; those on the side of the Vicus Jugarius are 



genuine, although in a ruined state. The Basilica was destroyed 
by fire under Carinus and rebuilt by Diocletian, -who substituted 
brick pilasters and arches for the old solid structure of travertine. 
The mixture of the two styles and epqchs is satisfactorily illus- 
trated by the following view, taken at the southwest corner of the 
Basilica, by the Lacus Servilius. (Fig. 105.) 

In March, 1883, a pedestal was found on the edge of the steps 
descending to the Sacra Via, with the inscription : gabinivs • vet- 

Fig. 105. — The Southwest Corner of the Basilica Julia. 

Tivs • PROBiANVS * vir • clarissimus • PRjEFectus • vrb« • statvam 


MENTO • ESSEX • ADiECiT. Probiauus was prefect of Rome a. d. 
377, under Valens, Gratian, and Valentinian. He restored the 
Basilica and enriched it with works of art and statues removed 
from temples which were either closed or falling into ruin. Five 
pedestals bearing his name have already been found. The origin 
of the first is not known, but it was first noticed in the Santa- 
croce Palace in the fifteenth century. The second was discovered 
in 1554 near the Column of Phocas ; the third in 1655 by the 


Senate-house ; the fourth in 18:35 on the steps of the Basilica 
itself ; the fifth, a fragment, is kept at S. Clemente. We know 
that three, at least, of these statues were the work of Polykletos, 
of Timarchos, and of Praxiteles, these celebrated names being en- 
graved on plinths discovered within or near the Basilica. 

LiTERATUKE. — Gio. Battista de Rossi, Bull, com., 1893, p. 174. — Rodolfo 
LaiK'iaiii, -S«<//. /ns<., 1871, p. 245. — Heinrich iorAsm, Ephemeris epiijraphim, 
vol. iii. p. 277. — Eugene Petersen, Notizie degli Scavi, 1895, p. 495. 

The question has been asked whether the Basilica was totally or 
partially hypsethral, and in case it was not, whether it was vaulted 
over or covered by a roof resting on trusses. The question was 
rather complicated by a discovery I made in 1878. During the 
inundation of that year, which brought the Tiber on a level with 
the marble floor of the building, I noticed that, while the north- 
east corner was just lapped by the still waters, the southeast was 
fifteen centimetres above them, the southwest forty-five centi- 
metares, the northwest thirty-seven centimetres. The floor of the 
basilica, therefore, is slanting diagonally from the corner by the 
Lacus Servilius to that by the Temple of Castor ; but this fact 
does not imply that the place was hypa'thral, and that its pave- 
ment could be rained upon. The floors of our churches of S. Saba 
and of S. Maria in Aracoeli are equally inclined towards the front 
door, perhaps to facilitate the washing of their mosaic floors. The 
four aisles of the Basilica Julia were covered by a vaulted ceiling, 
large masses of which, with stucco mouldings, were discovered in 
1852, and destroyed in 1872 ; the nave was roofed over. 

The Basilica Julia was the seat of the court of the centumviri, 
who sometimes were divided into four sections, sometimes sat all 
together when the case appeared to be of exceptional gravity. 
Pliny the younger has left an account of the aspect of the Basilica 
on the day of a great trial. The case was brought before the four 
united sections of the covu't. Eighty judges sat on their benches, 
while on either side of them stood the eminent lawyers who had to 
conduct the prosecution and defend the accused. The great hall 
could hardly contain the mass of spectators : the upper galleries 
were occupied by men on one side, by women on the other, all 
anxious to hear, which was very difficult, and "to see, which was 
easier. Trajan presided over this court more than once. 

The remains of the stairs leading to the upper galleries are yet 
visible on the south side, together with the shops of bankers and 
money-changers, known in epigraphic documents as the nummularii 
de basilica Julia. (See Fig. 106.) 


The Basilica Julia was partly christianized towards the end of 
the sixth century, when one half of the outer aisle on the Vicus 
Jugarius was dedicated to the mother of the Saviour (S. Maria 
de Foro ; later, in Cannaparia). The remains of the church, dis- 
covered partly in 1871, partly in 1881, were not treated well, so 
that, of a neat edifice, with apse, nave, aisles, side and front door, 
traces of fresco paintings, and considerable remains of the work 
of Roman marmorarii of the eighth and ninth centuries, only 
one column is left standing in situ. (See Mazzanti, in Archivio 
storico dell' Arte, 1896, p. lU.) 

In the Middle Ages and in more modern times the Basilica Julia 
has been used first as a rope-walk, cannaparia, then as a workshop 
for stone-cutters, and lastly as a cemetery for the hospital of la 
Consolazione. (See p. 242.) 

The earliest accounts of excavations date from 1496, when Adri- 
ano di Corneto, the pope's collector of revenues in England, was 
planning the construction of his beautiful palace (now Giraud-Tor- 
lonia) in the Piazza di Scossacavalli, of which he made a present 
to King Henry VII. in 1505. All the travertines used by Bramante 
in the facjade of the palace came from the Basilica Julia. 

The excavations were resumed in July, 1500, by Gregorio da 
Bologna and Domenico da Castello, continued in 1511-12 by Gio- 
vanni de' Pierleoni, and in 1514 by Jacopo de Margani. In the 
time of Gregory XIII. a sitting statue of a Roman magistrate 
was discovered, sold to Ferrante de Torres, and removed to Sicily. 
Flaminio Vacca restored it to represent Julius Cjesar covering his 
head at the sight of the murderer Brutus ! 

In 1742 the portion of the Basilica crossed by the Cloaca JVIaxima 
was laid bare, with its pavement of giallo antico, a cartload of 
which was sold to the stone-cutter de Blasii. The rest of the 
pavement and many architectural pieces fell a prey to Chevalier 
Fredenheim in November, 1788 (to March, 1789). 

Its final discovery, begun in 1848, was completed in 1872. The 
pavement of the aisles, of white marble, is covered with tabular 
lusorise, gaming-tables of every description, about which consult, 
among others, Becq de Fouquieres' " Les jeux des anciens ; " Fried- 
laender's " Sittengeschichte," vol. i. p. 376 ; and Huelsen's " Mit- 
theilungen," 1896, pp. 227-252. 

Literature. — Theodor Mommsen, Res gestw divi Aurjusti, iv. 13, 15. — 
Heinrich Jordan, Sylloge inscript. fori rom. (in Ephemeris epigr., 1877, pp. 
275-283) ; and Forma urbis romce, pi. 3, n. 20-23. — Otto Gerhard, Sulla basilica 
Giulia (in Effemeridi letterarie, 1824). — Oberlin, Expose d' tine decouverte de 


M. le chev. Fredenheim. Strassburg, 1796. — Rodolfo Lanciani, Bull. Inst., 
1871, p. 6 ; and Bull, com., 1891, p. '229. — C. Liidovico Visconti, Jl rajiporto 
sulla escavazione della basilica Giulia. Rome, 1872. — Angelo Pellegrini, Esca- 
vasione della basilica Giulia (in Bull. Inst., 1871, pp. 225-23.3). — Thedenat (in 
Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire, p. 1303). 

XXXVII. Vicus JuGARius (XXXI in plan), leading from the 
Forum Romanum to the Forum Olitorium and the Porta Car- 
mentalis, under the cliffs of the Capitoline, known as the Saxum 
Carmentse. It corresponds to some extent to the modern streets 
of la Consolazione and la Bufala. At the point where the Vicus 
Jugarius touched the Basilica Julia there was a fountain, named 
Lacus Servilius from the member of the Servilian family who had 
built it. It acquired a ghastly notoriety during the civil wars as 
the place where Sulla exposed the heads of the victims of his pro- 
scriptions. Agrippa ornamented it with the figure of a hydra. 
The site of the fountain has not yet been explored. 


XXXVIII. The Rostra Vetera (XXXII in plan). — The 
date of the erection of this renowned platform, from which magis- 
trates and orators addressed the people, is not well determined ; it 
must be placed, however, between 449 b. c, when the old Volkanal 
is still described as the speaking platform of Appius Claudius, and 
438, when the first mention of the new tribune occurs in Livy (iv. 
17). In 338 C. Msenius ornamented it with the (six) beaks of the 
war vessels captured at Antium, from which it took the name of 
Rostra. It stood near the border line between the Comitium and 
the Forum, so that the orators could be easily heard by the i:»atri- 
cians and the plebeians at the same time. The orators, when speak- 
ing, generally turned towards the Comitium and the Curia, until 
C. Gracchus or Licinius Crassus introduced the habit of facing the 
people assembled in the Forum. The proximity of the Rostra to 
the Senate-house is proved by the fact that the leaders of the mob, 
on the day of the funeral of Clodius, were chased from them by 
the flames which were consuming the Curia. These topographic 
references correspond exactly to the place, where the remains of a 
platform, once ornamented with projecting bronze ornaments, and 
dating from the fifth century b. c, have actually been found (see 
Plan, p. 251). It has been the fashion among modern topographers 
to believe in an alleged displacement of the Rostra from one place 
to the other in the last years of C?esar's dictatorshii:). They seem 
to forget that the Rostra, having been consecrated by the augurs, 


were, like the Curia, a tcmplum in the strictest sense of the word ; 
so they are called by Livy (viii. 14) and by Cicero (In Vatin., x. 
24). As the Curia itself never changed its position, so the Rostra 
Vetera have never been removed from their old location, nur has 
the relationship between the two temples been altered or broken. 
The platform which we behold before us is the same venerable 
nugyestum from which the warfare of centuries between aristocracy 
and democracy was carried on in Republican times, and from 
which Cicero pronounced two of his orations against Catiline. 
Here the heads of Antony, of Octavius, of the victims of Marius 
and Sulla were exposed, as well as the bodies of Sulla himself 
and of Clodius ; and here also the laws of the twelve tables were 
exposed to view. 

I do not pretend to say that Julius Ca'sar did not interfei-e in 
some way with the old Rostra ; he may have enlarged them, lined 
them with new beaks, and repaired in a general way the damages 
of the revolution of the Clodians, but he did not change their 
position, lie set uj^ again the statues of Sulla and Pompey, which 
had been removed after the battle of Pharsalus, and raised an 
equestrian one to Octavian, then aged only nineteen. We hear 
also of a magnificent bronze statue representing Hercules expii-ing 
under the tunic of Nessus. 

The head and the hands of Cicero were shown to the populace 
from this very seat of his former triumphs. Orations on the death 
of Ca'sar and of Augustus were also delivered from the Rostra. 

LiTEKATUKE. — F. M. Nlchols, The Roman Forum, pp. 197-217. — Ibid., 
Notizie (hi Rostn. Rome, Spithoever, 1885. — Heiiirich Jordan, Sui rostri del 
foro Cm Annal. lust., 1883, ji. 4!); and Moniimcnti delV Inst., vol. xi. pi. 49). — 
'0(to Richter, Scavo ai rostri del foro (in Bull. Inst'., 1884, p. 113). — Tbid., 
Rfkongtriiltion iind Geschichte drr /viw /.■>•(•// ch Ri'dnerhilline. Berlin, Weid- 
mann, 1884. — Ibid., Die romische Rednerbiiline (in .Tahrbuch, 1889, p. 1). 

XXXIX. Three monuments connected with the Rostra deserve 
notice : the Genius P(>j)itli liouiani. the J\Iilliariym Aureton, and the 

No trace exists of the first monument. It consisted of an fedicula 
or shrine with a golden statue of the Genius, the gift of the Em- 
peror Aurelian, before which sacrifices were offered on October 9. 
The statue was still standing in its place at the end of the fourth 
century, when some one scratched on the pavement of the Basilica 
Julia the words — 





which seem to make the half of a " tabula lusoria " (three words 
of six letters in three lines). The small circular shrine of the 
Genius {tempietto di marmo di forma circulare) was discovered in 
1539. The pedestal of the Genius of the Roman armies had already 
been found in 1480. 

Literature. — Theodor Mommsen, Corpus Inscr., vol. i., Commentarii 
diurni, October 9 ; and Ueber der Chronograph vom Jahre 354, p. 648. — 
Ludwig Urlichs, Codex U. R. topoc/raphicus, pp. 10, 11. — Heinrich Jordan, 
Ephem. ejngr., 1876, p. 278, n. 40. — Ligorio, Cod. Neap., xxxiv. p. 145. 

Milliarium Aureum (the golden milestone). — A column of gilt 
bronze, on the surface of which were noted the distances from the 
gates of Rome to the postal stations on each of the main roads 
radiating from the metroj)olis. It was erected by Augustus in 29 
B. c, as a record of the mensuratio totius orbis on which he and 
Agrippa had for many yeai-s been engaged. Its position was dis- 
covered in 1849-50, together with the x'emains of its exquisite 
marble base. The principal historical interest of the Milliarium 
arises from the meeting which Otho had here, a. d. 68, with the 
handful of Praetorians who committed the double crime of mur- 
dering Galba and of raising Otho to the Imperial throne.^ 

The Umbilicus Romcc, the round basement of which still exists 
at the other end of the platform, near the Arch of Severus, belongs 
to a much later period, probably to the age of Diocletian. It 
corresponded to the 6fx(paK6s of Greek cities. Ancient documents 
place it close to the Temple of Concord and to the church of SS. 
Sergius and Bacchus. This last named edifice is so closely con- 
nected with the topography of the west end of the Forum and of 
the Clivns Capitolinus that, although its remains have long since 
disappeared, it seems necessary to have it briefly described here. 

XL. The Church of SS. Sergius and Bacchus was the 
only one in this classic district which did not occupy the site of an 
ancient building, but stood in its own ground. The " Liber ponti- 
ficalis " mentions it for the first time in 731-741 at the time of 
Gregoi-y III., who transformed into a church a small oratory 
already existing in the Volkanal. Hadrian I. (772-795) enlarged 

1 In his work Le Pinnte di Roma anteriori al secolo .rri., Commendatore de 
Rossi has written some admirable pages on the Milliarium Aureum, and the 
m.ensura totius orbis which it represents (eh. iv. pp. 25-34). Consult also 
Luigi Canina, Sul valore dell' nntico piede romano, Rome, 1853 ; Heinrich 
Jordan, Topor/raphie, vol. i2, p. 244; and Ann. Inst., 1883, p. 57; Rodolfo 
Lanciani, Bull, com., 1892, p. 95. 


and improved the structure, and Innocent III. (1198-1216) added 
the front portico facing the Rostra. The exact position of the 
church appears from the following unpublished sketch by Martin 
Heemskerk (Fig. 107). The three fluted Corinthian columns in 
the foreground are those of the Temple of Vespasian. According 
to Armellini (C'hiese, p. 538) the bell-tower stood on the attic 
of the Arch of Severus ; but he evidently mistakes it for another 
tower, having no connection with the church, which appears in du 
Perac's third vignette on the opposite corner of the arch. I have 
discovered in the report of the sitting of the city council of Sep- 
tember 9, 1636, what was the end of this tower. This sitting 
agreed '• that the tow'er 
on the Arch of Septimius 
be pulled down, and its 
materials be given to the 
church of Santa ^larti- 
na, which is in com-se of 

Paul III. began demol- 
ishing the church of SS. 
Sergius and Bacchus on 
the advent of Charles V. 
(1536). Some of its 
walls appear still in Do- 
sio's twenty - first vig- 
nette, dating from 1569 ; 
the last traces of the 
apse disappeared in 1812. 

Between the Rostra and 
the Sacra Via stood a 
beautiful little building, 
the so-called Schola Xan- 
tha, or offices of the scri- 
b(B librarii (book-keepers) 
and pnecones (heralds) of the ^Ediles Curules. Its construction is 
attributed by Henzen to C. Avillius Licinius Trosius, a contempo- 
rary of Caracalla, and bj^ Huelsen to A. Fabius Xanthus and Be- 
bryx Drusianus, who lived in the first century. These person- 
ages are all mentioned in inscriptions discovered on the spot in 
1539. (See Corpus, vi. 103.) From the words of these documents, 
and from the account of the excavations left by Marliano and 
Ligorio, we gather that the Schola was built of solid marble, and 

Fig. lo; 

- The Church of SS. Sergius and Bacchus, 
sketched by Heemskerk. 


consisted of three rooms at least, with a portico in front facing 
the south ; and that Fabius Xanthus and his associates had deco- 
rated it with bronze seats, a statue of the Victory, seven silver 
statues of the gods, etc. The edifice and its inscriptions were 
destroyed and the marbles turned into new shapes. I believe, 
without being able to prove it, that the Schola Xantha formed 
the west side of the Rostra, the otfice-room of the scribes being 
under its lofty platform. The pedestal of the statue of Stilicho 
(Corpus, 1730), which stood in 7-osti-is, was discovered at the same 
time with the remains of the Schola. 

LiTEKATUKE. — Christian Huelsen, II sitv e le iscrizloni della Schola Xan- 
tha, iu Mittheilungen, 1888, p. 208. 

XLI. The Arch of Tiberius stood at the foot of the Clivus 
Capitolinus, where the Vicus Jugarius diverges from the Sacra 
Via, between the northwest corner of the Basilica Julia and the 
Milliarium. It was erected in 769 (16 a. d.) in memory of the 
recovery by Germanicus of the eagles and flags which had been 
lost with the legions of Varus in the battle of Teutoburg. 

The name of Germanicus, so dear to the Romans, must have 
saved the arch from destruction, after the death and the memo7'i(K 
damnatia of Tiberius. According to Montiroli, many fragments 
were discovered in 1848, with one or more pieces of the inscrip- 
tion, in which the Elbe and the Rhine were alluded to, and the 
recovery of the flags was mentioned. These pieces now lie scat- 
tered all over the Forum. 

Litp;katiti{e. — Olaus Kellermann, Bull. Inst., IS^b, p. 36. — Giovanni 
Montiroli, Ilforo romano. Rome, 1852. — Theodor Mommsen, Re.< i/esto' divi 
Auf/vsti, ed. 1883, p. 127. — Heinrich Jordan, Ephemerm epijjr., 1887, p. 262. 

XLII. The Arch of Septimius Severus (XXXIII in plan) 
was dedicated to him and to his sons Caracalla and Geta, a. d. 
203, in recognition of the benefits they had conferred on the com- 
monwealth by reforming the administration and extending the 
boundaries of the Empire. After the murder of Geta, a. d. 212, 
his name was suppressed in the inscriptions on either face of the 
attic ; but the holes left in the marble by the clami^s of the ori- 
ginal bronze letters give us the means of reconstructing the original 
text ; it contained the words (lin. 3) et (lin. 4) Getce nohilissbno 
ccesari, which were substituted by the acclamation optimis fortissi- 
misque jmncipibus, addressed to Severus and Caracalla alone. 

The arch has three passages connected by a transverse one. 
There are four columns of the composite order on each front, on 



the pedestals of which are carved groups of prisoners of war. (See 
Fig. 108.) On the spandriLs of the side archways are figures of 
River Gods, on those of the middle passage Victories with tro- 
phies. The panels above the side arches are covered with bas- 
reliefs illustrating the campaigns of Severus in the East. The 
small door on the south side leads to a set of rooms in the attic, 
some of which have no light. 

The arch was erected on the edge of the platform ( Volkanal — 
area CoTiconlicr), which, being six or seven feet higher than the 
level of the Forum and of the Comitium, was accessible only by 
means of steps. The roughly paved road going through the cen- 

Fig. 108. — Pedestals of Columns, Arch of Severus. 

tral arch dates from the fall of the Empire. Among the materials 
of which it was built, Fea discovered in 1803 a pedestal of an 
Imperial statue and pieces of a monumental column. No part of 
the Forum has been more fi*equently and more successfully ex- 
cavated than the neighborhood of this arch. On June 22, 1480, 
the pedestal of the Genius of Roman armies was tound apud 



arcum. In August, 1539, the pedestals of two statues of Stili- 
cho were discovered ; in 1547-49 many pedestals were unearthed 
coniinemorating the peace restored to the world by the Flavian 
Emperors, — the victory of the Emperor Julius Constantius over 
Magnentius, a. d. 353, the feats of Flavins Valerius Constantius 
Caesar, etc. ; and in 1549 the pedestals of the equestrian statues of 
Arcadius and Ilonorius. In 1774, another pedestal of a statue 
of Diocletian was foiind; and in 1803 another, dedicated, a. d. 357, 
to Jnlius Constantius by Oriitus, prefect of the city, the latter 
being probably in commemoration of the raising of the great 
obelisk of the Circus jNlaximus (now in the Lateran). These 
historical documents are marked Nos. 196-200, 234, 1119, 1132, 
1158, 1161, 1162, 1174, 1187, 1203, 1204, 1205, 1730, 1731, in vol, 
vi. of the " Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum." 

Fig. 109. — A Fruiterer's Shop under the Arch of Severus. 

Nos. 197, 199, 234, 1132, 1174, 1204 have perished. No. 1730 is 
to be found in the Palazzo Capranica della Valle ; No. 1731 in 
the Villa Medici ; Nos. 196, 198, 200, in the Museo Nazionale at 
Naples. No. 1158 was removed to the Farnese gardens, and 
brought back in 1875, together with No. 1203. Fragments of No. 
1187 are dispersed all over the Fornm. No. 1119 is kejit in the 
Vatican Museum with No. 1161. No. 1162 is broken in three 
pieces : the first is missing, the second is to be found in the Vati- 
can, the third near the Arch of Severns ! 


Many pages could be wi'itten on the history and on the fate of 
this noble monument in recent times. One incident shall answer 
for all. The arch, being the property of the S. P. Q. R., was put 
to ransom in this way. The two side passages were walled in at 
each end, and turned into shops. I have found in the city archives 
two leases, one dated May 1, 1721, by which one of the dens is 
rented to Bonaventura Rosa for four scudi and eighty baiocchi a 
year ; the other dated January 30, 1751, by which both are given 
up to Battista Franchi for seven scudi and twenty baiocchi. The 
last occupant, in 1803, was a fruiterer. This odd state of things 
is represented in the above original sketch by Gianni, made about 
1800 (Fig. 109). 

Literature. — Suarez, Arcus L. Septiniii Severi anaglypha. Rome, 1676. 
— Antonio Guattani, Roma antica, vol. i. p. 71. — Corpus Jnscr., vol. vl. n. 103;j. 

XLIII. The Carcer Tulliaxum (S. Peter's Prison) (XXXIV 
in plan), is mentioned by Livy as having been built by Ancus 
Marcius in a place near and a little liigher than the Forum : carcer 
imminens foro. It contained an underground cell, formerly a cave 
named Tullianum, from a tullus or jet of water which sprang 
from the rock. It was used as a place of execution, and Sallust 
depicts it as a dark, filthy, and frightful den, twelve feet under- 
ground, walled in and covered with massive stone walls. The 
fa9ade is very severe in style, and has an inscription commemo- 
rating the repair's to the prison, made at the time of Tiberius by 
C. Vibius Rufinus and M. Cocceius Nerva. (See Corpus Inscr., 
vol. vi. n. 1.539.) Nichols justly remarks that "the Carcer plays 
a part in Roman history like that of the Tower of London in 
English. The TuUianum was, if one may say so, a Secret Tower 
Hill. One of the first heroes of the long tale of miseries is Plemi- 
nius, who, being detained in prison for his excesses at Locri, was 
convicted of bribing men to set fire to the city, lowered into the 
Tullianum, and executed. The same fate befell Lentulus, Ceth- 
egus, and several other conspirators during the Catilinarian trou- 
bles. Cicero, who played such a leading part in them, speaks of 
the Carcer as having been ordained by the kings as the avenger 
of heinous and notorious crimes. The jail is also associated with 
the name of King Jugurtha, starved to death in the lower hole. 
The body of Seianus, the disgraced minister of Tiberius, was cast 
on the Scalse Gemoniae (steps adjoining the prison), and also those 
of his innocent children, whose execution was marked by circum- 
stances of fria;htful atrocitv. Here also the headless trunk of 


Flavins Sabinus, brother of Vespasian, was thrown by the soldiers 
of Vitelliiis, and soon after Vitellius himself met his end on the 
same spot. The Career," Nichols concludes, "like the Tower, 
had also its literary reminiscences. Nsevius is said to have writ- 
ten two of his plays while confined in prison for his attacks on 
the aristocracy." ^ 

The bibliography on the Career is given by Cancellieri, " Notizie 
del Carcere TuUiano." Rome, 1788, pp. 6, 7. 

XLIV. tEdes Concordia: ('Ojuoroeroj/, Temple of Concord), 
(XXXV in plan). — The approval of the Licinian laws in 367 
15. c. was a great event in the history of the Republic, because 
tlie alliance between patricians and plebeians, by restoring peace 
and tranquillity at home, allowed the government to turn its at- 
tention to foreign affairs. The laws, however, did not pass with- 
out a struggle. During a particulai'ly violent fight in the Forum, 
C'amillus promised to erect a temple to Concord, as soon as peace 
should be restored ; and he kept his word in 367. The temple, 
a simple and graceful structure of stone, wood, and painted terra- 
cotta, was raised at the foot of the Clivus Capitolinus, between 
the Temple of Saturn and the prison. In b. c. 121, after the 
death of C. Gracchus, the Senate commissioned L. Opimius with 
the reconstruction of the temple, to the great distress of the ple- 
beians, who could not tolerate the idea that a monument com- 
memorating a popular victory should be made to represent the 
triumph of aristocracy, and so the original inscription was 
changed one night into the words : " Discord raises this temple to 
Concord." The edifice, scanty fragments of which have come 
down to as, dates from a. d. 10, when Tiberius reconstructed it 
for the second time, and dedicated it on January 16 under the 
title of Concordia Augusta. Designed and executed by the clever- 
est masters of the golden age, entirely built of white marble, pro- 
fusely enriched with masterpieces of the Greek school, the Temple 
of Concord was one of the finest monuments in the valley of the 
Forum, and one of the richest museums of Rome. The cella con- 
tained one central and ten side niches, in which were placed the 
Apollo and Hera by Baton; Latona nursing Apollo and Diana 
by Euphranor; Asklepios and Hygieia by Nikeratos; Ares and 

1 On the connection of this historical monument with S. Peter, consult Der 
mamc'7-tinische Kerker u. die romischen Traditionen vom Gefdngnhse und den 
Ketten Petri, an excellent paper published by H. Grisar, S. J., in the Zeit- 
schriftfiir kath. Theologie, 1896, p. 102. 


Hermes by Piston ; and Zeus, Athena, and Demeter by Sthenics. 
Pliny speaks also of a picture by Theodores representing Cassan- 
dra; of another by Zeuxis which portrayed Marsyas bound to the 
tree ; of a third, Bacchus, by Nikias ; of four elephants cut in 
obsidian, a miracle of skill and labor; and of a collection of 
precious stones. Among these was the sardonyx set in the 
legendary ring of Polykrates of Sanios. I may mention in the 
last place the statue of Ilestia, which Tiberius had taken away 
almost by force from the inhabitants of Paros. 

Like that of Castor, the Temple of Concord played an im- 
portant i^art in Roman political life, and was used very often by 
the Senate as a meeting-place on extraordinary occasions. Cicero 
delivered in it his fourth oration against Catiline, denouncing the 
conspiracy and the names of those concerned in it. Other meet- 
ings are recorded in Imperial times, under Severus, Alexander, 
and Probus. The open space in front of the temple, originally 
called Volkanal, and later on Area Concordia;, is mentioned sev- 
eral times in connection with the " showers of blood." These 
were rain mixed with reddish sand from the deserts of Libya, a 
phenomenon by no means uncommon in Rome, for T have myself 
observed it on three occasions. 

The fate of the building after the barbaric invasions is not 
known. The Anonyinus of Einsiedlen saw (?) it almost perfect 
in the eighth century, and copied the inscription of the pronaos, 
which alludes to the restoration made by the S. P. Q. R. after the 
fire of Carinus. (See Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. n. 89 and 938.) The 
" Liber Pontificalis " speaks of it as threatening to collapse at 
the time of Hadrian I. (772-795). When Poggio Bracciolini 
visited Rome the first time about 1405, the portico was still stand- 
ing, but he saw it himself, soon after, fall to the ground, and its 
beautiful marbles were broken and thrown into the lime-kiln. 

The excavations of the site of the temple began on May 2, 1817. 
The fragments of decorative marbles found within the cella are 
described by contemporary witnesses as '*the most delicate, the 
most perfect productions of ancient art." These fragments are 
exhibited in the portico of the Tabularium, where dampness and 
saltpetre corrode their surface, and will soon reduce them to dust ; 
two bases of the side shrines are in the ground floor of the Museo 
Capitolino ; two capitals, with lambs in the place of volutes, are 
in the Palazzo dei Conservatory Nibby says that at the time of 
the discovei-y half the pavement was perfect ; but its slabs of 
africano, giallo, and pavonazzetto were afterward stolen one by one 


by stone-cutters, and probably made into paper-weights and other 
such marketable articles. The threshold of the cella, one of the 
few pieces left on the spot, has the mark of the caduceus engraved 
near the left end. 

Literature. — Co?y)Ms Inscr., vol. vi. n. 89-94. — Ulrichs, Codex topogr., 
pp. 220, 238. — Stefano Piale, Degli antichi templl di Vespasiano e della Con- 
cordia. Rome, (1818) 1834. — Carlo Fea, Varieta di Notizie, pp. 93-95. 

XLV. The Clivus Capitolinus (XXXVI in plan). — The 
end of the Sacra Via which ascended the eastern slope of the Cap- 
itoline hill in zigzags was called the Clivus Capitolinus. Its pave- 
ment has been laid bare in the lower tract before and between the 
temples of Vespasian, of Saturn, and the Porticus Deorum Con- 
sentium, as represented in the illustration (Fig. 119) ; but its upper 
course is as yet a matter of speculation. It probably rounded the 
Porticus Consentium and emerged on the Area Capitolina, skirt- 
ing the south side of the Tabularium, as marked (XXXVI) in 
the plan. 

At the foot of the pronaos of Saturn are the only existing re- 
mains of a Roman street pavement of classic times. They owe 
their preservation to the fact of having been covered by the steps of 
the temple in one of the later reconstructions. The reader hardly 
needs to be reminded that all the otlier pavements that go by the 
name of " ancient streets " are a patchwork of the fifth and sixth 
centuries after Christ. 

XLVI. Temple of Vespasian (XXXVII in plan ; Figs. 106 
and 110), erected under Doniitian in memory of his deified father 
(and brother). — There is no doubt that the three columns, stand- 
ing on a lofty platform between the Temple of Concord and the 
Porticus Consentium, belong to this temple, because the dedicatory 
inscription, copied by the so-called Anonymus of Einsiedlen when 
still intact, ends precisely with the eight letters estitver which 
we see engraved in the existing fragment. 

diro • uespasiano • augusto • s • p • q • r 
impp • ccess • seuerus • et ■ antoninus • pit • felic • augg • rESTiTVER 

Of this very elegant edifice only the platform, the altar, and the 
three corner columns of the pronaos are left standing. The frieze 
is decorated with the instruments of sacrifice — the " albogalerus," 
the " aspergillus," the " urceus," the knife, the " patera," the axe 
— in bold relief and in the purest style of art (Fig. 111). The 
cornice is remarkable for the tiny rings interposed to the dentels ; 



it is a characteristic of ornamental work of the time of Domitian, 
which occurs also in the cornices of the Flavian Palace, of the 
Forum Transitorium, of the Albanum, of the Serapaeum, of the 
Horti Largiaui — buildings erected or restored by the same Em- 



When the excavations of the Clivus Capitolinus were begun in 
1810, it was observed not only that the three coUimns were falling 
out of the perpendicular by over two feet in the direction of the 


Foi'um, but that their foundations liad been uprooted in the ex- 
cavations of the cinquecento. The ai'chitects Valadier and Campo- 
rese, after measuring and sketching the ruin stone by stone, took 
it down, rebuilt the foundations, and set it up straight again. The 
accumulation of rubbish, which reached nearly to the top of the 
shafts, was then removed, and the expectant public could see out- 
lined against the sky those capitals and that frieze which, only a 
few months before, had been trodden by the feet of tourists. This 
clever operation is described in Tournon's '• Etudes statistiques sur 
Kome," vol. ii. p. 266, pi. 21. 

On the opposite side of the sti'eet stands a nearly perfect Ionic 
hexastyle portico, which topographers agree in attributing to the 

XLVII. .EuKS Satukxi (Temple of Saturn) (XXXVIII 
in plan ; Fig. 110). — According to an old h-adition the Greek 
followers of Hercules had raised an altar to Saturn in the " jaws," 
or " at the foot " of the hill which bore his name (Collis Satur- 
nius), and which was inhabited, even before the Trojan war, by a 
colony of men called Saturnii. The tradition was founded on the 
fact that, in much later times, sacrifices were offered to the god in 
the Greek rite, the worshipers being allowed to keep their heads 
unveiled. A temple was substituted for the altar in 497 b. c., 
and dedicated on the day of the Saturnalia, December 17. Lucius 
Munatius Plancus rebuilt it at the request of his friend Augustus 
in 42 B. c, the money being taken from the spoils of the Rhaetic 

The fire of Carinus must have damaged the structure, as shown 
by the inscription sexatvs popvlvsqve romanvs incendio cox- 
SVMPTVM RESTiTviT eugraved on the architrave of the pronaos, 
and by the patchwork style of the pronaos itself, w^hich betrays 
an utter decadence of taste and a great poverty of means. The 
columns on the front are of gray granite, those at the sides of 
red, and made up of several pieces ; some of the bases are Attic, 
others Corinthian, and without plinth. It has been asked why 
the name of the S. P. Q. R. should appear on the architrave of 
the temple instead of the name of an Emperor. The reason is 
evident : the temjile was rebuilt in the fourth century, when Chris- 
tianity had become, if not the religion of the State, certainly the 
personal religion of the Emperors ; and it would not have become 
a Christian Emperor to see his name associated with the restora- 
tion of heathen temples. I believe, moreover, that the restoration 
by the S. P. Q. R. was undertaken not from a religious point of 


view, but as a necessity of public administration, because the 
temple had been used, since the time of Valerius Publicola, as 
the civil treasury — ^rarium Saturni, — as that of the temple of 
Concord was used for military purposes. The ^rarium Saturni 
was divided into two sections : one for current business, one as 
a reserve fund (iErarium sanctius). Appeal was made to this 
last in 211 during the second Punic war, and again in 49 b. c, on 
the approach of Julius Csesar to Rome. There were correspond- 
ing strong rooms under the cella, but no attempt has ever been 
made to discover them. The vErarium contained also the archives 
of the quaestors, in which, among other records, the sentences of 
death were deposited. 

A small square opened behind the temple, called Area Satvirni. 
It contained a celebrated altar, raised to Ops and Ceres on August 
10, A. D. 7, while the peninsula was suffering from a famine of un- 
precedented severity. 

The lofty platform on which the temple stands was reached 
from the Clivus Capitolinus l)y means of a long flight of stairs, 
designed in fragment iii. 22, 23 of the marble plan of Rome. 

Literature. — Theodor Mommsen, Res gestce, 2d ed. iv. 12, 13. — F. M. 
Nichols, The Roman Forum, p. 23. — H. Jordan, Ephemeris epigraphica, vol. 
iii. p. 55. — Orazio Marucchi, Le. forum romani, p. 139.— Thedenat, in Darem- 
berg and Saglio's Dictionnaire, p. 1285. 

XL VIII. PoRTicus Deorum Consentium (Portico of the 
Twelve Gods) (XXXIX in plan; Fig. 112). — At the highest 
point of the ascent, and under the southeast corner of the Tabu- 
larium, there is a line of cells built partly against the cliff, partly 
against the retaining wall of the Clivus, the front of which is 
decorated with a portico of the Corinthian order. It was rebuilt 
in A. D. 367 by Vettius Agorius Praetextatus, on the site of a much 
earlier shrine of the twelve deities, whose gilded images, six of 
gods and six of goddesses, are mentioned by Varro as existing in 
the Forum at a very remote age. The inscription on the archi- 
trave discovered in the excavations of 1834 and the remains of 
the colonnade were set up in 1853 by Canina. " Agorius Prsetex- 
tatus is known as one of the most obstinate upholders of pagan- 
ism, already dying out. He persecuted the Christians whenever he 
could do so without incurring the penalties of law ; restored the 
abandoned and half-ruined temples ; and, when Pope Damasus re- 
monstrated with him for his cruel and illegal behavior, answered, 
' Make me Bishop of Rome and I shall at once become a good 
Christian.' " 


Remains of his gardens on the Esquiline were discovered in 
1873-74 near the Piazza Manfredo Fanti. The palace connected 
with the gardens had already been discovered in 1591 in the 
grounds of Federigo Cesi, near the Arch of Gallienus. It con- 

Fig. 112. —The Porticus Consentium. 

tained, like the gardens, a valuable set of works of art, among 
which was the statue of Coelia Concordia, a Vestalis Maxima, so 
perfectly preserved that even the insignia of her order, of gilded 
metal, remained fastened around her neck. 

Literature. — Olaus Kellerniann, in Bull. Inst., 1835, p. 34. — Luigi 
Grid, At ti accad. jwntif. archeoL, vol. xiv. p. 118. — Adolf Becker, Topo- 
graphie, p. 318. — Rodolfo Lanciaiii, Bull, com., 1874, p. 83; and Ancient 
Rome, p. 169. — Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. n. 102. 

XLIX. Tabularium (XL in plan). — This is an immense and 
well-preserved building, on the slope of the Capitoline facing 
the Forum, destined for the safe keeping of the deeds of public 
interest, among which were the decrees of the Senate from the 
earliest days of the Kings, the plebiscites, the treaties of peace 
and alliance, and so forth. Bunsen calls the Tabularium "le 
seul edifice grand qui nous reste de la Republique, le seul edifice 
d'Etat de la Rome ancienne;" Emil Braun, likewise, "a grand 
edifice, one of the most considerable of the brightest epoch of the 


Republic, . . . which desei'ves our fullest admiration ; " and yet it 
is one of the least visited monuments in Rome. 

The Tabularium is probably the work of Q. Lutatius Catulus, 
to whom the task of rebuilding the Capitol after the fire of 88 b. c. 
had been intrusted by a decree of the Senate in 78 b. c. There 
are two inscriptions commemorating his work : one seen by Poggio 
Bracciolini about 1530, which expressly mentions svhstrvctionem 
ct tahvlarivm ; the other discovered by Canina in 1845, which has 
been set into the wall of the Tabularium itself on the north side. 
This last contains only the general expression de sK^atus sKtirenlia 
FACiVNDvm (tabularium?) coeravit. (See Corpus Inscr., vol. i. p. 
170, n. 391, 392.) 

The area of the building corresponds almost exactly with that 
of the Palazzo del Senatore, the official residence of the Roman 
municipal administration. The walls of the palace rest on the 
ancient ones on the north, east, and south sides, as any one can 
see; but I have discovered a document which proves tliat the 
west side, viz., the fa(,'ade of the palace towards the Piazza del 
Campidogiio, is likewise built upon ancient foundations. In p. 
88 of the Bodleian MSS. Pirro Ligorio asserts that a beautiful 
" basamento di sasso tiburtiuo di bella e vaga modanatura " runs 
under the pedestals of the two River Gods on either side of the 
fountain, and gives a good outline of it. He also tells the follow- 
ing remarkable story about the fate of the two River Gods. They 
had formed part of the mediseval museum of statuary on the 
Piazza di Montecavallo, which comprised the two colossal groups 
of Castor and Pollux, two statues of Constantine, one of Cybele, 
and the two reclining figures of the Nile and the Tigris, known 
by the name of Saturn and Bacchus.^ When the River Gods 
were removed to the Capitol for the decoration of the Palazzo 
del Senatore, an influential person (tin malo consigliere) suggested 
that the Tigris should be transformed into a Tiber. The sug- 
gestion was adopted ; the head of the tiger was changed into that 
of a wolf, and the two sucking infants were added to the group. 
Ligorio says that the fingers of the right hand of one of the twins 
were originally part of the hair of the tiger. 

LiTEKATURE. — Giovaniii Aziirri, Descrlzione delV areata dorica dell' an- 
tico Tabulario. Rome, 1839. — Beschreibung d. Stadt Rom, vol. iii. p. 40. — 
Luigi Canina, Monumenti dell' Istituto, vol. v. pi. 31. — Charles Bunsen, 
Les forums, p. 286. — Emil Braun, Ruins and Museums, p. 14. — Theodor 

1 See Michaelis, Le antichita della citta di Roma, descritte da Nicolao 
Muffel, in Mittheil., 1888, p. 271, n. 23, 24. 


Momm>eii, Annul. Inst., 1858, p. 211; and Bull, hist., IS-l.'), p. 119, — Heiurkh 
Jordan, // tabulario capiloUno (in Aunal. Inst., 1881, p. 60). 

The Tabularium com2:)rises a substructure built of gabinian 
stone, an underground tloor, wliich luis long been used for a city 
jail, and an upper portico of the Doric order, with many halls, 
passages, corridors, and staircases, all in perfect preservation. The 
halls were used, as has been said, for state documents, engraved 
on bronze tablets, '' tabulae seneaj," from which the building was 

Fig. li;;. — OM (iatc of Tabularium blocked l.y T.-mpl.- of W-spasian. 

named. Three thousand tablets, called by Suetonius " instru- 
mentum im])erii pulcherrimum ac vetustissimum," perished in the 
fire of Yitellius. Vespasian restored the set by means of dupli- 
cates kept in other archives. 


The Tabularium was accessible directly from the Clivus Capito- 
liiiLis and from the iErarium Saturui, by means of a staircase of 
sixty-seven steps, the preservation of which is truly wonderful. 
The entrance to it was blocked at the time of Domitian, in conse- 
quence of the erection of the Temple of Vespasian, as shown in 
Fig. 113. 

Nibby asserts that the many fragments of columns and capitals 
of travertine (of the Corinthian order) discovered at the foot of 
the substructure, and now piled up in front of the Portico of tlie 
Consentes, belong to a second or upper arcade of the Tabularium. 
His opinion is corroborated by documents of the time of Anacletus 
11. and Innocent III., which mention two Camellarige, the lower 
and the upper, " Camellaria " being then the denomination of the 
Tabularium ; and by Poggio Bracciolini, who saw in it fornices 
(luplici ordine, a double tier of arcades. 

L. Capitolium (Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus) (XLI 
in plan). — This national sanctuary of ancient Rome, designed by 
the elder Tarquin and built by his son Superbus, was dedicated 
by M. Hoi'atius Pulvillus, consul, on September 13, 509 b. c. 
Writers describe it as raised on a platform 61.62 metres long, 
and 57.17 wide, in the middle of a sacred area, which was bounded 
on three sides by precipitous cliffs. There were three rows of 
columns on the front of the temple, but none at the back; the 
style of architecture was pure Etruscan, low and heavy, with 
intercolumniation so wide (areostyle) as to require the use of 
wooden architraves. The • cella was divided into three compart- 
ments, the middle one sacred to Jupiter, the one on the left to 
Juno Kegina, the one on the right to Minerva. The pediment 
was crowned by a quadriga of terra-cotta, in the manner of an 
acroterium ; and the statue of the Father of the Gods was of the 
same material. It was the w^ork of Turianus of Fregena), who 
had painted the face of the god in vermilion, and dressed his 
body with the tunica palmata and the toga picta. Considering 
that the wooden architraves must have been covered likewise with 
panels of painted terra cotta, the roof lined with antefixse, etc., 
we may assume that the old Capitolium did not differ from the 
contemporary temples of southern Etruria, a splendid specimen 
of which, discovered at Faleria, is now exhibited in the Villa 
Giulia outside the Porta del Popolo. 

In 386 B. c. the rugged and uneven surface of the hill around 
the temple was made level by means of gigantic substructures, 


which rose from the level of the plain to that of the temple itself, 
a work called " insane " by Pliny, and classed by Livy among the 
wonders of Rome. The Capitolium was only accessible from the 
side of the clivus by means of stately stairs, a kind of "scala 
santa," which Csesar and Claudius ascended on their knees. 

On July 6, 83 b. c, a malefactor, whose name was never dis- 
covered, set the buUding ablaze. Sulla undertook its reconstruc- 
tion, for which purpose he laid his hands on some of the columns 
of the Temple of Jupiter the Olympian at Athens. Sulla's work 
was continued by Lutatius Catulus (the builder of the Tabula- 
rium), and finished by Julius C«sar in 46. A second restoration 
took place in the year 9 b. c. under Augustus, a third in 74 a. d. 
under Vespasian, and the last in the year 82 under Domitian. 
Domitian's temple was of the same length and width as its pre- 
decessors, but higher and more svelte. It had Corinthian columns 
of pentelic marble. 

For many generations topographers have discussed which of the 
two summits of the Capitoline hill was occupied by the temple, 
which by the citadel. A discovery made on Kovember 7, 1875, 
gave me the first clue to the solution of the difficulty. While 
building the foundations of the new rotunda in the garden of the 
Palazzo dei Conservatori (where the works of art dug up on the 
Esquiline are now exhiliited), we discovered the edge of the plat- 
form built by the Tarquins, and upon it a fragment of one of the 
columns of pentelic marble pertaining to the last restoration of 
Domitian. Such a find, taken by itself, would not have been con- 
clusive ; but compared with others made in the course of the last 
four centuries, it proves beyond doubt that the Capitolium stood 
ou the summit of ]Monte Caprino, and consequently that the Arx 
and the Tarpeian rock must be placed on the Aracceli side. 

First as to the insame substriirtiones which supported the sacred 
area. They have been seen and described by Flaminio Vacca on 
the side of the Piazza della Consolazione, by Sante Bartoli on the 
side of the Piazza ]Montanara, by Ficoroni on the side of the Via 
di Torre de' Specchi. their thickness exceeding five metres. The 
travertine facing of these walls w^as covered with inscriptions and 
dedications in honor of the great Roman god by the kings and the 
nations of the world. One cannot read these historical documents, 
these messages of friendship and gratitude from the remotest corner 
of the earth, without acqiiiring a new sense of the magnitude and 
power of Rome.i These dedications are found only on the side of 
the Moute Caprino. 

1 See Bull, com., 1886, p. 403 ; 1887, pp. 14, 124, 251 ; 1888, p. 138 ; 1890, p. 57. — 


The platform of the Tarquins, built of small grayish blocks of 
tufa lamellare, without cement, exists still in tolerable preserva- 
tion under the garden and palace (Caft'arelli) of the German Em- 
bassy. A sketch in Fabretti's ''De Columna traiana" shows tliat 
when the Caffarellis enlarged their palace on the Monte Caprino, 
about 1680, fourteen tiers of stone at least were removed. The 
following illustration shows the only portion now left visible of 
this great platform (Fig. ll-l). It lies under the partition wall be- 
tween the Caffarelli garden and that of the Palazzo dei Conser- 

Borings made all over the Monte Caprino in 1876 by Jordan 

H^Lhl, ~ il ': > ,4f??^ 



f "^ \t^^ ""^ i! 

BJJhjl^^^ , .;^^^^ 


^^^^^HHIkMik. . 

, ,., .. i 

Fig. 114. — Remains of the Platform of the Capitolium in the Garden of the Caffarelli 


and Schuj^mann have enabled us to trace three out of four sides 
of the parallelogram, as well as the size and direction of one of 
the favissce. 

The temple rebuilt \i\ Domitian was plundered in June, 4.55, by 
the Vandals of Genseric, who carried off the statues to adorn his 

Momm.«en, Zeitschrift fur Numismatik, xv. p. 207. — Corpus Inscrip., vol. i. 
p. 169. 


African residence. Froni that time the temple, stripped of its 
roof of gilt bronze tiles, fell into ruin, and became, like so many 
others, a stone quarry and a lime-kiln. In January, 1545, Giovan 
Pietro Caffarelli discovered the first relics in the garden behind 
the Palazzo dei Conservatori. Some of the pieces were sketched 
and measured by Antonio da Sangallo the younger, and the whole 
find is described as follows by Flaminio Yacca : " Upon the Tar- 
peian rock (Monte Caprino) several pillars of peutelic marble were 
found, with capitals of such size that I was able to carve out of 
one of them the great lion now in the garden of Grand Duke 
Ferdinand of Tuscany by the Trinita de' Monti (Villa Medici). 
The rest of the marbles were used by Vincenzo de Rossi to carve 
the Prophets and other statues of the chapel of Cardinal Federico 
Cesi at S. ^Slaria della Pace. ... No fragments of the entablature 
were found, but as the building was so close to the edge of the 
precipice, I fancy they must have fallen into the plain below." 
The surmise was proved correct by subsequent discoveries. In 
1780 great pieces of cornice and frieze, ornamented with bucranii 
and festoons, were dug up from the foundations of the house 
Xo. 13 Via ]Montanara at the foot of the rock ; other fragments in 
May, 1875, under the house Xo. 83 Via della Consolazione. The 
dedications by foreign kings and nations, mentioned above, have 
also rolled down the hill towards the Piazza della Consolazione, 
where they were discovered in 1887 under the Casa Moroni. An- 
other piece of a fluted column of pentelic marble was discovered 
on January 24, 1889, on the slope towards the TuUianum (S. Pietro 
in Carcere), where it had been dragged and abandoned by a cinque- 
ceiito stone-cutter. 

A careful examination made in 1S75 by the late Padre Luigi 
Bruzza proves that the statues of the Cappella Cesi are really sculp- 
tured in pentelic, and so is Flaminio Vacca's lion, in the Villa Me- 
dici. The piece of a column discovered in Xovember, 1875, is to be 
seen in the small garden of the Palazzo dei Conservatori ; the one 
discovered in January, 1889. in the Via di S. Pietro in Carcere has 
been buried over in the same place. The platform of the temple 
discovered in 1865 in the garden of the German Embassy (Caffa- 
relli) was buried in 1880 by Baron von Keudell. The dedicatory 
inscriptions found in the Piazza della Consolazione, instead of 
being replaced on the Capitol, to which they had been offered by 
the discoverer, have found their way to the Museo delle Terme ; 
those found in the sixteenth century (Corpus Inscr. Lat., vol. i. p. 
169, n. 589) have perished. 


Literature. — Corpus Inscr., vol. i. p. 170; and vol. vi. n. 372-374. — 
Rycq, Be Capitolio romano. Leyden, 1669. — Bunsen, Beschreibung d. Stadt 
Rom, vol. iii% p. 14. — Hirt, Der capitoliniscke Jtipitertempel (in Abhandl. d. 
Berlinei" Akademie, 1813). — Bureau de la Malle, Memoire sur la position de la 
roche tarpeienne (in Mem. Academie Inscriptions, 1819). — R. Lanciani, // 
tempio di Giove ottimo massimo (in Bull, com., 1875, p. 165, pis. 16-18) ; and 
Pagan and Christian Rome, p. 84. — I'ietro Rosa, Annali Instituto, 1865, p. 382. 
— H.Jordan, Osservazioni sul tempio di Giove Capitolino (in Annali Instit., 
1876, p. 145) ; and TopograpMe, vol. i^, p. 67. — Fabio Gori, Archivio storico 
letterario della citta eprovincia di Roma, vol. i. 1875, pp. 285-334. — Christian 
Huelsen, Osservazioni suW architettura del teinpio di Giove Cajntolino (in 
Mittheilungen, 1888, p. 150, pi. 5). — Audollent, Bessein inedit d^un fronton du 
temple de Jupiter Capilolin (in Melanges de I'Ecole frau9aise de Rome, 1889, 
]>. 120, planche 2). 

LI. FoKUM JuLiuM. — In spite of the construction of so many 
temples and basilicae on the borders of the Forum, by wliicli the 
space accessible to the public had been more than doubled, the 
Forum itself, dating from the early days of the city, had become 
absolutely insufficient for the wants of a population which was 
fast approaching a million. The first step towards the improve- 
ment of this state of things was taken by Julius Csesar in 54 b. c. 
He seems to have planned the creation of a new forum while 
absent from Italy ; stimulated perhaps by the example of L. 
^milius PauUus, who had purchased the site of his basilica 
(Emilia) at a cost of 1500 talents, or 12,000,000 lire. Equally 
large was the sum spent by Cajsar in securing a space for his 
" extension." At the date of Cicero's letter (iv. 16) to Atticus, 
some 60,000,000 sesterces had already been expended. The total 
cost of ground, without including the new buildings, is said to 
have exceeded 100,000,000 sesterces, or about 20,000,000 lire, a 
sum obviously exaggerated, and which has been reduced by careful 
calculations to 1,343,750 lire (about 168 lire the square metre). 
The Forum Julium took the shape of a sacred inclosure around 
the temple dedicated by the dictator 45 b. c. to Venus Genetrix, 
the goddess from whom he professed to descend. Her statue was 
a masterpiece by Arkesilaos, and a masterj^iece also was the statue 
of the famous charger, which had been foaled in the mews of the 
Julian house, and whose fore feet were nearly human, the hoofs 
being split, as it were, into toes. Ajipianus speaks of a statue of 
Cleopatra by the side of that of the goddess ; Ovid of a fountain 
adorned with figures of nymphs called Appiades ; and Pliny of 
famous paintings by Greek artists, of six collections of engraved 
gems, and of a breastplate for the goddess covered with British 



The beautiful temple was discovered at the time of Palladio 
in the foundations of a house at the corner of the present streets 
Cremona and ^lai-morelle. He describes the structure as built of 
blocks of marble " lavorati 
eccellentemente." Tlie cor- 
nice was adorned with sym- 
bols of the sea — dolphins, 
tridents, etc. ; the temple 
itself was hexastyle, perip- 
teral, and pycnostyle. This 
last particular is expressly 
mentioned by Vitruvius (iii. 
3), and Palladio confesses 
" di non hauer veduto inter- 
colunnii cosi jnccioli in al- 
cun altro editicio antico " — 
never to have seen such 
small intei-columniation in 
any other ancient edifice. 
The temple is now com- 
pletely hidden from view ; 
the only remains visible, in 
an alley, Via del Ghettarel- 
lo, No. 18, pertain to the ta- 
berufe, or shops which lined 
the Forum on the (south-) 
west side. They have been 
excavated twice at least : 
first about the end of the 
fifteenth century, when Fra 
Giocondo da Yerona made 
a design of them (Utfizi, n. 
l.-j^T), and again by Parker 
in 186G. Tliese important 
remains were called Forum 
^lartis, ISlartis Forum, Mar- 
forio, in the ]Middle Ages. 
The statue of the River 
God, known as the facetious partner of Pasquino, was discovered 
at the foot of the street which bears his name, together with the 
granite basin into which the water fell from the god's ui-n. The 
statue was removed to the Caintol by Sixtus V., and placed by 

Fig. 115. —The Venus Genetrix by Aikesilaos 
— a Fragment iu the Museo delle Terms. 


Clement XII., in 1734, in the court of the Capitoline Museum, 
above the fountain. The basin was removed first to the Campo 
Vaccino, by S. Maria Liberatrice, in 1594, and again to the Piazza 
del Quirinale in 1818. The place where both were discovered is 
marked by a tablet (written by Bartolomeo Marliano) above the 
door No. 49 Via di Marforio. 

There are several copies of the Venus Genetrix of Arkesilaos. 
The goddess appears clad in a thin, semi-transparent chiton, 
tlirough which the form of the young and lovely body can be 
clearly seen ; the left breast is bare. There is a replica in the 
Borghese Museum (Helbig, Guide, vol. ii. p. 141, n. 915); an- 
other in the ]\Iuseo delle Terme, reproduced in Fig. 115 (ibid., 
p. 213, n. 1027); a third in the Louvre (Froehner, Sculpture 
antique, vol. i. p. 16G, n. 135), etc. Consult Otto Jahn, "Leip- 
ziger Monatsberichte," 1861, p. 114; and Wissowa, "De Veneris 
Simulacris romanis." Wratislaw, 1882. 

LiTEKATUKE. — Andrea Palladio, Architettura, ed. 1570, lib. iv. c. 31. — 
Flaminio Vacca, 3Ie.m. 69 (in Fea's Miscell., vol. i. p. Ixxxiii.). — Francesco 
Cancellieri, Noiizie delle statue chtte di Marforio e di Pasquino. Rome, 1789. 
— Giovanni Battista Cavalieri, Antiquar. statuar. Rome, 1585, pi. 94. — 
Charles Bunsen, Bull. Inst., 18.36, p. 55. — Luigi C'anina, Foro Romano, 94; 
and Edifizii, vol. ii. pis. xcii.-xcv. — F. M. Nichols, The Roman Forum, 
p. 251. — Forma Urbis Roma, pi. xx. 

LII. Forum Augustum (plan. Fig. 110). Augustus followed 
the example of Ceesar and built a third and more magnificent 
forum in continuation of the two existing ones. Its remains, 
known by the name of " Arco dei Pantani," rank among the finest 
of ancient Rome. The most remarkable feature of the place is a 
wall of blocks of peperino, raised to a great height to screen the 
view of the mean houses clustered on the slope of the Quirinal, 
in the neighborhood of the present Via Baccina and Salita del 
Grillo. The wall is pierced liy an original archway, the Arco dei 
Pantani just named, through which the modern traflSc passes at a 
considerably higher level than the original street which led to the 
Subura. Against it stand the remains of the beautiful Temple of 
Mars Ultor, one of the few which have come down to us from the 
Augustan age without restorations. They consist of three fluted 
Corinthian columns, of part of the right wall of the cella, and of 
the roof of the vestibule. They stand on a substructure excavated 
in 1842, when the inscription in " Corpus," n. 2158, was found, re- 
lating to the solemn procession which the Salii Palatini made 
every year on INIarch 1 (and for several days following), chanting 



the axamenta or saliaria carmina, and dancing sacred war-dances — 
whence the name of Salii. The inscription had ah-eady been seen 
and copied at the time of Sixtus IV. in 1477, and had been used, 
later on, in the restorations of the church of S. Basilio of the 
Priory of Malta, which occupied the southern hemicycle of the 
Forum. Mars (Gradivus) being the god presiding over the Col- 

Foro troiano 

PUTKUS (1263) 

Part excavated under Sixtus IV (1477) 


lia/ier Cr BoiUalliC. 

Fig. 116. — Plan of tlie Forum Augustuin. 


lege of the Salii, its temple was selected by them as the last haltr 
ing-place (mansio) after their exhausting progress through the 
city. The splendor of the banquet which terminated the celebra- 
tion is praised by both Cicero and Horace, and indeed the phrases 
" saliares dapes " and " epulari saliarem in modum " seem to have 
passed into a proverb. Suetonius relates that while the Emperor 
Claudius was sitting one day on the throne delivering judgment 
in this forum, his nostrils were struck by the appetizing odor of 
the repast prepared for the Salii. Adjourning, therefore, the 
case which was being argued before him, he rushed into the tem- 
ple and sat down among the banqueting priests. 

The ii-regular form of the wall at the back of the temple and 
of the Forum is accounted for by the circumstance that Augustus 
was unable to obtain a symmetrical area, as the owners of the 
nearest houses could not be induced to part with their property. 
Flaminio Vacca says that a piece of the wall having been demol- 
ished, towards the end of the sixteenth century, it was found out 
that the blocks of peperino were fastened to each other by means 
of wooden clamps shaped like a swallow's tail, and that nobody 
could ascertain what kind of wood they were cut out of (probably 
box- wood). Pliny praises the Temple of Mars Ultor as one of 
the rnost beautiful and perfect works of man ever seen on earth, 
and places it on the same level with the Forum and Temple of 
Peace, and with the Basilica ^Emilia. The great pieces of timber 
used in the roof had been cut in the Rhaitian Alps, in the dog- 
days, a precaution which was considered to make wood indestruc- 
tible. Pliny also mentions among its treasures vases of chiseled 
iron, a statue of Apollo cut in ivory, two large pictures represent- 
ing a battle and a triumph, and four noble works of Apelles, one 
of which, representing the victory of Alexander the Great, was 
altered in the time of Claudius by substituting the likeness of 
Augustus for that of the Macedonian king. The temple also 
contained a set of standard weights and measures, and safes and 
strong boxes, where large sums belonging to private citizens 
were kept under the guarantee of the priests. A daring robbery 
perpetrated towards the end of the first century, when even the 
precious helmet was wrenched from the head of Mars Ultor, 
frightened the depositors so that the priests gave up banking, at 
least for the time. 

The main point of interest of this forum was the gallery of 
statues, raised by Augustus to the generals who by their exi^loits 
and victories had extended the boundaries of the Roman Empire. 



The rules formulated by Augustus for the giving of so great a 
distinction were very strict, but his successors soon relaxed their 
severity, and statues were offered right and left, just like the 
equestrian orders of nowadays. L. Silanus, although a minor, 
was given a statue after his betrothal to Octavia, daughter of 
Claudius. Another was raised in honor of Q. Curtius Rufus, 
legate of Germany, for having opened a silver mine (near Nassau 

Fig. 117. — Tlie South Heuiicycle of the Foruui Augustmii. excavated in 1888. 


on the right bank of the Rhine) which brought little profit to the 
treasury, but caused great toil and hardship to the soldiers. 
Nero, after the conspiracy of the Pisones was revealed to him, 
convened the Senate, and obtained the ornamenta triumplialia for 
those who had turned informers. Pliny the younger reproaches 
Domitian for having given statues to men who had never been in 
action, not even in camp, and who had never heard the sound of a 
trumpet except from the stage. 

The Forum of Augustus lost its privilege of being the national 
protomotheca with the construction of that of Trajan. The honors 
were then divided between the two places, as shown by the inscrip- 
tion of M. BassfBus Rufus (Corpus, n. 1599). 

Many important discoveries illustrating this point were made in 
1888-89, when the municipality of Rome, at my suggestion, pulled 
down the houses and factories which concealed the southern hemi- 
cycle and laid bare its boundary wall and the niches once occupied 
by the statues of the Roman heroes. I have described the results 
of these great excavations in the " Bull. arch, com.," 1889, pp. 26 
and 73 (compare 1889, p. 481 ; and 1890, p. 251). 

Besides fragments of statues in military attire, columns of giallo 
antico, capitals, friezes of exquisite workmanship, we brought to 
light the base of a donariuin, for which one hundred pounds of 
gold had been used, offered to Augustus by the Spanish province 
of Baetica ; a pedestal of a statue dedicated to Nigrinianus, nephew 
of the Emperor Cams, by a financier named Geminius Festus ; and 
inscriptions — in a more or less fragmentary state — which accom- 
panied the statues of some victorious generals, giving a short 
account of their exploits. The editors of the first volume, second 
edition, of the " Corpus Inscript." ^ attribute to Professor Bormann 
the merit of having made known the fact that these eulogistic 
biographies, dictated by Augustus, are divided into two parts, — 
one giving the name in the first case, like — 

M • AIMILIVS • Q • F • L • N 

engraved on the plinth of the statue ; the other giving the account 
of his career, being engraved on a marble tablet placed below the 

1 Inscription es latinee antiquissimce, editio altera, pars prior, Berlin, Reimer, 
MDcccxciii, p. 187, col. a. 


niche. I had myself pointed out this important circumstance so 
far back as February, 1889 (see Bull, com., pp. 73, 77), and I was 
able to prove thus that many eulogies of illustrious men — the 
place of discovery of which was not known — belonged to the 
Forum of Augustus. 

The eulogies, or fragments of eulogies, found in 1888-89 are 
now preserved in the Museo Municipale al Celio. They belong to 
Appius Claudius Csecus, the builder of the Via Appia ; to C. Duillius, 
who destroyed the Punic fleet on the coast of Sicily ; to Q. Fabius 
Maximus, dictator ; to L. Corjielius Scipio, who led a successful 
war against King Antiochus in 190 b. c. ; to Q. Csecilius Metellus 
Xumidicus ; to L. Cornelius Sulla Felix, dictator, etc. 

The area of the Forum of Augustus is covered by a double bed 
of ruins. The lower one, 2.75 metres high, formed the bottom of 
the marsh, or pond, called il Pantano, where, for want of a proper 
outlet, the rain-water from the slopes of the Quirinal and the 
valley of the Subura collected in the Middle Ages. The upper 
one, 3.25 metres thick, dates from the year 1570, when Pius V. and 
the commissioner of streets, Prospero Boccapaduli, drained the 
marsh, found an outlet for the waters, and raised the city to the 
present level. Needless to say, works of art and objects of arcliae- 
ological value are found only in the lower strata. Marchese Ales- 
sandro Guiccioli, syndic of Rome, at the time of the excavations 
of 1888-89 had formed tlie project of laying bare the whole extent 
of the Forum ; and certainly no greater benefit could have been 
conferred on students of ancient Rome, and no greater addition 
secured to the archajological w^ealth of our city than by the libera- 
tion of these ruins from the ignoble superstructures which hide 
them from view. An exchange of property between the munici- 
pality and the Ospizio dei Convertendi, which owns the place, had 
already been agreed upon, when the financial crisis of 1889 occurred, 
and stopped the progress of our work. 

LiTEKATUKK. — Theodor Mommseu, Res Gestce did Augusti, iv. 21-2(i, p. 
126, 2d edit. — Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. 1386 ; and Inscr. lat. antiquiss., 2d edit. 
Berlin, Reimer, 189.3, p. 186. — Luigi Borsari, II foro di Aur/usto e il temj3io di 
Marte Ultore, Accad. Lincei, 3 serie, vol. xiii., 1883-84, p. 406. — Rodolfo 
Lanciani, Bull, com., 1889, pj). 26 and 73. — Giuseppe Gatti, ibid., 1889, p. 
481; and 1890, p. 251, pi. 14. — Christian Huelsen, Mittheilungen, vol. v., 
1890, pp. 247, 305 ; and vol. vi., 1891, p. 94. — Th(?denat, in Daremberg and 
Saglio's Dictionnaire, p. 1311. 

LIII. Forum Transitorium. — This Forum, commenced by 
Domitian and finished by Nerva, was called transitorium or pervium 


because tlie great thoroughfare of the Argiletum passed through 
it ; also Forum Nerval from the founder and Forum jNIinervse or 
Forum Palladium from the goddess to whom it was dedicated. It 
was a long, narrow inclosure, 117 metres by 39, more like a hand- 
somely decorated street than a scjuare. The inclosure walls, built 
of peperino and coated with marble, were lined with fluted columns 
supporting a richly carved entablature, of which one intercolumnia- 
tion alone remains, known by the name of Le Colonnacce (corner 
of Via Alessandrina and Via della Croce Bianca). Four hundred 
years ago it could still be measured in its entirety by Antonio da 
Sangallo the younger, Baldassarre, and Sallustio Peruzzi and others, 
whose drawings I have published in the " Atti d. r. Accad. d. 
Lincei," vol. xi. 1883. The destruction was not accomplished at 
once, but was the work of many generations, the monks of S. 
Adriano being foremost in the campaign against the edifice. I 
have found mention more than once, in deeds of the fourteenth 
century, of a great lime-kiln established near their church under 
the name of " calcaria ecclesise sancti Hadriani." In November, 
1520, a gang oi fossores lapidum ^ opened a trench at the foot of one 
of the archways of the Forum, known by the name of Arcus Noe, 
or Arcanoe (the Arch of Noah), and began to undermine the wall 
of peperino. Francesco di Branca, one of the city magistrates, 
caused a member of the gang to be arrested ; but Cardinal Scara- 
muccia Trivulzio, in whose interests perhaps he was working, 
obtained his prompt release from Leo X. The " vignettes " of the 
sixteenth century, of Dosio, Du Perac, Koch, Gamucci, etc., repre- 
sent this Arch of Noah and the adjoining Temple of JNIinerva in a 
good state of preservation. The ruins were so striking and pic- 
turesque that many artists have selected them as a background to 
their compositions. The following sketch (Fig. 118) of Boscolo in 
Laing's collection, Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh, represents 
the meeting of some holy men before the Temple of Minerva ; the 
Arch of Noah appears on the right, and above it the church and 
belfry of SS. Stefano and Lorenzo (now SS. Quirico e Giolitta). 

The destruction of the arch and of the temple is commonly attri- 
buted to Pope Paul v., Borghese ; but Clement VIII., Aldobrandini, 
had already laid hands on them. Giacomo Grimaldi says that 
while walking one day through the Lungara with Giacomo della 
Porta, they saw a great block of Parian marble being removed 
from this temple to S. Peter's. The block, belonging to the archi- 
trave, measured 11.5.5 cubic metres, or about 346 cubic feet. Clem- 
1 Contractors for the supply of building materials. 



eut VIII. made use of it for the high altar of S. Peter's, which he 
inaugurated on June 26, 1594. The rest of the temple disappeared 
in 1606. The columns and the frieze were cut in slabs, and made 
use of for the decoration of the fountain of the Acqua Paola on the 
Janiculum. The blocks of stone belonging to the cella and to the 
inclosure wall of the Forum were given by Paul V. to the prior 
and monks of S. Adriano. The platform of the temple still exists, 
althougli liidden from view ; the house at the corner of the Via 
Alessandrina, which faces the Colonnacce on one side and the 
church of 8. Agata on the other, is built upon it. Another house. 
No. ;58 Via della Croce Bianca, may be truly said to rest on a bed 
of marble. I saw its foundations sunk, in October, 1882, through 
a mass of broken columns, capitals, friezes, and pedestals. The 
pavement of the Forum lies here at the depth of 5.50 metres. 
Like the Forum Augustum and the Forum Traiani, this one 

Fig. 118. — The Forum Trausitorium : a sketch by Boscolo. 

had also its own gallery of portrait statues. Its institution dates 
from the time of Severus Alexander ; compare " Vita Alex.," 28 : 
"Colossal statues, single or equestrian, were raised by him in 
Nerva's Forum to deified Emperors or Empresses." Two speci- 
mens have come down to us : one of them was discovered in the 


first quarter of the sixteenth century by Angelo de Massimi, and 
removed, first to the family palace in the Via Papale, and later on 
to the Capitoline Museum (ground floor, corridor No. 19). The 
name of King Pyrrhus attributed to it is manifestly erroneous ; at 
the same time we cannot agree with Helbig in identifying it with 
Mars, on account of the evidence of the biographer, who speaks 
not of gods but of deified Roman Emperors. The fragments of 
a second colossal (female) figure, resembling to a certain degree 
the Thusnelda in the Loggia de' Lanzi, Florence, were discovered 
by Vitali in 1882. 

LiTEKATURE. — Rodolfo Lauciaiii, L^ aula e gll uffici del Senato Romano (in 
Mem. Accad. Liucei, 1883, p. 2:3). — Wolfgang Helbig, Guide, vol. i. p. 295, 
11. 405. — H. Bliimner, Annul. Inst., 1877, p. 5; and Munmnenti, vol. x. pi. 11. 
— Eugene Petersen, Mittheilunyen, vol. iv. 1889, p. 88. — TWdenat, in Da- 
remberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire, p. 1314. — Heinricli .Jordan, Forma, p. 27. 

LIV. Forum Traiani (Forum of Trajan, Plan, Fig. 119). — 
We must now enter the last and most magnificent of Roman fora, 
built by Trajan between a. d. 112 and 111 from the designs of 
Apollodorus of Damascus. It was not only a masterpiece of 
architecture, but also, if we recollect the difficulties its builders 
had to contend with to find a suitable space for it, a chef-d' ceuvre 
of engineering skill. 

The Capitoline, located in the heart of the city, was not an 
isolated hill, as it is at present : the tide of traffic between the 
northern and southern quarters could not round it on either side 
as is now the case. The Capitoline was a spur of the Quirinal, 
advancing towards the river to within a few hundred feet from its 
left bank. The obstruction could be overcome in one of two 
ways : by crossing the ridge connecting the two hills by the Clivus 
Argentarius, corresponding to our Via di Marf orio, only five metres 
wide with a gradient of ten per cent ; or else by rounding the rock 
on the river-side. The passage was certainly easy and level on 
the rivei-side, but three times as long as the cut through the ridge, 
and obviously insufficient for the traffic of a city inhabited by a 
million people. To obviate this evil, to relieve the strip of land 
west of the Capitoline from the pressure of traffic, and to double, 
at the same time, the extent of the five existing fora (Romanum, 
lulium, Augustum, Pacis, and Transitorium) Trajan and Apollo- 
dorus conceived the plan of severing the Capitoline from the Qui- 
rinal, and of substituting for the narrow and steep guUy of the 
Clivus Argentarius a level space 185 metres wide. Private prop- 
erty on each slope and on the top of the ridge was accordingly 



bought and destroyed to the extent of over 40,000 square metres, 
and the ridge was cut, excavated, and bodily carted away. So 
great was the astonishment created by the great work that the 
well-known column was erected at a public cost, " ad declarandum 
quantas altitudinis raons et locus sit egestus " (Corpus Inscr., vi. 


11. 960), — "• to show to posterity how high rose the mountain lev- 
eled to make room for the I'orum." The pillar, statue included, 
is 42 metres high. The 700,000 or 800,000 cubic metres of earth 
and rock were carted away outside the Porta Collina, and spread 
over the cemetery between the Via Salaria Nova and Vetus. (See 
Pagan and Christian Rome, p. 284.) 

Trajan's Forum comprised seven parts : the propylaia with the 
triumphal arch of the founder, the square itself with the eques- 
trian statue in the middle, the Basilica Ulpia, the Bibliotheca 
Ulpia, two hemicycles, the monumental column, and the Temple 
of Trajan. 

The triumphal arch which formed the entrance to the Forum 
was demolished, or at least greatly injured, by the cominissioiiers 
of streets in March, 1.526. The case was inquired into by Fran- 
cesco Cenci, the chief magistrate of the city, who made a report 
to the town council March 26, but no redress seems to have been 
obtained. In the latter part of the sixteenth century (about 
l.'iTO) other remains were dug up near the church of S. Maria in 
C'anipo Carleo. Flaminio Vacca describes them as "vestigie di 
un' arco trionfale con molti pezzi di istorie," viz., with fragments 
of bas-reliefs which represented Trajan fording a river on horse- 
back. King Decebalus bound in chains, the seizing of the enemy's 
cattle, etc. The last discoveries took place in 1863, when the 
church of S. Maria in Campo Carleo was demolished to widen 
the roadway at the entrance of the A^ia Alessandrina. The arch, 
erected, or at least voted, by the S. P. Q. R. in a. d. 117, a few 
months before Trajan's death, is represented with minute details 
in the medal ap. Cohen, "Monnaies imper. Trajan," n. 167. 

Literature. — Dion Cassius, Ixviii. 29. — Codex vatic, 3439, f . 84. — Codex 
Berolhi., f. 36. — Flaminio Vacca, Mem. 9 (in Fea's Miscellanea, vol. i.).— 
Angelo Pellegrini, Bull, fnst., 1883, p. 78. — Pasquale Adinolfi, Roma neW 
eta di mezzo, vol. i. p. 54. 

The Forum, 95 metres long and 116 wide, was surrounded by a 
double colonnade on three sides, the fourth side, opposite the 
propylaia, being occupied by the basilica. The porticoes were 
crowded with statues of eminent men, with an account of their 
career engraved on the pedestals. Many of these valuable histori- 
cal documents have already been discovered ; ^ they belong mostly 
to the fourth century after Christ. The inclosure wall of the 
forum was built of blocks of peperino lined with marble, like 

1 Corpus Inscr., 1141, 1679, 1683, 1710, 1715, 1721, 1724, 1725, 1727, 1729, 
1736, 1749, 1764, 1783. 


those of the Foriiin Augustum and Forum Transitorium. No trace 
of it appears now above ground, but we have a careful descrip- 
tion of it in a deed of 1263 (quoted by Adinolfi in vol. ii. of " Roma 
nell' eta di mezzo," p. 54. It was called the " murus marmoreus," 
and crossed the whole extent of the Campo Carleo from the Capi- 
toline to the Quirinal hill. The equestrian statue of the Emperor 
rose in the centre of the square. Ammianus Marcellinus (xvi. 10) 
describes the impressions felt by the Emperor Constantius at 
the first sight of the group. " Having now entered the Forum 
Trajanum, the most marvelous creation of human genius, he was 
struck with wonder, and looked round in amazement at the gi-eat 
structures which no pen can describe, and which mankind can 
ci-eate and see but once in the course of centuries. . . . Then he 
turned his attention to the equestrian statue in the centre of the 
forum, and said to his attendants he would have one like it in 
Constantinoiile, to which Ilormisdas, a young Persian prince at- 
tached to the com't, replied, ' You must first provide your horse 
with a stable like this.' " I shall recall to the memory of the 
reader only two of the numy historical events which have taken 
place in this forum. First the burning of the registers of the 
arrears due to the Imperial Treasury {syntjrapha or tahulce dehito- 
rum) by private citizens, ordered by Hadrian a. d. 118. The sum 
was simply apjialling : " novies millies centena millia sestertium," 
or about 170,000.000 lire. A fragment of the inscription record- 
ing the event, discovered in 1812, has been set up in the modern 
wall behind the pillar. (See Corpus Inscr., vi. 967 ; Eckhel, 
Doctr. numm., vol. vii. 486 ; and Vita Hadr., 7.) The other 
occm-rence is related in the " Vita Marci," ch. xvii. The treasury 
being exhausted in consequence of the Marcomannic wars, and 
the Emperor being unwilling to burden his subjects with new 
contributions (especially as the pestilence was then raging), he 
put up at auction all the valuables of the crown. The auction 
took place in the Forum of Trajan and lasted two months, a large 
sum of money being realized, with the help of which the war was 
brought to a successful close. Marcus Aurelius sold the golden 
plate and vases of crystal and murrha, even the Imperial drinking- 
cups, the state robes set with gems and woven of silk, and also 
many marvelous jewels which he had found in a secret drawer of 
Hadrian (m repostorio sanctiore Hadriani). After the end of the 
war he offered to buy back the objects sold, and showed no dis- 
satisfaction whatever with those who refused. 

To support the deep cuttings on either side of the Forum, Apol- 



lodorus raised two hemicycles (Fig. 119, A, B) the design and ai-- 
chitecture of which is so complicated that it would be difficult to 
describe it properly. There are few traces left of the one towards 
the Capitol, but the semicircular line of the houses in the Piazza 
delle Chiavi d' Oro shows it to have been perfectly symmetrical with 
the one on the opposite side. This last, very well preserved, bears 
the traditional name of baths of ^Emilius Paulus — Balneapauli, 
Magnanapoli — and consists of many-storied corridors and shops 
or rooms, built against the live rock of the Quirinal. The pave- 
ment which extends in front of the building was laid bare during 
the French invasion (1812). The place well deserves a visit. 
Apply to the custode of the Forum, or to the Ufficio dei Monu- 
menti via in Miranda. The remains, however, are not all accessi- 
ble. They cover an immense sj^ace under the Palazzo Ceva-Rocca- 
giovane, Palazzo Tiberi, under the barracks and monastery of S. 
Caterina da Siena, under the house and garden of Prince Ruspoli, 
and also under the houses of the Via del Grillo. 

LiTERATUKE. — Carlo Fea, Prodromo di nuove osservazioni, p. 4 ; and Iscri- 
zioni di Monum., p. 13. — Emil Braun, Ruins and Museums, p. 20, ii. 8. — Mari- 
ano Armellini, Chiese, 2d ed. p. 177. The remains have been measured and 
slcetched by Sangallo tlie elder, Cod. Barberin., f . 2 ; by Sangallo the younger, 
Uffizi, n. 1187; by Salhistio Peruzzi, Uffizi, 653, 654!^ 656, 665, 687;" by Gio. 
Antonio Dosio, Uffizi, 2540, 2565; by Martin Heemskerk, Berlin, 28, 34; and 
by Andrea Aleppi and Domenico Cacchiatelli, after the French excavations 
in 1815. 

The Basilica Ulpia, a hall 89 metres long and .54 wide, siuTounded 
by a double line of columns, 96 in all, was excavated in 1813 by 
the French government after the demolition of the convents dello 

Fig. 120. —Frieze from the Basilica Ulpia (Laterau Museuiu). 



Spirito Sauto and di S. Eufemia, which occupied its site. On the 
return of Pius VII. in 1S14 the works were resumed, a wall support- 
ing the modern streets was built on the border of the excavations, 
and the columns of the nave and aisles were set up on their bases, 
many of which had been found in situ. It must be observed, how- 
ever, that not all tlie columns were of gray or Psaronian granite ; 
those on either side of the entrance doors were certainly, and those 
of the nave were probably, of giallo antico, and fluted. One of these 
last was removed to the Lateran at the time of Clement VIII. and 
placed under the organ of the nave Clementina ; and four went to 
the transept of S. Peter's. The nave was covered by a roof of 
bronze, the bpo^ov xa^^icov of Pausanias (v. 12, 4, and x. 5, 5), and 

Fig. 121. — Frieze from the Basilica Ulpia (Lateran Museum). 

paved with crusts of the rarest marble, many fragments of which, 
discovered in 1813, have since been stolen by unscrupulous tourists. 
The basilica faced the Forum on its longer side, as the Basilica 
Julia faced the Forum Romanum. There were three doors, flanked 
by four columns each, and above them quadrigae, and trophies of 
gilt metal, made ex vianuhiis, viz., with the produce of the sale of 
the spoils of war. The names of the glorious legions who had 
fought so bravely in botli Dacian campaigns were engraved on the 


frieze over the doors ; we can still i"ead those of the XI Claudia, 
of the XV Apollinaris, and of the XX Valeria Victrix. Other 
trophies were set up, on the edge of the five marble steps which 
descended to the " ai'ea fori," on pedestals inscribed with the legend 
(Corpus, vi. n. 959), " The S. P. Q. R. to Traian, son of Nerva 
. . . consul for the sixth time (a. d. 112), father of the country, 
for the great services rendered to the commonwealth in peace and 
in war." The marvelous beauty of the marble decorations of the 
nave and aisles cannot be properly described. The reader may get 
an idea of it from the two fragments which are here reproduced 
(Figs. 120, 121). (Compare Helbig's Guide, vol. i. p. 468, n. 627; 
and p. 470, n. 629, 630.) The side of the basilica towards the 
Forum is represented in two medals ap. Cohen, " Monnaies imper. 
Trajan," n. 42, 43, 44 ; and its plan in a fragment of the " Forma 
Urbis," ap. Jordan, 25, 26. 

The basilica ended with two hemicycles, one of which was called 
" Libertatis." The meaning of the name is not certain, but, as we 
know from Sidonius Apollinaris that the formalities attending the 
manumission of slaves were accomplished in this Forum, it is 
possible that the old name of Atrium Libertatis had been trans- 
ferred in the second century from the neighborhood of the Forum 
Romanum ^ to the hemicycle of the Basilica Ulpia, a portion of 
which is still visible under the Palazzo Ceva-Roccagiovine. Momm- 
sen and De Rossi have expressed the opinion that the ceremony of 
manumission was again performed in the fourth century in or near 
the old site, in the Secretarium Senatiis. 

Coming out of the basilica from the side opi^osite the Forum, 
we enter a small court or cavasdium (24 metres by 16) flanked by 
two halls, which have been identified with the libraries mentioned 
by Dion Cassius (Ixviii. 26). They were called Bibliotheca Ulpia, 
and also Bibliotheca Templi Traiani. Nibby, who saw them exca- 
vated in 1812-14, gives a good description of their arrangement in 
vol. ii. p. 189 of the " Roma antica." Gellius names among their 
contents the edicta prcetorum, and Vopiscus (?) the libri lintei or 
official registers {regestd) of the acts and deeds of each Emperor. 
A special license from the prefect of Rome was required to inspect 
these records of the history of the world ; and when Vopiscus 
himself was asked to write the life of Aurelianus on the basis of 
official documents, he had to apply to Junius Tiberianus. prefect 
A, D. 291, for a permit to consult them. Thei-e was another set 
called lihri elephantini, on the leaves of which, made of sheets of 
1 Cicero, Ad Attic, book iv. n. 16 ; Servius, ^ntkl, book i. v. 726. 


ivory, were transcribed the Senatus consulta concerning the person 
of the Emperor. The documents of state were afterwards re- 
moved by Diocletian to his baths. 

The great column, columna cochlis, 128 feet, or 38 metres, high, 
without the statue, stands in a court of such diminutive propor- 
tions that it could not possibly be seen to advantage, except from 
the north side, that is, from the steps of the temple. It is com- 
posed of 34 blocks of Carrara marble, 8 of which form the pedestal, 
1 the base, 23 the shaft, 1 the capital, and 1 the pedestal of the 
bronze statue. A spiral staircase of 185 steps, lighted by 45 loop- 
holes, leads to the top, viz., to the square platform above the 
capital. A spiral band of high reliefs describing the fortunes of 
the Dacic wars covers the column on the outside. The reliefs, 
containing 2,500 figures, were cut after the shaft had been set up, 
so as to make the joints of the blocks absolutely imperceptible. 
The same process was followed with regard to the spiral stairs, 
which were only roughly hewn out of the block before it was 
lifted into position, and then finished. Nothing can give a better 
idea of the exactness and ingenuity with which the great work 
was accomplished than to ascend the pillar ^ and examine the 
joints, the development of the steps, and the clever distribution of 
the loopholes, which, while supplying plenty of light, are so well 
concealed by the outer relief as to i-emain almost invisible. On 
Hearing the door, which opens on the platform or balcony above 
the capital, we see the sides of the stairs covered with graffiti, 
with historical names among them. The oldest dates from a. d. 
663, and refers to the disastrous visit of Constans II., described 
in " Ancient Rome," p. 294. 

There is a current belief that Trajan's ashes were deposited 
underneath the column in an urn of solid gold. Dion Cassius 
(Ixix. 2) is responsible for this statement, which is confirmed by 
Eutropius and Cassiodorus ; but if we consider that the column 
was finished in 113, viz., four years before Trajan's death, that the 
inscription on the pedestal distinctly asserts that it was raised to 
mark the height of the hill cut away to make room for the Forum 
and not as a funeral monument, and that there is no trace of a 
room, recess, or vault, nor of a door and of stairs leading or de- 
scending to it, Dion's statement appears to us more than doubtful. 
The question C9uld be easily cleared up de facto by examining the 
foundations on which the column rests. 

1 Permission may be obtained at the Ufficio regionale dei Monumenti via in 


An inscription discovered in Rome in the latter part of the 
fifteenth century is closely connected with the Emperor's death at 
Selinus in Cilicia, in Angust, 117. It mentions likewise the death 
of one of his faithful servants, a young man of twenty-eight, M. 
Ulpius Phsedimus, a butler, which took place on August 12 of the 
same year and in tlie same city. His ashes were also removed 
to Rome and given a solemn burial : " reliquiae treiectse eius ex 
permissu collegii pontific(um) piaculo facto." 

The discovery of the polychromy of the column, viz., of traces 
of colors (and of gilding?), was made by G. Semper on July 9, 
1833, as briefly described in the "Bull. Inst.," 1833, p. 92. P. 
Morey, one of those who had joined Semper in his perilous expe- 
dition,! tried to deny the statement in a letter addressed to Bun- 
sen (ibid., 1836, p. 39). Later observations, made when Napoleon 
III. caused a plaster cast to be taken of the column, have shown 
Semper's theory to be the correct one. 

The pedestal of the column was excavated at the time of Paul 
III., who caused the church of S. Nicolao de Columna to be de- 
molished. Sixtus V. in 1.588 built an inclosure wall round the 
pedestal, and placed the bronze statue of S. Peter on the top of 
the pillar. The murder of Hugues Basseville or Basville, the 
envoy of the French revolutionists, took place at the foot of this 
column the 23 nivose, an I. (January 13, 1793). The assassina- 
tion is represented in a rare engraving by Berthault. 

Literature. — Cor/9M.s inscr., vol. vi. n. 960. — Antonio da Sangallo the 
elder, Cod. Barber., f. 18, and other artists mentioned in Ferri's Catalogue of 
Architectural Drawings in the Uffizi (Rome, 1885), pp. 156 and 167. — Pietro 
da Cortona, in Dr. Meade's collection of drawings at Eton College. See Bull, 
com., 1895, p. 182. — Alfonso Ciaccone, Hisloria utriusque belli Dacici, etc. 
Rome, 1576, fol. — Anton. Francesco Gori, Columna traiana . . . ab Andrea 
Morellio delineata; etc. Amsterdam, 1652. — Raffaele Fahretti, De columna 
traiana syntai/ma'. Rome, 1683. — Gio. Battista Piranesi, Trofeo o sia mayni- 
fica cohnna, etc., in 28 plates. — Platner and Hirt, Gesch. des Baukunst, ii. 
355. ^ Carlo Fea, in Winckehnann's Storia dell' Arte, .\o\. in. p. .355.— 
Froehner, La colonne trajane, in 8° 1865; -in fol. 1874. — Salomon . Reinach, 
La colonne trajane au musee de Saint Germain, 1S8G. — Auguste Geffroy, La 
colonne d'Arcadius a Constantinople, extrait des Monuments et Memoires pu- 
blies par I'Acad. des Inscr. Paris, Leroux, 1895. In the Cabinet des Estampes, 
Biblioth^que Nationale, Paris (Rome, volume 3fonti, D), there are over one 
hundred prints of the column. A silver model carved by Valadier is now in 
the royal palace at Munich. 

The Temple of Trajan closed the monumental group on the 
1 They had been lowered from the capital in a kind of cage held by ropes 
and pulleys. 



north side. It was erected by Hadrian parentibvs svis (Trajan 
and Plotina), and was noted for its colossal proportions. The 
Corinthian capitals six feet high, and the pieces of columns of 
granite six feet in diameter which now lie at the foot of the pillar, 
have been discovered at various times under the Palazzo Imperiali- 
Valentini. Winckelmann describes the removal of one, found 
in August, 1765, while five more were left on the spot. I liave 
myself seen other pieces discovered when the Palazzo Valentin i 
became the seat of the county council. The curious set of heads 
of animals, alluding, perhaps, to the conquest of Arabia made by 

Fig. 122. 

1 in the Forum of Trajan. 

Cornelius Pal ma, formerly in the court of the palace, was removed 
in 1878 to the Collegio Romano, and again in 1890 to the Museo 
delle Terme. (See Fig. 122.) 

Literature. — Corpus Inscr., vi. n. 966. — Winckelmann, in Fea's Miscel- 
lanea, vol. i. p. cci. n. '7; anil Storia deW Arte, vol. ii. p. 372, iii. p. 44. — ' 
Minutolo, in Sallengre's Stijjpl. antiq. rom., vol. i. col. 159. — Rodolfo Lan- 
ciaui, Bull. Inst., ISdQ, p. 237. 

The Forum of Trajan has been a favorite subject of study with 
the young architects of the French Academy, Villa Medici. A 
list of their drawings and restorations has been published by E. 
Pourchet, 15 Rue des Beaux Arts, Paris. 



Before giving an account of the rest of the city, I must remind 
the reader once more that in writing this book I do not intend to 
produce a manual of Roman topography, but simply a description 
of its existing remains. In carrying out the scheme I have 
endeavored, as stated in the preface, to group the buildings in 
regard to their chronology or destination rather than to the place 
they occupy accidentally in the various quarters of the city. 


Regio I. Porta Capena. 

I. The Cfelian liill and its southwestern slopes were included 
by Augustus within the limits of the first and second regions, the 
line of separation being the wall of Servius Tullius. Regio I, 
named Porta Capena, extended on the left side of the Appian 
Way as far as the river Almo (tlie Acquataccio, or Marrana della 
Caffarella), a distance of 2107 metres from the gate. Richter 
calls it appropriately "die Vorstadt der Via Appia" and also "die 
Vorstadt extra Portam Capenam." It was a narrow strip of land, 
bounded on the side opposite the Appian Way by another road, 
issuing from the Porta Metroni, the name of which is unknown. 
A third road, the Latina, crosses it diagonally, skirting the base 
of a hillock called by Ficoroni " il Celiolo," " Remuria " by others, 
"Calvarello" in the Middle Ages, and now the "Monte d' Oro." 
Considering the preference given by the Romans to the borders of 
the great consular roads for the establishment of public cemeteries, 
and for the erection of private tombs and mausoleums, no wonder 
that Regio I, crossed by three of them, the Appia, the Latina, and 
the one issuing from the Porta Metroni, should be in the main a 
region of tombs. Some of them date from a remote age, when 

Ftg 1Z3 




the Via Appia and the Via Latina were mere paths traced by the 
hoofs of beasts of burden and not leveled or yet paved by the 
hand of man. Such is the sepulchral cave discovered in May, 
1836, in the Vigna Cremaschi, the first on the right of the Porta 
Latina, a description of which is given in the "Bullett. Inst.," 
1836, p. 103. It was found by accident below the pavement of a 
columbaria of the first centiuy, at a depth of 7.80 metres. It con- 
sisted of "a gi'otto hewn out of the live rock, of irregular shape 
and without ornaments. It contained several vases of black wai-e 
(bucchero ?) with rough figures of animals traced on their surface 
in the Etruscan fashion. One of the vases contained the remains 
of an incinerated body." Roman tradition and epigraphic docu- 
ments help us in following the growth and development of this 
great necropolis, especially after the opening of the Vise Latina 
and Appia, which took place between 312 and 297 b. c.^ The first 
historical tomb, on leaving the gate, was that of Horatia, which 
Livy (i. 26) describes as built "saxo quadrate" with blocks of 
tufa; then followed the family mausoleums of the Catalini, of the 
Scipios, of the Servilii, of the Metelli, mentioned by Cicero (Tus- 
cul. 1, 7, 13), two of which, those of the Scipios and of the Metelli, 
are still in existence. 

II. HypoG.EUM SciPioxuM, discovered partly in 1614, partly in 
1780. This venerable monument and the ground which covers 
and surrounds it were bought, on my suggestion, by the city in 
1880. They are entered by the Via di Porta S. Sebastiano, No. 12, 
and can be visited every day, Sundays excepted. Entrance fee, 2.5 

The discoveries of the seventeenth century have been mentioned 
by one epigraphist alone, Giacomo Sirmondo, in a book entitled 
" Antiqna? inscriptionis, qua L. Scipionis Barbati filii expressum 
est elogium, explanatio," Rome, 1617. Two sarcophagi were found : 
one, of L. Cornelius Scipio, qutestor 167 B. c, was left undisturl)ed ; 
the other, of L. Cornelius, son of Barbatus, consul 2.'59, was broken 
and its inscription sold to a stone-cutter near the Ponte Rotto, in 

1 The Via Appia was munita, that is to say, leveled, straightened, and ma- 
cadamized by Appius Claudius Cfficus, censor in 312 b. c. (Livj-, ix. 29). The 
brothers Ogulnii, censors in 297, added to it a sidewallv paved with flagstones, 
which went as far as the Temple of Mars {ibid., x. 23). Lastly, T. Quinctius 
Flamininus and M. Claudius Marcellus, censors in 188, " viam silice sternen- 
dam a porta Capena ad Martis locaveriint" (ibid., xxxviii. 28). If we can 
believe the same historian, the rest of the road from the temple to Bovillje 
had been paved since the year 292 (x. 47). 



whose shop Grimaldi saw it on September 25, 1614. Agostini 
bought it for twenty scudi, and gave or sold it to the Barberini, 
who set it into the wall of the spiral staircase of their palace, near 
the door of the library. 

The brothers Sassi, owners of the vineyard in wliich the dis- 
coveries of 1614 had taken j)lace, while enlarging their wine-cellar 
in May, 1780, came once more across the hypogseum, and laid bare 
its pi-ecious contents. In reading the accounts left by Morcelli, 
Marini, Visconti, and Amaduzzi, we cannot understand liow such 
acts of wanton destruction as the brothers Sassi perpetrated on 
this most venerable of Roman historical tombs could have been 
permitted or left unpimished by Pius VI., whose love for antique 
monuments certainly cannot be questioned. 

"The Scipios' tomb contains no ashes now: 

The very sepulchres lie tenantless 

Of their heroic dwellers ! " 
The sarcophagi were broken to pieces ; their inscribed fronts 
removed to the Vatican ; the aspect of the crypts altered ; tlie 



Fv IT- CONSO i. -C EHjrOTI;Al'Dl I- 1 5 QvElE\flT-^ PvO-VXJS -TAVPAStftC l5 AVW^ 

Fig. in. — Sarcoi>liiigu.s of Scipio Barbatus in tlie Vatican. 

movable objects dispersed; the facsimiles of the original epitaphs 
affixed to the wrong places ; the signet ring of one of the heroes, 
with the image of the Victory, given away to a Frenchman, Louis 
Dutens, who in his turn gave or sold it to Lord Beverley. And 
lastly, the very bones of the illustrious men, which had been 
respected even by the so-called barbarians, would have been dis- 
persed to the four winds, but for the ijious interference of Angelo 
Quirini, a senator of Venice, who rescued the relics of L. Cornelius 
Scipio, son of Barbatus, and placed them in a marble nrn in the 


Villa deir Alticchiero, near Padua. A remarkable fate indeed, if 
we recall to mind the words of Livy (xxxviii. 53): •' Scipio spent 
the last years of his life at Literuum, without missing in the least 
degree the attractions of city life ; and, if we are to believe tradi- 
tion, he left instructions at the point of death to be buried in his 
farm : monimentumque ibi sedificarine funus sibi in ingrata patria 
lieret." The same mother country, obdurate in her ingratitude, 
allowed these remains to be dispersed after twenty centuries of rest. 

From the descriptions left by those who witnessed the excavations 
of 1780, compared with a model in full relief made at the same 
time ^ and with the present aspect of the place, we learn the fol- 
lowing details about the origin and the arrangement of the hypo- 

The part of the ancient cemetery now occupied by the Vigna 
Sassi was crossed at an early period by a side road, connecting the 
Via Appia with the Latina, the pavement of which is still visible 
at the two ends. The road followed the foot of a rocky ridge ten or 
fifteen feet high, and passed one or more tufa quarries which had 
been opened in the face of the cliffs. One of these quarries, proba- 
bly the property of the Scipios, was transformed into their family 
tomb at the beginning of the third century b. c, probably on the 
occasion of the opening of the Via Appia, u. c. 812. The hypo- 
gteum, roughly modeled on the Etruscan type, formed ,a lai-ge 
room, with a flat low ceiling supported by four massive pillars of 
rock, yet very far from the regularity which it appears to have in 
Piranesi's drawings (Fig. 125). The fii-st occupant was L. Cornelius 
Scipio Barbatus, consul in 298 b. c. His sarcophagus, now in the 
Vatican Museum (Belvedere, No. 2), is the only elaborate piece of 
work discovered in the tomb. The frieze, which is Doric in style, 
consists of triglj'jjhs and of metopes adorned with rosettes : the 
torus of the lid ends with Ionic volutes. The inscription, in the 
early Italic Saturnine verse, has been translated by Mommsen as 
follows : — 

roniclius Lucius — Scipio Barbatus 
son of his father Gn:evus — a man as clever as brave 
whose handsome appearance — was in harmony with his A-irtue 
who was consul and censor — among you, as well as ^Edilu 

Tanrasia Cisaunia — he captured in Samnium 
utterly overcomes Lucania — and brings away hostages. - 

1 Nibby saw it in 18.39 in the house of Signer Vincenzo Titoli. 

- Wolfgang Helbig, Guide to the Collections of Antiquities in Rome, vol. i. p. 
7.5. — Corpus Inscr., vol. i. p. 16, n. 29, 30; vol. vi. n. 1284, 1285. — iJet-we de 
Philologie, xiv. (1890) p. 119. 



The other sarcophagi were made of phiin slabs of stone, or cut 
out of a single block. Their respective positions are marked in 
tlie annexed plan. 

Fig. 125. — Plan of the Tomb of the Scipios, according to Piranesi. 

A A, Cross-road between the Via Appia and the Latina. B B, }fiirtii> or 
semita, raised footway. C, Arclied entrance built of rough blocks of pepe- 
rino. D, Base of one of the columns which decorated the front of the upper 
story. E, Ancient entrance to the quarry, by which the sarcophagi were 
nitroduced into the crypt. F, Sarcophagus of Lucius Scipio, son of Asiaticus, 
Corpus, vol. i. n. 31. G, H, L, T, V, Coffins of unknown personages. I, Coffin 
of peperino before which the marble tablet of .Julius Silanus was found. M, 
Sarcophagus of L. Scipio, son of Barbatus, n. -32. X, Sarcophagus of L. Scipio, 
sou of Cuivus, n. 34. 0, Sarcojiliagus of Scipio Bar-batus, n. 29. P, Sarco- 
phagus of Cornelia Paula, n. -30. Q, Sarcophagus of Scipio Asiagenes Comatus, 
n. 36. R, Sarcophagus of Scijiio Hispallus, n. 38. S, Marble slab with name 
of Cornelia Ga?tulica. XXX, Three rooms, forming part of an edifice of the 
second century, built of bricks. Y, Sarcophagus of P. Scipio flamen dialis, 
n. 33. Z, Present entrance to the crypt. 



We are not sure how much faith Piranesi's plan deserves, some 
of the particulars being manifestly fanciful. The gallery, for 
instance, which runs in front of the sarcophagus of Barbatus (O), 
has never been finished, and its end on the right is still blocked 
by a ledge of live rock. The reader may estimate the amount of 
damage M'hich the hypogajum has suffered since 1780 by compar- 
ing Piranesi's plan w ith the following one, w hich shows its present 


Fig. \16. — Tomb of the Scipios. (Present State.) 

There are three more particulars to be noticed. The first is that 
the crypts of the Scipios were kept accessible as a place of his- 
torical pilgrimage up to the fourth century after Christ, as shown 
by the walls in the so-called " opus maxentianum," built here and 
there to keep the tomb in repair. 

In the second ])lace, the preference shown by the gens Cornelia, 
of which the Scipios were a branch, for burial as opposed to crema- 
tion, is proved by the presence of sarcophagi and by the absence 
of cinerary urns. (See Cicero, De Leg., ii. 12 ; and Pliny, vii. 54^.) 
The first Cornelius to give up family traditions on this point was 
Sulla the dictator, who, having caused the remains of Marius to 
be exhumed and profaned, ordered his own body to be cremated 
tor fear of retaliation. Sulla's ashes wei'e not deposited in this 


family vault, — which seems to have been owned only by the three 
branches of the Scipios called Africani, Asiatici, and Hispalli, — 
but in a great mausoleum on the Campus Martins described by 
Plutarch. What seems strange, however, is that none of the leaders 
of the three branches — Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Maior, 
the conqueror of Carthage, f 183 b. c. ; Lucius Cornelius Scipio 
Asiaticiis, his brother ; and Cn. Cornelius Scipio Ilispallus, consul 
in 171 — should have found rest in this tomb. Livy (xxxviii. .56) 
says that no one knew whether the great Africanus had been buried 
at Liternum or at Rome, because a grave and a statue were shown 
in both places. Seneca likewise writes to Lucilius from Liter- 
num : " I address this epistle [Ixxxvi] to you from the very villa 
of Scipio the African, after having paid reverence to his memory 
and to the altar which I suspect to be his grave." The monument 
and statue erected in or near the Roman hypogseum have yet to 
be discovered. 

The third particular refers to the presence of an outsider in the 
same hypogreum, of Q. Ennius the poet, who was born at Rudise 
in Calabria in 289 b. c, and died in Rome at the age of seventy. 
Although dwelling in a humble house on the Aventine, and sup- 
porting himself by teaching the Greek language and translating 
Greek plays for the Roman stage, he was the friend of the great, 
and lived on terms of the closest intimacy with the elder Africanus. 
Livy (xxxviii. 36) says that " in Scipionum moimmento extra 
portam Capenam" three statues could be seen, one of which was 
considered to represent the poet, and Cicero adds that the statue 
was of marble. A laurel-crowned portrait head in peperino was 
actually found in the tomb in 1780, and is now placed in the 
Vatican Museum above the sarcophagus of Barbatus. " The un- 
Roman type of countenance and the jiresence of the laurel wreath, 
which might well be worn by a poet," have led many to attribute 
this head to the statue mentioned by Livy and Cicero. The objec- 
tion derived from the material in which it is carved (peperino 
instead of marble) has no great weight. I have no doubt that 
Cicero is mistaken in mentioning marble, because in the third 
century b. c. portrait statues and busts were sculptured in Rome 
out of stone. 

Literature. — Giovanni Amaduzzi, Novelle letter, forentine, 1780-83. — 
Gio. Battista Visconti, Antologia romana, vols, vi.-ix. — Louis Dutens, CEuvres 
melees. Geneva, 1784. — Enrico Quirino Visconti, in Piranesi's Monumento 
def/li Scipioni, Rome, 178.5 ; and Opere varie, Milan, 1827, voL i. pp. 1-70. — 
Lanzi, Saggio di lingua etrusca, vol. i. p. 150. — Gaetani Marini, Atti A7-val., p. 


117, n. 109. — Carlo Fea, in Wiuckelmaiiii's Storia deW Arte, i. 30, and iii. 46. 
— Antonio Jfibby, Roma antica, vol. ii. p. .561. — Corpus Iiiscr., vol.i. pp. 11-16, 
n. 29-39 ; and vol. vi. p. 282, n. 1284-1294. — Wolfgang Helbig, Gtdde, vol. i. 
p. 75, n. 127; and p. .356, n. 484. 

Fig. 127. — Portrait Bust of Scipio the Elder (Capitoline Museum). 

At the opposite end of the Vigiia Sassi, to the chapel of S. 
Giovanni in Oleo and to the Porta Latiua, are to be seen — 

III. The Columbaria (so-called) of Pomponius Hylas. Keys 
with the custode of the tomb of the Scipios ; open every day except 

This graceful structure, one of the best preserved of its kind in 
Rome, was discovered by Pietro Campana in 1831. It is known 
by the name of " Hylas and Vitaline," because the mosaic tablet 
inscribed CN • pompoxi hylae — pomponiae • cn ■ l vitalinis 


occuj)ies the most conspicuous place opposite the entrance ; but 
the fact is that it was built, like so many others of the Augustan 
age, either by subscription among friends or relatives, or by specu- 
lators ready to sell the cinerary urns to the first comer. The crypt 
itself contains but twenty-two inscriptions, of no special interest. 
One hundred and seventeen more were discovered in the neighbor- 
hood, many of which are set into the modern wall inclosing the 
tomb. It apj)ears from one of them (Corpus, n. 5631) that the 
ground where this and the neighboring tombs are located belonged 
to Cnseus Manlius Hasta, a freedman of the Manlii. 

Some of the fediculse and niches for cinerary urns have been 
elaborately decorated by the purchasers, though not often in good 
taste. The decorations are mostly in bold relief of white stucco 
on a colored ground, and represent various subjects, such as the 
education of Achilles by Chiron, Oknos twisting the rope of 
rushes while the ass eats it up, the tripos of the Delphic Apollo 
between two griflBns (under the mosaic tablet of Hylas), Bacchic 
scenes and dances, etc. 

Literature. — Girolamo Amati, Codex vatic., 9770, p. 3, seq. — Antonio 
Nibby, Roma antica, vol. ii. p. 556. — Pietro Campana, Di due sepolcri romnni 
del secolo di Auejusto scoverti tra la via Laiina e V Appia. Rome, 1840, fol. — 
Otto Jahn, Specimen epigraph, in memoriam Olai Kellermunn. Kiel, 1841. — 
Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. n. 5539-5678. 

IV. The Columbaria of the Vigna Codini. — The southeast 
end of the necropolis, between the Vigna Sassi and the walls of 
Aurelian, is occupied by the Vigna Codini, famous for the colum- 
baria discovered within its limits since the renaissance of classical 
studies. The first of which w^e have an account was found towards 
the middle of the fifteenth century, and seems to have belonged to 
the freedmen and servants of the sons of Nero Drusus senior, 
brother of Tiberius, born 38 b. c, died a. d. 9. It contained at 
least eighty-six inscriptions, which were bought by several amateurs 
of the age — Giovanni Ciampolini, Paolo Alessi, and Francesco 
Porcari. They have all perished except a dozen or so which were 
removed from the Porcari House (Vicolo delle Ceste, No. 25) to 
the Vatican by Gaetano Marini. Consult the " Corpus Inscr.," vol. 
vi. p. 899, n. i'o'27-i4:lS. Other columbaria were excavated and 
destroyed under Pius IV. (1559-66). Pirro Ligorio designed one 
of them, belonging to the freedmen of the gens Pompeia ; and his 
drawings have been reproduced by Pietro Sante Bartoli in plates 
39-41 of the volume " Gli autichi sepolcri," Kome, 1768. Flaminio 
Vacca speaks of a " magnificasepoltura" discovered and destroyed 


by Cardinal Prospero Santacroce, f 1589,^ and of some sarcophagi, 
inscribed Diis Maiiibus, of columns, architectural ornaments, and 
other fragments which he himself bought in a vineyard near the 
Porta Latina. Pietro Sante Bartoli likewise mentions the dis- 
covery of pagan and Christian cemeteries near the junction of the 
Ajipia and the Latina, in a vineyard of a certain Orlandi. Orlandi 
had collected a very rich harvest in cameos, intaglios, cinerary urns 
of glass, of marble, and of metal, figurines of bronze and terra 
cotta, and other " cose bellissime," when Donna Olimpia Pamfili, 
the omnipotent sister of the reigning Pope Innocent X., seized the 
whole collection, and carried it in four cartloads to her own palace 
in the Piazza Navona. Another excavation, described by Bartoli, 
led to the discovery of a sepulchral room containing the cinerarium 
of Asinia Fortunata (Corpus, n. 12,547). 

In 1726-33 many columbaria (gran quantita di camere sepol- 
crali ripiene di colomhaj) were excavated by Francesco Bevilacqua 
near the boundary line with the Vigna Sassi. Ficoroni speaks of 
many hundred urns of terra cotta and alabaster filled with incin- 
erated remains, of inscriptions still retaining the red color of the 
letters, of vases carved in marble, and of frescoes, one of which 
represented the figure of an architect with the instruments (the 
graphium, the pes, the square, the plummet) of his profession. 
This interesting picture would have been destroyed like the others, 
but for the prompt action of Marchese Alessandro Capponi, who 
caused it to be removed from the wall, transferred to canvas, 
framed, and afterwards engraved on copper. The original is now 
preserved in the Kircherian ^Museum. Pier Leone Ghezzi adds 
that the excavations of 1726 were carried on in both vineyards 
at the same time, — in the Yigna Sassi at the expense of Herr 
Wenkler of Leipzig, in the Vigna Codini at the expense of Signor 
Garzia Muggiani, who then owned the property. The quantity of 
tombs brought to light by these men is described as " prodigious." 
The reader may appreciate the barbarous way in which antique 
monuments were treated in those days from the fact that many of 
the inscriptions discovered in 1726-33 have perished, and the few 
spared are now dispersed far and wide, at Verona, A^enice, Lowther 
Castle near Penrith, and at Rome itself in the Vatican and Kir- 
cherian museums. 

1 Cardinal Prospero is famous for having first introduced into Kome the tobacco 
leaf, which was named from him erba santa, or erba santacroce. In memory 
of this event Roman tobacconists used to put in the signs of their shops a white 
cross, the coat of arms of the Santacroce family. 


Literature. — Francesco Ficoroni, La boUa d' oru, p. 47 ; and Memorie 
(in Fea's Miscellanea, vol. i. p. cxxxiv. n. 33). — Pier Leone Ghezzi (in Bull, 
arch, com., 1882, p. 206, n. 2 ; and p. 222, n. 60). — Theodor Schreiber, Die 
Fundberichte des P. L. Ghezzi (in Bericliten der k. siichs. Gesellschaft d. 
Wissenschaften, 1892, p. 111). — Corpus Jnscr., vol. vi. part ii. p. 968, n. .581.3- 

Excavations were resumed in 1788, near the tomb of the Scipios ; 
sixty-four inscriptions came to light, of wliich fourteen have per- 
ished ; the others were removed to the Museo Borgia at Velletri 
(now in the Museo Nazionale, Naples), to that of Palermo, of the 
Vatican, etc. A few are to be seen on the spot. (Corpus Inscr., 
vol. vi. part ii. p. 968, u. 5679-5743.) 

The three columbaria now visible in the Vigna Codini (entrance 
Via di Porta S. Sebastiano, No. l-S, last door on the left) were dis- 
covered respectively in 1S40, 1847, and 1853; the first and the sec- 
ond by Pietro Campaua, the third by Codini himself. The colum- 
barium opened in 1840 consists of one room deep under ground, 
and accessible by a flight of twenty steps. It measures 7.50 by 5.65 
metres, and has a massive pier in the centre, to which the weight 
of the vaulted ceiling was intrusted. The ancient walls, 6.24 
metres high, were covered with frescoes and arabesques represent- 
ing birds and animals. The room contains 450 pigeonholes for 
cinerary urns, and 'J97 inscriptions, dating inostly from the time 
of Tiberius and Claudius. They afford nuich interest to the 
student of Roman auti(|uities, and tlu'ow a considerable light on 
the organization and nninagement of the Imperial household. 

The trade in pigeonholes and cinerary urns appears to have 
been very brisk. The iii'ns passed sometimes through several 
hands. One, marked n. 4884 in the " Corpus," was sold by Porcius 
Philargurus to Pinarius Ruf us, who in his turn sold it to Sotericus 
Liicer. Pinarius Rufus is mentioned more than once as an active 
stock-jobber, selling at a profit what he had purchased at low 
price. It appears that to facilitate the approach to the upper rows 
of niches — there are nine in all — the tomb was provided with 
movable wooden balconies, supported by wooden brackets ; this is, 
at least, the explanation suggested for the square holes visible 
between the fourth and the fifth row. Inscription n. 4886 com- 
memorates a buffoon of Tiberius, a mute, wdio tried to divert the 
gloomy temper of his master by imitating the gesticulations of 
lawyers pleading in the Forum. Another, marked 5076, contains 
the fragment of a diary of a journey from the borderland of Cilicia 
towards Cassarea in Cappadocia. The dates go from the 12th to 



the 19tli of October, during which time the traveler proceeds from 
Mopsuki-ene, a frontier station near the Cilician gates, to Tyana 
and Audabalis on the side of Caesarea, a distance of seventy-seven 
miles, according to the " Itinerary of Antoninus," or of eighty- 
one miles, according to the Hierosolymitanum. 

Literature. — Pietro Campana, D'l due sepolcrl romani del secolo di Au- 
gusto, Tparte seconda. Rome, 1840. — Emil Braun, Colomhario scopei-to nella 
vigna accanto a porta Latina (in Bull. Inst., 1840, p. 136). — Otto Jahn, Speci- 
men epigraphiciim. Kiel, 1841, p. 28. — Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. part ii. p. 926, n. 

The second columbarium was discovered by Campana in Febru- 
ary, 1847, not far from the preceding one. It consists of a plain 
square room, with nine rows of pigeonholes in each wall, num- 
bering 29.5 in all, with over 400 funereal tablets. Four inscrip- 
tions (one of which is written on the floor in letters of mosaic) 
tell the tale of the place. The columbarium was finished and the 
urns divided among the shareholders of the company which had 
built the place in the year a. d. 10, under the consulship of Sergius 
Lentulus Malugiuensis and Q. Junius Blajsus. The pavement was 
a private contribution of two shareholders, one a freedman of 
Sextus Pompeius, son of Pompey the Great, the other a freedman 
of C. Memmius. The majority of those whose ashes have found 
rest in this room belong to the servants and freedmen of Marcella 
the elder, who married Julius Antonius after her divorce with M. 
Agrippa (21 b. c.) ; and of Marcella the younger, who had also 
married twice, first Paullus ^Emilius Lepidus, and then M. Vale- 
rius Messalla. Annexed to the columbaria were the iistrina, or 
spaces set apart for the incineration of bodies. The indications 
on this particular given by the inscribed stones allow us to recon- 
struct a fragment of the plan of the necropolis, as follows : — 

Laue (via, populus). 

(No measure xiiij ft. xviii. ft. 


Ustrinuin of , jj Ustrinuni of ^ Ustrinum of the 

the College of I_b, Vitalis and UJ" corporation of 

Musicians. rg Praepusa. '« wreath-makers. 


of the makers 

of sacks. 

Lane (via, populus). 

Literature. — Wilhelm Henzeii, Bull. Iitgf., 1847, p. 49 ; and Ann. Inst.. 
1856, p. 9. — Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. part ii. p. 908, n. 4414-4880. 


The third and last columbarium was discovered by Gio. Battista 
Guidi ill May, 1852. The shape of the edifice differs considerably 
from that of the preceding ones, and presents the appearance of 

Fig. 128. — The Colmnb.irimu diseovei'ed in tlie Vigua Codiiii, Ma}', 185'2. 

a corridor the three wings of which follow each other at right 
angles. The stairs occupy the end of the wing parallel with the 
Via Appia, while the opposite wing terminates with a crypt exca- 


vated in the live rock. The bones and skulls which filled it up at 
the time of the discovery were considered to belong to slaves 
of the lowest order, whose remains had been thrown into the den 
as if they were carrion. The walls of the corridor are divided 
into compartments by means of pilasters with capitals of the 
composite order (Fig. 128). The niches for cineraria are not 
arched, as usual, but square, and contain four urns each. The 
characteristic of this " cooperative tomb," so evident in our illus- 
tration, is a set of marble brackets which project from the walls 
between the fourth and fifth row of niches, counting from tlie 
floor. They were destined to support the temporary wooden bal- 
cony by means of which the relatives and friends of the deceased 
could reach the upper tiers of niches on anniversary days, when 
the urns were decorated with flowers, libations were offered, and 
other ceremonies were performed. This sepulchral chamber ap- 
pears to have been tenanted by a better and wealthier set of people 
than the otlier two. INIany were freedmen of the ,Tulian dynasty 
from the age of Augustus and Livia to that of Claudius. The 
last places seem to have been occupied under the last-named 
Emperor. The room was entered again under Trajan and Ha- 
drian, and a few liberti Ulpii and vElii laid to rest on the only 
vacant space left, viz., on the floor. This has been more or less 
the fate of all Roman columbaria. It seems that at one time, 
towards the middle of the second century, no more room could be 
found within reasonable distance from the city for the erection of 
sepulchral chambers, or else that the price of land had reached a 
prohibitory figure above the means of the poorer classes. Old 
columbaria were therefore reopened, as res nullius, and new corpses 
crammed within their precincts. I remember having seen in the 
excavations of the necropolis by the Porta Maggiore one or two 
columbaria of the Statilian family, which had been used again as 
a burial-place when their pavement was already covered by a bed 
of rubbish tliree feet thick. Some of the terra-cotta coffins had 
been simply laid on this newly made ground, other bodies liad been 
buried in it. 

Literature. — Emil Braun, Bull. Inst., 1852, p. 82. — Wilhelm Hen- 
zen, Annal. Inst., 185G, p. 18. — Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. part ii. p. 9;i9, ii. 5179- 

In the triangle between the vife Latina and Appia and the walls 
of Aurelian, in fact, in the vigne Sassi and Codini alone, 15.59 
tombstones have already been found, not counting those of the 


Scipios, one twentieth perhaps of the oi'iginal number. The ex- 
ploration is far from being complete. 

Before leaving this conspicuous section of the Ronian necropolis 
I must mention two monuments which connect it with the early 
days of Christianity. 

While Pietro Campana was searching the ground in his fii'st 
attempt of 1840, a cubiculum was discovered the paintings of 
which represented Biblical scenes. The Pastor Bonus was given 
the place of honor in the middle of the vault, while Moses striking 
the rock, the feeding the five thousand, the raising of Lazarus, 
and a fourth uncertain subject were painted on the four lunettes. 
Three sides of the room were occupied by arcosolia, the fourth by 
the door. The paintings of the arcosolia represented the " Orante " 
(a woman praying with hands raised), Daniel in the den of lions, 
Noah and the ark. The figures of the paralytic and of Job were 
represented on each side of the door. Two inscriptions were 
found in front of two arcosolia, one of which, written in a patois 
half Greek half Latin, bore the name of a Veratius Nikatoras 
(BHPAT10T2 NIKATOPA2) and ended with the sentence, O BIOS 
TATTA, " this is life," vita hoc est ! This Veratius was a Galatian, 
as is proved by the discovery made by George Perrot near Ancyra 
of the tombstone of his wife, which ends with the same words, 
o fiios ravTa. Now it seems certain that this particular plot of the 
necro[)olis was destined for foreigners who died in Rome. De 
Rossi discovered here in 1883 the broken epitaph of one of the 
faithful from Smyrna, and Campana the tombstone of another 
from the borderland of Cappadocia and Armenia. The impor- 
tance of the discovery lies in the fact that the crypt adorned with 
Christian paintings must be older than the walls of Aurelian 
(272), contemporary, in fact, with some of the pagan mausoleums 
by which it is surrounded. This remarkable monument is lost. 
Campana concealed its discovery from De Rossi, and revealed it 
only many years aftei'wards, when he had lost the memory of its 
exact position. De Rossi tried in vain to rediscover it in 1884. 

Literature. — Gio. Battista de Rossi, Bull, crist., 1884-85, pp. 57, 58; and 
1886, pp. 14, 17. — Raffaele Garrucci, Monumenti del museo lateran., pi. 1, 
n. 3; and Arte cristiana, tav. 484, 10. — Compare, also, Gian Pietro Secchi, 
Monumenti inediti d' nn antico sepolcro. Rome, Salviucci, 1843. 

The second Christian monument of this region is to be found 
on the opposite side of the Yigna Sassi, under the farmhouse of 
the Vigna Pallavicini. Mariano Armellini rediscovered it in 1875, 


all traces of it having been lost since the days of Agiucourt. It 
is an ancient crj^jt dedicated to Gabriel the archangel, and also to 
the memory of the " seven sleepers " of Ephesus. It was entirely 
covered with frescoes representing Gabriel with his hands raised 
in the attitude of prayer, the Redeemer among hosts of angels, 
Greek saints of both sexes, and seven tiny reclining figures under 
that of the Saviour, which were considered to be the '• sette dor- 
mienti." The frescoes had been executed in the eleventh century 
at the expense of Beno de Rapiza and of his wife ]\Iaria Macellaria, 
the same to whom we owe the paintings of S. Clemente and of 
S. Urbano alia CaffareUa. It seems that in those days the Greek 
legend, which had transformed the " sleep of the just," the " dor- 
mitio in Domino," of the seven young Ephesians into an actual 
state of catalepsy, had already found its way to Rome, and struck 
the imagination of the people. Tlieir anniversary feast fell on 
the 27th day of July. The " cavern of the sleepers " is now used 
as a pig-sty. 

Literature. — Alberto Cassio, Corso delle acqtie antiche, Rome, 17-57, p. 
28. — Dissertatio de SS. septem dormientihus. Rome, 1741. ^ Mariano Avmel- 
liiii, Scopertd di tin' antico oratono presso In ria Ajjpia dedlcato tdl' arcungelo 
Gabriele. Rome, 1875. 


V. The C.ELIAN Hill was named Querquetulanus in the early 
days of Rome, from the trees (quercioli, oaks) which clothed its 
eastern slope, as the opposite or western slope of the Esquiline 
was named Mons Fagutalis from the beeches (fagi) by which it 
was shaded. The name of Cailian was subsequently adopted in 
memory of the Etruscan lucumo Cieles.or Cselius Vibenna, who 
had settled with his followers on the hill at the time of Servius 
Tullius. An attempt was made under Tiberius to change the 
name into that of Mons Augustus because, during a terrible con- 
flagration in the year a. d. 27, which desti-oyed hundreds of houses 
and palaces, the only object respected by the flames was a statue 
of the Emperor placed in the vestibule of the palace of the Junii. 

A spm- of the hill, crowned by a shrine of Diana, was called 
Cseliolus, or minor Cjelius. Topographers disagree as to its posi- 
tion. Ficoroni and otliers place it at the Monte d' Oro, Canina 
at the SS. Quattro, Brocchi on the site of the Villa Wolkonsky, 
Nibby on the site of S. Gregorio.' The hill and the spur were 
included in the first region of Servius, Suburana. 

1 Consult: Stefano Piale, Delle parte meridioitall di Servio, del vera sito 


Augustus in his reform of 10-4 b. c. made of the Cfelian the 
second region of the city. At the time of Constantine it con- 
tained 7 parishes (vici), 3600 tenement houses, 127 palaces, 85 
public baths, 65 public fountains, and 15 bakeries. The most 
curious feature consisted in the fact of its being at the same time 
a district of barracks (with the customary annexes, drinking and 
gambling dens, lupanaria, etc.) and a district of aristocratic 

VI. The Castra C^limontana. — The list of barracks 
includes — 

A. The Castra Equitum Singularium, a select body of 
horsemen, who, like our life-guards, cent-gardes, or cuirassiers 
du roi, were employed in the personal service of the Emperor. 
They were lodged in two splendid barracks, the castra vetera 
and the castra nova. The first were discovered between 1885 and 
1887 in the Via Tasso, in the grounds of the Villa Giustiniani ; 
the second in 1733 and 1734, in the foundations of the Cappella 
Corsini at the Lateran. Both barracks were magnificently deco- 
rated with statues, busts, altars, and works of art of every de- 
scription, among which were the Bacchus in the Maraini House, 
illustrated by Visconti in " Bull, com.," 1886, p. 166, pi. 6, and 
the marble seat in the Corsini Library, considered to have been 
chiseled by a Greek artist. The equites singulares were sub- 
stituted for the old German bodyguard (collegium Germanorum, 
Germani corporis custodes) about the time of the Flavians, and 
were likewise recruited among the semi-barbarians of the estuary 
of the Rhine and of the Lower Danube, the Thracians being pre- 
ferred to all other nationalities. The regiment, one thousand 
sti-ong, was placed under the command of the prcefectus prcetorio. 

Literature. — Wilhelm Henzen, Ann. Inst., 1850, p. 5; and 1885, p. 235.— 
Theodor Mommsen, Ephem. epir/r., vol. v. p. 233; Hermes, vol. xvi. p. 459, 4; 
and KorrespondenzUaU der Westdeutschen Zeitschrift, 1886, pp. 50, 123. — 
Rodolfo Lanciani, Bull. arch, com., 1885, p. 37; 1886, p. 94; and Notizie 
Scavi, 1885, p. 524; 1886, pp. 12, 48; 1887, p. 139; 1888, p. 566. — Orazio 
Marucchi, Btdl. arch, com., 1886, p. 124. — Carlo Ludovico Visconti, BiiU. 
arch, com., 1886, p. 166, pi. 6.— Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. n. 224-228, and p. 766, 
n. 3173-3323. — Francesco Ficoroni, Memorie (in Fea's Miscellanea, vol. i. 
n. 46). 

B. The Castra Peregrinorum. — AVhatever may have been 

del Celiolo. Rome, 1824. — Bunsen, etc., Beschreibung, >, p. 478. — Antonio 
Nibby. Roma antica, A'ol. i. p. 19. 


the original scope of the institution of a special body of men called 
milites perefjrini (foreigners) and of their associates the milites 
fruvientarii (coanmissariat), tliere is no doubt that towards the 
beginning of the second century after Christ the peregrin! per- 
formed the duties of the modern gendarmes or carabinieri, while 
the frumentarii had become secret police agents or detectives. 
They were employed to carry disx^atches, to act as spies and 
informers, and to make arrests. The biographer of Hadrian says 
that he knew all the secrets of the Imperial household and of his 
friends with the help of the frumentarii : " per frumentarios 
omnia occulta explorabat " (Vita Iladriaui, c. 6). They were the 
chief agents in the persecutions of the Christians, as described by 
Cyprianus and Jerome. Prisoners of state were also intrusted 
to their custody ; Cnodomer, king of the Germans, made prisoner 
in the battle of Strasburg and brought to Rome, is said to have 
died " in castris peregrinis, qua- in Monte Cselio sunt." The fru- 
mentarii and the peregrin! were commanded by an officer called 
" princeps." The body was suppressed by Diocletian as " pestilen- 
tial " and replaced by another called agentes in rebus. 

The barracks were placed in the neighborhood of S. Maria in 
Dominica, but we do not know exactly where. In March, 1848, 
an inscription describing the baths of the barracks was discovered 
in situ, but Matranga, who illustrated it in the " Bull. Inst." of the 
same year, p. 39, keeps the secret of the find to himself, and only 
mentions in general terms " una vigna rimpetto S. Maria in Navi- 
cella." The barracks were discovered partly about 15.50, partly 
under the pontificates of Innocent X. (1644-55) and Clement X. 
(1670-76). Ligorio (Torin., vol. xv. p. 127) describes them as 
divided into two sections or quadrangles (one for the frumentarii, 
one for the peregrini?), and as occupying the space between the 
aqueduct of Nero, S. Stefano Rotondo, and la Navicella. Holste- 
nius places them between the aqueduct, S. Stefano Rotondo, and 
the hospital of S. Giovanni, and describes one of the rectangles as 
lined with cells, flanked by towers and walls 1.20 metre thick, and 
containing in the middle of the court a round temple with columns 
of porphyry and oriental granite. The works of art, statues, and 
busts discovered in the excavations of 1550 were probably removed 
to the house of Ascanio Magarozzi, where Ulisse Aldovi-andi saw- 
and described them in 15.53. The account which approaches near- 
est the truth, and settles the question of site, is jjerhaps that of 
Pietro Sante Bartoli (Mem. 55). He says that under Innocent X. 
and Clement X. great excavations were made in the garden of 


Teofilo Sartori, Via di S. Stefano Rotondo, viz., on the site of the 
present military hospital (Villa Casali) ; that rows of cells {ima 
filara di botteghe) were uncovered pertaining to the Castra Pere- 
grina, as well as great halls and mess-rooms, com-ts lined with 
colonnades, the shafts of which were of "bellissima breccia," 
statues, busts, heads, and various ornaments of metal incrusted 
with silver, which Bartoli thinks belonged to a triumphal arch. 
Here also was found the pedestal (Corpus, vi. 231) dedicated genio 


Literature. — Pin-o Ligorio, Cod. torin., xv. p. 127. — Lucas Holstenius, 
Cod. vatic, 9141. — P. Sante Bartoli, Mem. 55 (in Fea's MiscelL, voL i. p. 
ccxxxv.). — Willielm Heuzen, Bull. Inst., 1851, p. 113. — Pietro Matranga, 
Bull. Inst., 1849, p. .34. — Gio. Battista de Rossi, Le stazioni delle coortl del 
Vif/ili, ]). 28; and La basilica di S. Stefano rotondo, etc., p. 9 (in Studii e 
docuni. di storia e diritto, vol. vii. 1886). 

C. Static cohortis v vigilum (barracks of the fifth battalion 
of firemen and policemen), on the platform of the Villa Celimon- 
tana, formerly belonging to the Mattel dukes of Giove, and now 
to Baron Richard von Hoffmann. In Januarjr, 1820, two marble 
pedestals were found near the gate of the villa, standing in their 
original position on a tessellated jjavement which formed part of 
the vestibule. The rolls of the battalion, name by name, were 
engraved upon them. The first pedestal had no dedicatory inscrip- 
tion ; the second (and the statue upon it) were offered to Caracalla 
in the year 210 by C. Julius Quintilianus, prefect of police, M. 
Firmius, adjutant-general, L. Speratius Justus, colonel of the fifth 
battalion, the captains commanding the seven companies, the four 
physicians and sui'geons attached to the barracks, etc. The last 
names engraved on the front of the pedestal are those of the cap- 
tain and of the standard-bearer of the first company, the trustees 
of the fund subscribed towards the erection of the statue. The 
importance of these two documents, however, comes from the I'oUs 
of the rank and file. " In the year 205, which is the approximate 
date of the first pedestal, the battalion numbered 113 officers and 
sub-officers, and 930 men. In the year 210 the number of the 
former had decreased to 109, the number of the latter had increased 
to 1013. Taking as the average strength of a battalion 1033 men 
all told, the whole police of the metropolis must have numbered 
7231 men." ^ The pedestals are still to be seen in the Villa Mattei 
at the entrance of the celebrated avenue of ilexes between the 
Casino and the obelisk. Luigi Rossini asserts that in the excava- 
1 Ancient Home, p. 228. 


tions of 1820 the prison of the barracks was also found, " as proved 
"by the chains still fixed to its walls." Students are kindly allowed 
to visit the Villa Mattel on Thursdays. 

Literature. — Olaus Kellermaun, Vigilum latercula duo ccelimmitana. 
Rome, 1835. — Gio. Battista de Rossi, Le stazioni delle sette coorti dei Vigili, 
p. 27 (in Anual. Inst., 1858).— Corpus Insci:, vol. vi. n. 221, 222, 1057, 1058. 
— P. Saute Bartoli, Mem. 79 (in Fea's Miscell., vol. i. p. ccxlii.). — Luigi 
Rossini, / sette colli, n. 1-3. Rome, 1829. 

Connected with the bari'acks of the Cfelian hill were the Lupa- 
naria, mentioned in the catalogues of the second region, probably 
a state establishment, the site of which corresponds with that of 
the Vigna Colacicchi, as shown by the discovery of some charac- 
teristic mosaic pavements made there in 1878. 

VII. The Palaces ok the C.elian : — 

A. DoMUS Lateraxorum — Egkegi.e Lateraxorum .(Edes 
(Lateran palace). It is a cm-rent opinion that after the execution 
of Plautius Lateranus in a. d. 66 for his share in the plot of the 
Pisones, his magnificent palace on the Cselian was confiscated by 
Nero, and the grounds were added to the Imperial domain of the 
Domus Aiirea. No classic historian speaks of such a confiscation ; 
on the contrary, we are informed by one of them that T. Sextius 
Lateranus, consul in 196, was offered large sums of money by 
Septimius Severus, with the help of which he restored the paternal 
estate on the Ctelian. This account is confirmed by the discovery 
made in 1.59.5 of water-pipes inscribed with the names of Sextius 
Lateranus and of his brother Torquatus. Another water-pipe, 
bearing the name of Mamnifea, mother of the Emperor Severus 
Alexander, found among the ruins of the palace in 1890, seems to 
prove that the palace had become state property only under the 
rule of the last (a. d. 222-23.5). It remained so until the time of 
Constantine, who offered part, or perhaj^s the whole, of it to Pope 
jNIiltiades in 313 ; this, at least, is the date of a council of bishops 
convened in the palace under the presidency of the pope. Perhaps 
it was only a case of a loan, as we find the palace called " Domus 
Faustse," the house of Fausta, at a later date.^ I do not yet under- 
stand clearly myself what happened in those days, how the trans- 
ference of property from the Crown to the Church was made, and 
which portion was transformed into a Christian basilica, " omnium 
ecclesiarum urbis et orbis mater et capiit." The difficulty arises 

1 Fausta, second wife of Constantine, was smothered by her husband's order 
in .326, and her stepson Crispus was executed on the same daj'. 


from the fact that the area of the basilica is cut in two by a 
Roman street, which runs parallel with the transept of Clement 
VIII. {nave Clementina), passes under the canopy of Urban V., 
and leads to a postern in the walls of Aui'elian still visible in the 
garden " dei Penitenzieri." The ruins east of this ancient street 
are " oriented " with it ; those on the other side form an angle of 
31°. There were therefore two distinct and independent palaces, — 
one on each side of the street. The one on the west was certainly 
tlie palace of the Laterans ; the one on the east might possibly be 
identified with the " castra nova equitum singularium," epigraphic 
records of which have been found under the Corsini chapel. The 
nave and aisles of the church would occupy in this case the site of 
one of the courts of the barracks ; while the transept and the apse 
woidd occupy the site of the atrium of the palace. I need not 
remind the reader that the name of St. John the Lateran is com- 
paratively recent, the basilica having been dedicated originally to 
the Redeemer alone. 

Many discoveries have taken place east of the street mentioned 
above. In 1732 Alessandro (ialilei, the architect of Clement XII., 
whilst building the new facade, found walls, cells, water-pipes, and 
other remains. In the following year the excavations extended to 
the site of the cappella Corsini, and to the vacant space between 
the chapel and the walls of the city. Splendid remains of the 
barracks and of their annexes were found everywhere,^ with other 
sections of the watei'-pipes mentioned before, bearing the name of 
M. Opellius Macrinus, prefect of the praetorium, and Commander- 
in-Chief of the equites singulares. Other walls, decorated with 
frescoes of no special value, came to light in 1838 in the founda- 
tions of the " sala capitolare " behind the Lancellotti cliapel. In 
style of masonry, in age, and in direction they correspond exactly 
to the remains discovered by Rohault de Fleury and by myself in 
the cellars of the palace of the pope (Sixtus V.) on the other side 
of the church. - 

More important are the finds obtained at various epochs among 
the remains of the " egregife Lateranorum sedes," on the opposite 
side of the street. Flavio Biondo describes those of the time of 
Eugenius IV. (1431-47) on the site of the monastery, west of the 

1 Literature. — See p. 336 and Eidolfino Venuti, Descriz. di Roma, ed. 
1803, p. 179. — Lupi, Epitaph, sanctce Severce, p. 43. — Francesco Ficoroni, 
Gemmm litteratce, p. 126. — Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. n. 22.5, 226. 

2 Emil Braun, Bull. Inst., 1838, p. 6. — Rohault de Fleury, Le Latran au 
moyen dr/e. (Plan general.) — Rodolfo Lanciani, Forma Urbis, pi. xxxvii. 



cloisters of Vassalectus ; and speaks of halls the pavements of which 
were 5.34: metres lower than that of the church, of colonnades, 
statues, etc. Flaminio Vacca says that when Clement VIII. 
removed and destroyed in 1595 the old presbyterium (un certo 
rialzo innanzi al coro), three large niches were found, pertaining 


to an "edifizio antichissimo e nobilissimo," the pavements of which 
were incrusted with porphyry and serpentine. Filippo Martinucci 
discovered in 1853 the pavement of the street under the canopy of 
Urban V., as related above. Costantino Corvisieri excavated in 
1873 the neighborhood of the Baptistery. Pius IX. and Leo XIII., 
whilst destroying the Constantinian apse and building the new 
one, with the sacristry and the chapter-house (1877-90), brought 
to light other remains, described by Stevenson in the " Annal. 
Inst.," 1877, pis. R, S, T, and represented in the above view (Fig. 
129). I have tried to express as well as I could the results of all 
these excavations in sheet No. xxxvii. of the " Forma Urbis." 
The level of this part of the palace was 7.50 metres lower than 
that of the church. 

Nothing is left visible of the old Constantinian Basilica except 
a few bits of the walls which support the roof of the nave. When 
Borromini inflicted upon the nave itself the present hideous trans- 
formation, and encased the columns dividing the nave from the 
aisles in a coating of bricks, he left patches of the original walls 
visible in a set of oval panels between the windows. The ovals 
are now concealed by indifferent paintings on canvas. However, 
there is at least one set of precious relics of Constantine's age 
which has escaped destruction but not transformation : I refer to 
the four large fluted bronze columns of the Corinthian order which 
adorn the Altare del Sacramento, at the south end of the transept. 
The guide-books of Rome have suggested various theories about 
them, the current belief being that they belonged in days gone by 
to the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. Others contend that they 
were cast under Augustus with the 'bronze beaks of the ships cap- 
tured in the battle of Actium; others that they were removed 
from Solonion's Temple, etc. The columns are mentioned for the 
first time under Constantine, who offered them to the Church to be 
used as " pharocautharoi " ^ on either side of the altar. Clement 
VIII. and Pietro Paolo Olivieri, his architect, found them seriously 
injured and without capitals ; Orazio Censori, the pope's brass- 
founder, was asked therefore to make a tour through the cities of 
southern Etruria and try to collect antique objects of bronze. 
Hundreds of tombs must have been rifled of their invaluable 
treasures ; at Corneto alone Censori gathered 665 pounds of 
metal, and a great deal more at Civita Castellana (Falerii). The 
treasures were melted together with pieces of the bronze beams 
of the Pantheon, and the metal was employed in casting three 
1 Lighthouses, or pillars supporting a circle of lights on the capitals. 



capitals, the whole cornice and pediment of the altar, sixteen 
doves, sixteen stars, and two angels. It was lucky that the bronze 
masterpieces formerly in the Campus Lateranensis (Piazza di S. 
Giovanni) had been removed to a place of safety since the times 
of Sixtus IV. and Paul III., otherwise they would probably have 
shared the fate of the bronzes from Tarquinii and Falerii. 

The mediaeval collection of bronzes at the Lateran comprised 
the equestrian statue of M. Aurelius, removed by Paul III. to the 
Piazza del Campidogiio in 1538 ; the she-wolf ; the colossal hand 
with the globe ; the Zingara or Camillus ; the head of young 
Nero (?), removed to the Palazzo dei Conservatori by Sixtus IV. ; 
and the " lex regia," now in the Capitoline Museum. The follow- 
ing sketch by Martin Heemskerk represents tlie Campus Late- 
ranensis about 1531, with the statue of M. Aurelius in its proper 

Fig. 130. — Campus Lateraneusis, about 1534. 

place. The four columns in the foreground supported a slab of 
marble wliich was thought to mark the height of the Saviour. 
Heemskerk's view has already been published by T. Springer, in 

Literature for the Lateran Palace. — Louis Duchesne, Le liber 
pontijicalis, vol. i. passim. — Rohault de Fleury, Le Lntran au moyen age. 
Paris, 1877. — Giovanni Ciampini, De saci-is (Bdificiis a Constantino magno 
extructis. Rome, 1693. — Cesare Rasponi, Be basilica et patriarchio Late- 
ranensi. Rome, 1656. — Nicola Alemanni, De Lateranensibus parietinis. 
Rome, 17.56. — Eugene MUntz, Les arts a la cour des papes, vol. iii. passim. 
— Rodolfo Lanciani, Bull. Inst., 1870, p. 50 ; and Itinerario di Einsiedlen, pp. 
70 and 102. — Enrico Stevenson, Scoperte di antichi edijizi al Laterano {in 

1 In Gesammelte Studien zur Kunstgeschichte : eineFestgabe zum iMai 1885. 
Fiir Anton Springer, Leipzig, 1885. 


Annal. Inst., 1877); and Topogrnfia e momcmenti dl Roma in-Ue piltnre di Sisto 
v., etc., plate iv. n. 2. 

The bronzes formerly in the Lateran are illustrated in Annnl. Inst., 1877, 
p. 381. — Riim. Mittheilimyen, vol. vi. 1891, p. 14. — Refue archeol., xliii. 
1882, pp. 20, 28. — Wolfgang Heli)ig, Guide to the Coll. of Class. Antiquities, 
vol. i. p. 402, n. 538 ; p. 454, n. 612, etc. 

B. DoMUS Vectiliana, a favorite resort of the Emperor Corn- 
modus, whither he used to repair when sufteriug from insomnia, 
and where he was strangled in a. d. 192. Its site is not known, 
but it cannot have been very far from the Lateran. The eques- 
trian statue of Marcus Aurelius, of which we hear for the first 
time in a. d. 966 (when Peter, prefect of Rome, was hung by the 
hair from the horse for his rebellion against John XIII.), must 
have come from this Domus Vectiliana. The house was certainly 
discovered at the time of Ficoroni, about 1735, by a man named 
Giuseppe Mitelli, but the site of the excavation is indicated only 
by thev ague formula " nell' estremita del Monte Celio " (at the 
extreme point of the Cselian hill). 

The family of M. Aurelius and Commodus was closely con- 
nected with that of the Annii. Annia Faustina the elder, wife of 
Antoninus Pius ; Annia Faustina the younger, wife of M. Aure- 
lius; Annia Cornificia, his sister; Annius Verus, his son; Annia 
Lucilla, his daughter, have made the name illustrious in the 
annals of the Empire. By a singular coincidence we find a 
Domus Anniorum on the Cselian, close to the supposed site of 
the Vectiliana in which Commodus was assassinated. One of 
the new streets of the Cselian, the Via Annia, has been named 
from it. The house is distinctly mentioned by the biographer of 
M. Aurelius, chapter i. : " Marcus was born on the Cselian hill, in 
the family villa (Jiurti) in the year (a. d. 121) in which his grand- 
father Annius Verus was consul with Augur. . . . He was educated 
in the villa in which he was born, as well as in the palace of his 
grandfather, near that of the Laterans." The palace of Annius 
Verus was discovered for the last time in 1885-87, on the site of 
the present military hospital (Villa Casali). 

LiTEUATURE. — 5m?Z. arch. com., 1885, pp. 95, 104, 166, 175, 176-; 1866, pp. 
50, 93, 109, 278, 342, 369, 405 ; 1887, pp. 27, bl.—Notizie derjli Scavi, 1885-89, 
passim. See index. Villa Casali. 

C. Domus Tetricorum. — C. Pesuvius Tetricus, one of the 
" thirty tyrants," and the last secessionist ruler of Gaul (a. d. 
267-274), was defeated by Aurelian at the battle of Chalons, and 
obliged to grace the triumph of the conqueror with his presence. 


After the tiiuiuph he was treated with kindness and distinction 
by Aurelian. The biographer who wrote the " Tyranni Triginta " 
in the first decade of the fourth century says, " The palace of the 
Tetrici, one of the most beautiful in the city, is still to be seen on 
the Cailian, in the street called ' inter duos lucos,' oi^posite the 
Temple of Isis Metellina." The site was indicated in the Middle 
Ages by a church of 8. Maria inter duo or inter duas, which stood 
in the valley between the Ctelian and the Esquiline (cf. Armellini, 
Chiese, p. 1-10). 

1). DoMiT.s Valekiorum. — There was on the Cselian, between 
IS. .Stefano Kotondo and the Lateran, a palace belonging to the 
descendants of the Valerii Poplicohv, namely, to Valerius Severus, 
prefect of Konie in a. d. ;58(J, and to his son Pinianus, husband of 
Melania the younger. The palace was so beautiful, and contained 
so much wealth, that when Pinianus and Melania, grieved by the 
loss of all their children, put it up for sale in 404, they found none 
willing to X3urchase it : " ad tarn magnum et mirabile opus acce- 
dere nemo ausus fecit." Seven or eight years after the capture of 
Rome by Alaric, August, 410, the same palace was given away for 
little or nothing, " domus pro nihilo venumdata est," having been 
" dissipata et quasi incensa " by the barbarians. There must be 
some inaccuracy in this account, which Commendatore de Rossi 
has found in a MS. of the library of Chartres. In the first place, 
a considerable part of the j^i'operty was transformed into a hos- 
pice and a hospital under the title of " Xenodochium Valeriorum " 
or " a Valeriis," which flourished until the ninth century, and the 
transformation must have been the work of Pinianus himself and 
not of an outsider. In the second place, the house w^as discovered 
in 1554, 1561, and 1711 in such a wonderful state of preservation 
that we must exculpate the Goths from the charge of having pil- 
laged and gutted it in 410. The account of the find sounds like a 
fairy tale. When the workmen entered the atrium of the palace 
in the first excavations of 1554 and 1561, the deeds and records of 
the family, engraved on bronze tablets, still hung to the columns 
of the peristyle. The tablets contained mostly decrees in honor of 
the Valerii, or treaties of friendship witli their house passed by the 
corporations of Zama, Hadrumetum, Thenae, and other cities of 
Africa. Four pedestals of statues dedicated to Valerius Aradius 
by the corporations of the grocers, bakers, etc., were discovered 
under the portico. The excavations were stopped perhaps for 
fear of undermining the church and the monastery of S. Erasmus, 
or whatever was left standing of this celebrated abbey, the medi- 


reval representative of the old Xenodochium a Valeriis. Under 
the pontificate of Innocent X. (1644-55), when no traces were left 
of S. Erasmo, the atrium of the jaalace was entered again, and 
seven " bellissime statue " were brought to light, among them two 
fauns dancing to the sound of the Kp6Ta\a ; they were purchased 
by Monsignor Mazarino. The experiment was tried again under 
Clement X. (1670-76) with equal success. Bartoli mentions 
statues and busts, among them two of Lucius Verus bought by 
Cardinal de Bouillon ; the group of Cvipid and Psyche, now in the 
Galleria degli Uffizi ; the finest specimens of fresco paintings ever 
seen in Rome; columns of rare breccias; and the bronze lamp 
representing a ship with the figure of our Lord at the helm, also 
in the L^ffizi at Florence. 

Literature. — Corpus Jnscr., vol. vi. n. 1684-94. — Pietro Sante Bartoli, 
Mem. 53, 54 (in Fea's Miscellanea, vol. i. p. ccxxx.). — Pietro Bellori, Lucerne 
antiche, p. 11. — Gio. Batt. de Rossi, II monastero di S. Erasmo e la casa dei 
Valerii sul Celio (in Studi e docum. di Storia e Diritto. vol. vii. 1886; and 
Bull, com., 1890, p. 288). — Giacomo Lumbroso, Notizie di Cassiano dal Pozzo. 
Torino, 1875, p. 50. 

E. DoMus Philippi, probably of the Emperor M. Julius Phi- 
lippus (a. d. 244-249), which he must have acquired while prefect 
of the Prsetorium. The only clue in regard to its position is 
given by an altar (Corpus Inscr., vi. 150) dedicated by a " servus 
Philipporum " to a local spring, which was found in the slope of 
the Villa Mattel, towards the Marrana. Near the same place a 
statue was discovered in 1747 representing a hunter with a hare 
in the right hand, which Ennio Quirino Visconti attributes to the 
age of the Philippi. The statue, signed by the artist (Polytimvs 
lib), is now exhibited in the Capitoline Museum. 

Literature. — Fieoroni, Mem. 91 (in Fea's Miscellanea, vol. i. p. clxiii.). 
— E. Quirino Visconti, Catnlogo del museo Jenlcins, p. 22. — Pierre Aube, Le 
Christianisme de I'emp. Philippe (in Revue arch., vol. ix. 1880, p. 140). — 
Wolfgang Helbig, Guide to the Collections (^Antiquities, vol. i. p. 370, n. 506 

F. DoMus L • Marii • Maximi, discovered in February, 1708, 
in the Villa Fonseca. It contained the pedestals of statues (Cor- 
pus Inscr., vol. vi. n. 1450, 1451) dedicated to him, the first by 
an officer of the third legion, Cyrenaica ; the second by a friend, 
Pompeius Alexander. Other pedestals from the same noble man- 
sion are described by the " Corpus," n. 1452, 145.3. 

G. DoMus OF THE Symmachi, discovered in 1617 in the gar- 
den of Sartorio Teofili, afterwards included in the Villa Casali. 


L. Aiirelius Avianius Symmachus, the great scholar, statesman, 
and orator of the latter half of the fourth century, proconsul of 
Africa in 373, prefect of the city in 381-386, consul in 391, speaks 
of this paternal house on the Cselian in Ejiist. 18 of Book vii. : 
" de Formiano regressus in Larem C«lium." Compare Epist. iii. 
12, 88. Although constantly exposed to danger and disgrace, as 
leader of the pagan side of the Senate, he never diverged from 
his path. Having been delegated by the House in 382 to remon- 
strate with the Emperor Gratian on the removal of the altar of 
Victory from their council hall, and on the curtailment of the 
sums annually allowed for the maintenance of the Vestal Virgins, 
he was ordered by the indignant Emperor to withdraw from his 
presence and to i-etire to his villa at Formije ; and yet, two years 
later, we find him prefect of Rome, and engaged in rebuilding 
with unusual magnificence the bridge now called Ponte Sisto (see 
p. 24). Among the objects discovered in the excavations of 1617 
we find the pedestal of a statue dedicated to him by his own son, 
and a second set up in honor of his father-in-law Virius Nico- 
machus Flavianus, another great leader of the pagan faction. The 
ruins were searched again in 1885-87. 

I do not remember having ever seen such a scene of devastation 
as that presented by the remains of this palace of the Symmachi 
and of the Nicomachi. Columns, pedestals, statues seem to have 
been purposely hammered and ground into atoms. The headless 
female statue of gray basalt, now in Hall V of the Museo ]\Iunici- 
pale al Celio, was put together by us in 1896 out of seventy-four 
pieces. If we remember that basalt was a worthless material to 
the destroyers of ancient Rome, unfit for the lime-kiln and too 
hard to be worked anew, we must find another reason for their 
treating that noble figure so wantonly. The explanation is given, 
if I am not mistaken, by the discovery of another statue broken 
into one hundred and fifty-one pieces, which represented the Vic- 
tory. When the pagan faction was put down forever at the battle 
of September 6, 394, in which the usurper Eugenius and Nico- 
machus Flavianus lost their lives, the recollection of the duel 
fought before Valentinian II. and Theodosius, between S. Ambrose 
on the Christian and Symmachus on the pagan side, on account 
of the statue of Victory, was still fresh in the minds of the people. 
No wonder that, on hearing the news of the battle, and of the 
decisive collapse of the party led by the Symmachi and by the 
Nicomachi, the populace should have pillaged their palace on 
the Cfelian and satisfied their desire for vengeance. 



From this point of view the statue, which we have recalled to 
life out of one hundred and fifty-one fragments, and exhibited in 
the Hall II of the above-named museum, is one of the great his- 
torical monuments of the fourth century. 

Literature. — Corpus Jnscr., vol. vi. n. 1699, 1782. — Angelo Mai, Script, 
vett. nova collectio, vol. i. append, pp. xviii.-xxiv. — Morel, in Revue archeoL, 
June, 1868. — Rodolfo Lanciani, Ancient Rome, pp. 162-173. 

H. The House of SS. John axd Paul. — This house and 
the church (Titulus Byzantis, Titulus Pammachii) built upon it 
at a later period are given a place of honor in early itineraries of 
pilgrims because they contained the only martyr's tomb within the 
walls of the city. The account of the lives of the two brothers 
John and Paul, and of their execution under Julian the apostate, 
is apocryphal ; but no one who visits the remains of this house 
and the records it contains will deny the fact that some one was 

Fig. 131. — Plan of the House of SS. .Tolin and Paul, and of the Cliurcli built above it. 

murdered or executed for his faith here, and that over the apart- 
ment in which the event took place a church was built at a later 
age. On this occasion the Roman house was left intact with its 
spacious halls and classical decorations to be used as a crypt, 
while the basilica was raised above the level of the ceilings. The 
murder of the saints seems to have taken place in a narrow pas- 
sage (fauces') near the tablinum or reception-room. Here we see 


the " fenestella coufessionis " by means of whicli pilgrims were 
allowed to behold and touch the venerable graves. Two things 
strike the visitor : firstly, the variety of the fresco decorations of 
the house, which begin with pagan Genii holding festoons, and 
end with stiff, uncanny representations of the Passion, of the 
ninth and tenth century ; secondly, the fact that such an impor- 
tant monument should have been buried and forgotten ^ until 
Padre Germano of the Passionists rediscovered it ten or twelve 
years ago. Padre Germano has given us a delightful account of 
his work in a volume entitled " La casa celimontana dei SS. JNIai'tiri 
Giovanni e Paolo scoperta ed illustrata." Rome, Cuggiani, 1894. 

This house and another one annexed to the nymphseum of the 
gardens of Sallust are the only ones in Rome which show the 
third floor in one case, the fourth in the other. The student 
walking up the Clivus Scauri, between the house of John and 
Paul on the left, and the house and library of Agapetus on the 
right, may fancy himself transported into the midst of a street 
scene of " declining " Rome towards the end of the sixth century. 

I. The House of Gregory the Great. — The " Liber pon- 
tificalis " (vol. i. p. 313, edit. Duchense) leaves no doubt that the 
present church and nujnastery of S. Gregorio are built on the site 
of the paternal house of the great pontiff, son of Gordianus and 
Sylvia, of the Petronian branch of the Anicii. The transforma- 
tion of the palace into a coenobium, where Gregory and his asso- 
ciates lived under the rule of S. Benedict, seems to have taken 
place in 575. John the Deacon describes it as placed " within the 
walls of the city, on the Clivus Scauri, close to the church of SS. 
John and Paul," and as containing an atrium with a fountain of 
elaborate design in the middle (nymphwum). The spring, called 
"mirabilis immo saluberrimus," was probably the same known 
in classic times by the name of Fons jNlercurii. The site of the 
piscina can still be traced on the east side of the present chui'ch. 
There was an inner court within the clausnra, around which 
opened the cells of the monks. The establishment was also fur- 
nished with a hostelry for pilgrims and visitors, with stables and 
granaries, and with a grand triclinium, in which the monks took 
their siesta during the hot hours of the day. 

The name of S. Gregorio given to the abbey is comparatively 
recent, the old establishment being placed under the patronage of 
S. Andrew. His chapel was splendidly decorated with paintings 
and mosaics. There were also other chapels or oratories under 

1 Parian and ChriMian Rome, p. 159. 


the invocations of the Virgin Mary (the S. Andrea of the present 
day) and of S. Barbara (the present triclinium). Save a few bits 
of antique walls, which appear here and there under the modern 
plastering, nothing is left visible of the home of S. Gregory and 
of the monastery " SS. Andrese et Gregorii ad clivum Scauri," one 
of the most powerful in central Italy, and the owner of the Cii'cus 
jMaximus, of the Septizonium, and of the palace of the Caesars. 
The first blow to the institution was struck in 1573, when the 
Camaldolese monks took the place of the Benedictines. Cardinal 
Scipione Borghese and his architect, Giovanni Soria, destroyed 
the old vestibule and the atrium in 1638 ; all the rest was modern- 
ized in 1725. I have discovered in the Kupferstich Kabinet at 
Stuttgart a sketch by a contemporary of Martin Heemskerk, I'ep- 
resenting the Monasterium ad Clivum Scauri before the modern 
profanation. I give here a facsimile of this rare design. 


Fig. 132. — A View of the Church and Monastery of S. Gregorio in the First Half of tlie 
Sixteenth Century. 

The two leading edifices of the Ctelian hill which remain to 
be described are the Temple of Claudius and the Rotunda of 
S. Stefano. 

VIII. Claudium (Temple of Claudius), begun by Agrippina 
the younger, niece and fourth wife of that Emperor. After the 


murder of Agrippina, which took place in a. d. 59, Xero her sou 
took possession of the unfinished temple and turned it into a 
nymphseum and reservoir for the Aqua Claudia, joining it to the 
main aqueduct " ad Spem veterem " (Porta Maggiore) by means 
of the Areas Cx'elimontani or Arcus Neroniani, which still forms so 
conspicuous a featm-e of the Ctelian hill. After the suicide of 
Xero, A. D. 68, the place was restored to its original use by Ves- 
pasian under the name of " Templum divi Claudii," which the 
people shortened into tliat of Claudium. A bull of Ilonorius III., 
dated February 2, 1217, shows that the classic term was still in 
use in the thirteenth century (Clodeum). The causes and tlie 
date of its final collapse are not known ; but the fact that one of 
the travertine capitals from the substructure was made use of in 
the reconstruction of the house of SS. John and Paul (first door 
on the left on the Clivus Scauri) proves that men had already 
laid hands on the noble building in the time of Julian the Apos- 
tate (360-363), or else of Pammachius, the builder of the churcli 
(t 410). Flaminio Vacca relates the following discoveries made 
at the time of Pius IV. : " In a vineyard between the Coliseum 
and SS. Giovanni e Paolo the foundations of a building were dis- 
covered, made of 'grossissimi quadri di travertino,' and also two 
marble Corintliian capitals, one of which was removed by Pins 
IV. to the church of S. ^laria degli Angeli, and placed on one of 
the columns of the nave. I remember also the discovery of a 
marble ship 8.92 metres long, and of a fountain sjilendidly deco- 
rated witli marbles, which, however, appeared nuicli damaged by 
fire." Etienne du Perac mentions the finding of some fragments 
of statues of heroic size, and calls the platform of the temple 
facing the Coliseum the " cemetery of the church of S. Gregorio." 
Xo words can convey the idea of the beauty and peacefulness of 
the garden of the Passionist fathers which now occupies the plat- 
form of the temple, and of its secluded paths, shaded by ilexes on 
the west side, and by cypresses on the side of the Coliseum. The 
garden, unfortunately, is under the monastic clausura, and ladies 
are refused admittance. The only parts of the building visible 
to all without hindrance are the substructures of the platform. ^ 
which, strange to say, differ in design and style of masomy for 
each side of the rectangle. The substructures on the west side, 
upon which stands the beautiful campanile of SS. Giovanni e 
Paolo, are comjiosed of a double row of arches in the so-called 
rustic style so much in favor at the time of Claudius (Fig. 133) ; 
1 Ai^ply to tlie sacristan of the iliiircli. 



those facing the Coliseum appear divided into receptacles for the 
storage of water required for some of the veuationes of the amphi- 
theatre ; those on the Via Claudia show a succession of square and 
semicircular recesses, the object of which it is not easy to imagine, 
especially as they are separated from the mass of the platform by 
a corridor or vaulted passage, less than a metre wide, which fol- 
lows their capricious outline. Two Christian churches or ora- 
tories have been found hidden, as it were, in these substructures. 

Fig. 133. — The Substructures of tlie Claudiuni, Side. 


Ciampini speaks of the first in " Cod. vatic," 7849. In September, 
1689, while the modern vandals were excavating and ijestroying 
the northern front of the platform for the sake of building mate- 
rials, a door w^as discovered with the sign of the cross on one side, 
and a star or crux decussata on the other. After passing another 
door on the right, a room was entered, 7.80 metres long, with fres- 
coes in the apse representing the Redeemer giving the scroll of 
the law not to S. Peter — as de hire in early Christian iconography 
— but to S. Paul. Two smaller figures of Pope Formosus (891) 
and of Michael, the first converted king of the Bulgarians, were 
painted at the feet of the Saviour. The figure of Pope Formosus 
had been carefully obliterated after his memorke damnatio at the 
hands of Stephen VII., his successor. This historical monument 
was very likely destroyed by its discoverers. The second churcli, 
called " ecclesia S. Laurentii supra S. Clementem," was established 
in the fourth recess (a square with an apse) of the east side of 
the substructures on the Via Claudia. Ai-mellini mentions having 
seen traces of Christian frescoes in the apse when first cleared of 
the rubbish in 1881, but he and the late Commendatore de Rossi 
are mistaken in identifying this second place of worship with 
Ciampini's oratory, which opened not on the east but on the north 
side, and among ruins not of brick but of reticulated work. 

LiTERATUKK FOR THE Claudium. — Heiiiricli .Tordan, Forma Urhis Eomce, 
pi. X. n. 45. — Suetonius, Vespas. [). — Luigi Canina, Indictiziune di Roma 
aniica, p. 73. — Otto Richter, Topor/r., p. 167. — P. Germaiio di S. Stanislao, 
Im casa celimontana del SS. Giovanni e Paolo. Rome, 18!l4, p. 19. — Etienne 
du Perac, Vedute di Roma, pi. 14. — Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. n. 10,251«. — R. 
Lauciani, / comentarii di Frontimo, p. 152. — Giuseppe Gatti, Annal. Inst., 
1882, p. 205. 

Literature for the Christian Oratories. — Jlariano Armellini, 
Chiese, 2d edit., pp. 135, 513. — Gio. Batt. de Rossi, Bull, crist., 1868, pp. 59, 
00 ; and 1882, p. 98. 

IX. Macellum (S. Stefano Rotondo). — Commendatore de 
Rossi, in his splendid volumes " I musaici delle chiese di Roma," 
and also in the memoir already quoted, " La basilica di S. Stefano 
rotondo," etc., proposes some architectural and topographical 
problems in regard to this mysterious structure, which, he thinks, 
is not a pagan but a Christian edifice of the beginning of the 
fifth century ; and he brings in support of his theory the author- 
ity of Hiibsch (Die altchristlichen Kirchen, p. 36) and of Rahn 
(Ursprung des Christl. Central- und Kuppelbaus, p. .53). 

To tell the truth, tlie theorv is strictlv Italian, and over a cen- 



tury old. See Yaladier in Canina's " Supplementi al Desgodetz," 
p. 15 : " Le defaut de documents ne permet pas d'admettre 
I'opinion de Desgodetz, leqiiel suppose que ce fut un temple dedie 
au dieu Faune. ... II faut le regarder comme TomTage du pape 
Simplicius I., dedie a S. Etienne et restaure depuis par Nicolas V." 
Yaladier's opinion is proved correct by the general style of the 


rotunda, by the quality and variety of its columns, capitals and 
bases, spoils of older edifices, by the crosses cut in bold relief 
on the cushions of some capitals, and above all by the fact that 
the present edifice rests on the remains of an earlier one of the 
first ceutui-y after Christ. They were discovered by Valadier in 
or about 1814, between the seventh and ninth columns of the 
outer circle on the right of the present entrance. Other walls of 
the best pei'iod, profusely decorated with marbles, were found six 
years ago under the adjoining convent and garden of the Theresian 
nuns. However strange may appear the fact of great structures 
being raised in Rome at the end of the fourth century, when all 
resources had given out, and the want was felt not of the luxuries 
but of the necessaries of life, and when monuments were col- 
lapsing in all quarters for want of repairs, it is certain that the 
rotunda of S. Stefano, this alleged Temple of Faun, of Bacchus, 
of Jupiter Peregrinus, this alleged Macellum Magnum, or INlica 
Aurea of Xero, has lost forever its position among the classic 
buildings of Rome. Who was, then, its true founder, and what was 
tlie true object of its foundation ? 

The " Liber pontificalis " (i. 249) attributes to Pope Simplicius 
(468-482) the dedication " basilicse S. Stephani in Coelio monte." 
For a long time an exaggerated value has been attributed to the 
formulae of the Papal chancery, "dedicavit, fecit, optulit," etc., 
and accordingly Felix IV. has been called the builder of SS. 
Cosma e Damiano, Ilonorius I. of S. Adriano, Helena of the 
" Hierusalem," and Simplicius of S. Andrea on tlie Esquiline, 
while they had simply adapted to the Christian worship edifices 
of classic times, — the Templum Sacra^ Urbis, the Senate-house, 
the hall of the Sessorian Palace, and the basilica of Junius Bas- 
sus. This rotunda likewise, built for civil and public use, under- 
went the same transformation at the hands of Simplicius. Its 
architectm'e has nothing to do with a place of worship, whether 
Christian or pagan. It consists of an inner circle of twenty-two 
columns supporting a drum pierced by twenty-two windows ; of 
an outer portico of thirty-six columns and eight pilasters, open to 
wind and rain ; of four open courts ; of four covered storerooms ; 
and of an inclosure wall pierced by eight doors-. There is no place 
for an altar, no apse, no presbyterium (see Fig. 135). The names 
of mausoleum and of baptistery have also been suggested, on no 
better grounds, because no burial v\'as allowed within the walls, 
and no great church existed in this part of the Cjelian, to which 
the rotunda could be attached as a baptistery. We cannot hope 



to tear away the veil of mystery in which this " sfinge celimon- 
tana " is wrapped ; at the same time we may accept the following 
points as probable, if not certain : — 

A. The rotunda of S. Stef ano stands on the remains of a classic 
edifice of the same architectural type, probably the INIacelhim 
Magnum or " great market-place " of Nero, which occupied the 
middle of a square lined with porticoes and shops. 


Piazza dcUa | Navicclla. 
Fig. 135. — Plan of S. Stefano Rotondo. 

B. This edifice of classic times, having come to grief for 
reasons unknown to us, was reconstructed at the end of the fourth 
century for civic purposes, probably for the same use of a market. 


We may cite in support of this idea the contemporary reconstruc- 
tion of the Macdluru Licke on the Esquiline, at the hands of Valens 
and Gratianus. 

C. After the plunder of the city by Ahiric and Genseric, the 
half-deserted Cselian being no more in need of a public market, 
Pope Simplicius occupied the edifice and dedicated it — with some 
slight alterations — to the memory of S. Stephen. This happened 
al)out one century after its reconstruction as a market-place. 

D. The apse adorned with mosaics, the transformation of one of 
the open courts into a presbyterium and high altar, tlie closing of 
seven doors out of eight, and the porch over the only one left open, 
are the work of Theodore I. (642-049). 

Ruccellai, who visited S. Stefano in the jubilee of 1450, describes 
the drum and the inclosure wall as inlaid with finely cut crusts of 
porphyry and serpentine, grapes and leaves of mother-of-pearl, 
"tarsie et altre gentileze." These beautiful works of art were 
destroyed in 1453 by Pope Nicholas V. 

Regio hi. " Isis et Sekai-is." 

X. The third region occupies that portion of the Esquiline ridge 
which was properly called Mons Oppius. The first and unitpie 
inscription mentioning the Oppiiin, its compital shrines, and its 
organization as a ward of the city in Republican times, was dis- 
covered in September, 18S7, in the cellars of the ex-convent of le 
Cappuccine alle sette Sale — " ]Ma:g(istri) et Flamin(es) monta- 
n(orum) montis Oppi(i) de pecunia mont(anorum) sacellum clau- 
dend(um) et cofequandum et arbores serendas coeraverunt." The 
name " montani " applies strictly to the inhabitants of the septi- 
montium — even to the present day (monticiani) — while those of 
the suiTounding districts were called "pagani." The yearly cele- 
bration called by Varro " septimontiale sacrum " was performed on 
the Palatium, Cermalus, Yelia, Fagutalis, O^jpian, Cispian, and in 
the Subura, in memory of the first settlement of the population in 
those places. The festive groups gathered round tlie oldest shrine 
of the ward, led by their own popular magistrates and priests. 
The shrines were surrounded by clusters of old trees, such as 
lurches {I ucus fagutalis), oaks (lucus querquetulanus), laurels (vicus 
Loi-eti), and so forth. The inscription found on the Oppian shows 
how carefully these historical woods were preserved.' 

1 LiTEKATUEE. — Giuscppc Gatti, Bull, com., 1887, p. 150. 


We do not know what name was given to this third region by 
Augustus, that of Isis and Serapis being of a later age. The 
temple of the two gods (Isium Metellinum ?) stood between the 
Via Leopardi, the Via Curva, and the Via Macchiavelli. It was a 
magnificent structure, rich in masterpieces of Egyptian, Greek, and 
Roman art, and yet the only mention we have of it is a brief pas- 
sage of Bartoli (Mem. 2) ; " An Egyptian temple has been discov- 
ered near the church of SS. Pietro e Marcellino, the figures of 
which were designed by order of Cassiano dal Pozzo." And so 
thoroughly did the seicento excavators destroy it that not one 
stone is left in situ. Its marble spoils seem to have been scattered 
far and wide soon after the prohibition of pagan worship. Many 
hundred fragments were discovered in 1888 under the house at 
the corner of the Via Labicana and the Via Macchiavelli, having 
been used as building-material in a foundation wall of the sixth or 
seventh century. They represent Jupiter Serapis ; Isis crowned 
with poppies and " spica? ; " Isis veiled, with the crescent on the 
forehead ; three replicas of the same type ; and a female figure 
wearing the Egyptian head-dress, probably a portrait statue. A 
figure of the cow Hathor, the living symbol of Isis, cut in the 
rarest kind of spotted granite, was discovered, half in the founda- 
tions of the Palazzo Field, Via Merulana, half in those of the con- 
vent of the Sceurs de Cluny, Via Buonarroti. A pedestal inscribed 
with the name of the goddess came to light in 1889, a few yards 
from the Coliseum. I may mention in the last place the find of 
another wall in the Via Labicana entirely built of blocks of ame- 
thyst, which seemed to belong to one or more columns. 

The designs of Cassiano dal Pozzo are in England. Some small 
Egyptian figurines are in the Capitoline Museum, ground floor, 
first room on the left. The blocks of amethyst are in the Palazzo 
dei Conservatori. The altar of Isis is in the Museo della Terme, 
and the marble statues in the Museo Municipale al Celio, Halls II. 
and V. ; the cow Hathor in the coftee-house of the Villa Field ! ^ 

The monuments of the third region, which we must take into 
consideration in this chapter, are the Golden House of Nero, with 
its reservoir called the Sette Sale; the baths of Titus and the 
baths of Trajan, built on the remains of the Domus Aurea ; and 
the Flavian amphitheatre with its annexes. 

XI. Domus Aurea (the Golden House of Nero). — Of the 

1 Literature. — Forma Urbis, pi. xxix. — Ludovico Visconti, Bull, com., 
1887, pp. 131-1.36; and 1889, p. 'il . — AthencBum, n. Zl^l. — Notizie Scavi, 1888, 
p. 626. 


wonders of the Golden House — a park one mile square laid out by- 
Nero after the fire of July, 64 — it is enough to say that it con- 
tained waterfalls supplied by an aqueduct fifty miles long ; lakes 
and ponds shaded by ancient trees, with harbors for the Imperial 
galleys ; a vestibule with a bronze colossus 120 feet high ; porticoes 
8000 feet long ; farms and vineyards, pasture-grounds and woods 
teeming with game ; zoological and botanical gardens ; sulphur 
baths supplied from the aquae Albula? ; sea baths supplied from the 
Mediterranean ; thousands of columns with capitals of Corinthian 
metal ; hundreds of statues removed from Greece and Asia Minor ; 
walls inlaid with gems and mother-of-pearl ; banqueting halls with 
ivory ceilings, from which rare flowers and costly perfumes fell 
gently on the recumbent guests. More elaborate still was the 
ceiling of the state dining-hall. It is described as spherical in 
shape, carved in ivory so as to I'epresent the starry skies, and kept 
in motion by machinery in imitation of the course of stars and 

Remains of this fairy-like establishment have been found during 
the last four centuries, wherever the proper depth was attained, 
below the level of the Imperial buildings of a later age in the space 
between the Palatine and the gardens of Maecenas on the Esquiline. 
Some of the apartments are still visible under the Temple of Venus 
and Home, and in the gardens formerly of Cardinal Pio di Carpi 
and of Cardinal Marzio Colonna, now belonging to the Ospizio 
delle jNIendicanti. A nympha?um (Fig. l-iT) incrusted with shells 
and enamels has just been found (1895) near the Via della Pol- 
veriera in the same Vigna de Xobili in which Pietro Sante Bartoli 
witnessed the discovery of " diverse stanze sotterranee adornate di 
marmi, pitture, fontane, e statue." Alberti Giovanni says that in 
the first half of the sixteenth century a considerable portion of the 
Golden House (ruine del ajjpartamenio di Nerone) was excavated 
in the vineyard of the monks of S. Pietro in Vincoli, at the depth 
of 9.36 metres, and that there were " most beautiful rooms " with 
stucco carvings on a golden ground, and jiaintings ; porticoes with 
columns of the rarest breccias, and capitals of the Ionic order, and 
other such relics. Another wing of the palace, a corridor on which 
opened five guest-rooms, with a rich set of mosaic pictures, was 
excavated in 1668, 55.75 metres east of the Coliseum in the direc- 
tion of Trajan's baths.^ The mosaics, the paintings, and some of 

1 Literature on discoveries connected with the Golden House : Pietro Sante 
Bartoli, Mem. 3, 51 (in Fea's Miscellanea, vol. i. pp. ccxxii, ccxxxiv). — Carlo 
Fea, Varieta di notizie, p. 124. — Alberti Giovanni, Cod. Borgo S. Sepolcro, 



the marbles were removed to the Massimi Palace. The collection 
was sold by the present prince. 

Fig. 137. — Nyinphieum discovered near the Via della Polveriera. 

The principal building of Nero's park lies half buried but almost 
intact under the baths of Trajan, as shown in the accompanying 
map (Fig. 1-38). 

It consists of a long row of halls A, A', A", opening on one side 
due north, on a garden B, B', which is surrounded by a jiortico C, 
C, C", C", and has a fountain U in the centre ; and on the other 
side opening due south, E, E', E", on a great court F, surrounded 
also by a colonnade G, G'. By this arrangement the palace was 
made equally pleasant in winter or summer. When Trajan deter- 
mined to erect a great bathing-establishment on the adjoining- 
heights of the Oppian, he made use of this noble house to supjiort 
the semicircular portion of the platform on the side nearest to the 
Coliseum. For this purpose he built a series of parallel walls, 
some at right angles with the masses of buildings already in exists 
ence, some sloping towards them, in the manner of buttresses, at 
an angle of 61°. Trajan's substructures are easily distinguished 

40', 41'; Bull, arcli. com., 1895, pp. 174-181. — Christian Huelsen, Mittheil., 
1891, p. 289; and 1896, p. 213. — R. Lanciani, Ancient Rome, p. 124; and Bull, 
com., 1895, p. 174. 

tXg. 13 

OF • 








by their style of masonry, — a perfect specimen of opus reticula- 
tum divided into panels by bands of bricks, — while Xero's walls 
are all in opus lateritium, with a coating of plaster. 

These ruins were first visited by Giovanni da Udine at the 
beginning of the sixteenth century.^ He made a careful study of 
their fanciful paintings, to which the name of " grottesche," viz., 
•• found in underground ruins or grotte," has since been given. 

r'-'''^^^ ^^PTI 


^■r"^'^. *^^P 

I^^Hito^ "-'^. :;J 

Fig. 139. — A View of the South Wing of the Domus Aurea. 

Giovanni's sketches (the originals of which are now dispersed in 
various European collections) inspired his master, Raphael Sanzio, 
to produce the immortal creations of the Loggie Vaticane. Only 
a few traces of these celebrated frescoes are now visible in the 
cryptoporticus H, H', on the north side of the garden B, B', and 
in the halls marked A, A'. They help us to appreciate the power 
possessed by the ancient house-decorators to increase the apparent 
extent of a limited space by perspective drawings of this kind. 
It seems almost certain that these halls were used, or perhaps in- 

1 Xibby has found the date 149-3 written in one of the rooms by an un- 
known visitor. On the visit of Raphael and Giovanni Rieamatore to the 
crypts, see Vasari, Vita di Giovanni ; and Rodolfo Lanciani, Rendiconti Lincei, 
1895, p. 3. 


habited, even after their conversion into substructures, light and 
air being supplied by skylights opening in the terrace .of the baths. 
Fifteen skylights open on the cryptoporticus H alone. 

A point of interest to the modern visitor is the chapel dedi- 
cated to S. Felicitas at the beginning of the sixth century (I, in 
plan). Its paintings, now much effaced, have been illustrated 
by MaruUi, Piale, Armellini, and copied in facsimile by Ruspi. 
The principal group represented the Saviour offering a crown of 
jewels to Felicitas Cvltrix Roinanarvm. The heroic woman is 
surrounded by her seven sons, four on the left, Silianvs, Martialis, 
Philippvs, Felix; three on the right, Vitalis, Alexander, Zeuva- 
rivs. The names were written twice, once in red, once in black 
letters. The side walls are covered with graffiti mostly of the 
class of p7~oscine7na, or devout salutations. One of the legends 
began with the words ivstinvs domo • . . ; another tells us that 
the domus was that of an Alexander (AAE2ANAPOIO A0M02) ; and as 
Alexander is the name of one of Felicitas' sons, who shared with 
her the glory of martyrdom under Marcus Aurelius, it is highly 
probable that this memorial chapel was consecrated after the peace 
of the Church in the verj^ house in which he lived. 

Literature. — Troiano Marulli, Lettera sopra U7i' antica cappelln nelle 
terme di Tito. Naples, 181.3. — Antonio Guattani, Memorie Encidopediche, 
1816. — Girolamo Araati, Cod. vat., 9776, f. 6. — Mariano Armellini, Chiese di 
Roma, p. 136. 

The walls of the Golden House are covered here and there 
with graffiti (published by Correra, Bull, com., 189.5, p. 197), 
which proves that these underground rooms were left permanently 
accessible, and were resorted to for pui-poses not always lawful. 
In one of the apartments on the left of the (present) entrance 
door there is a latrina, and above it the painting of two serpents 
coiled around a tripos, the meaning "of which is to be found in the 
first satire of Persius, v. 127 : pinr/e: duos anfjues : pueri, sacer est 
locus ! 

Near the entrance to the cryptoporticus H H', at the place 
marked K, remains are to be seen of a building, destroyed by the 
fire of Nero, and consequently older than his Golden House. The 
cryptoporticus itself was discovered for the first time in 1818. 
The state in which it was found, with the ceiling most exquisitely 
painted on a white ground, while the walls had received only their 
first rough coating of plaster, and the work of laying the pave- 
ment had not even begun, proves that this wing of the Golden 



House was not finished at the time of Nero's death. The ara- 
besques of the ceiling have been published by De Romanis in 
Ijlates viii. and ix. of the "Camere Esquiline." Neglect, damp, 
and the smoke of torches have nearly effaced them. Towards the 
middle of the corridor, on the right hand, there is an altar, and 
above it another representation of the two snakes, with a legend 
declaring in the most crude and undisguised form what the sym- 
bol of the snakes meant. The text can be found in Nibby (Roma 
antica, vol. ii. p. 829) and De Romanis (Camere Esquiline, p. 7). 
Its meaning is, " Commit no nuisance." 

Other remains of the Golden House are to be seen in the garden 
annexed to the Scuola degli Ingegneri (ex-convent of S. Pietro in 
Vinculis) under the building called " la Polveriera," and also in the 
Vigna Gualtieri and in the Villa Field. They are practically in- 
accessible. The Villa Field contains also the magnificent reser- 
voir, known by the name of Le Capoccie or the Sette Sale, divided 
into nine compartments by eight parallel walls. The nine sections 
communicate by means of four openings through the cross-walls, 
placed not opposite each other but diagonally, so as to prevent the 
violent rush of the water from one receptacle to the next. The 
reservoir seems to have been kept in use, first for the baths of 
Titus, and afterwards for those of Trajan. 

The Camere Esquiline are entered by the first gate on the left of 
the (modern) Via Labicana. Open every day, Sundays excepted. 

XIL Therms Titian^ (Baths of Titus). Classic inscriptions 
and early ecclesiastic documents mention two great baths on the 
platform of the Oppian, between the Coliseum, the Sette Sale, and 
the Basilica Eudoxiana (S. Pietro in Vinculis) ; namely, the baths 
of Titus, " Thermai Titianai," and the baths of Trajan, " Thermae 
Traianfe." Topographers have discussed the question whether 
the two edifices were really independent and distinct from each 
other, or whether they were but one and the same establishment, 
built in haste (velocla munera) by Titus, and rebuilt, enlarged, 
and embellished by Trajan. The supporters of the first theory 
quoted in their favor the " Notitia," which mentions among the 
edifices of the third region Thermas Titianas et Traianas ; and 
the inscription of Ursus Togatus, the pilicrepus or juggler of the 
time of Hadrian, famous for having played with a light glass 
ball in Thermis Titi et Traiani. Those who believed in the one 
edifice having had two names, that of the founder and that of the 
restorer, quoted the case of the baths of Nero by the Pantheon, 


which became the Thermae Alexandrianse after their reconstruc- 
tion by Severus Alexander. I have myself been a supporter of 
this second theory, because, in surveying the platform and the 
slopes of the Oppian for the construction of Sheets xxiii. and xxx. 
of the " Forma Urbis," I could not find the proper space for two 
baths of such size in that district. At the beginning of last year 
(1895) the question stood therefore in these terms. Had the 
baths of Titus lost their name and their identity through restora- 
tion and enlargement by Trajan ? There was no doubt that the 
extensive ruins, known, described, and designed for centuries, 
between the Coliseum and the Sette Sale, belonged to them. The 
site of those of Trajan — in case of an independent building — was 
vaguely pointed out in the neighborhood of San Martino ai Monti. 

The question has been since decided theoretically by means of 
a discovery which I have made among the drawings of Palladio 
(formerly at Chiswick, now intrusted to the care of the Royal 
Institute of British Architects, Condxiit Street, London), and prac- 
tically by the finding of the propylaia of the true baths of Titus 
in the course of the excavations carried on in the spring of 1895 
on the northeast side of the Coliseum. 

Palladio's drawings prove that on the northeast side of the 
Coliseum (^per mezo el colixeo) there were still standing about 1550 
remains of baths which he attributes to Vespasian ; that their 
level was 17.50 metres above that of the street surrounding the 
amphitheatre ; that they were approached by stately stairs open- 
ing on a piazza or platform ; and lastly, that the thermae were 
molto ruinate, so that in many points his plans and drawings were 
simply conjectural. 

After Palladio's time every trace of them disappeared under 
the increase of modern soil. Valuable marbles were dug up about 
1590 and made use of in decorating one of the chapels of the 
Chiesa del Gesii, and granite columns were found in 1797. 

The excavations for the construction of a new humble quarter 
— especially calculated to disfigure this classic corner of old 
Rome — and those made last year by Commendatore Baccelli, 
minister of public instruction, while confirming in the main lines 
the exactness of Palladio's drawings, have enabled us to give a 
definite place to these much discussed baths in the map of the 
ancient city, and to restore to the adjoining ruins of the Oppian 
their proper name of Therma; Traiani. 

Towards the end of the fourth century the front portion of the 
Baths of Titus had already collapsed. An extension of the offices 


of the prefect of the city was built on its site, remains of wliich 
are still to be seen. 

Literature on the Offices of the Prefect. — Rodolfo Lanciani, (?/i 
edifici della prtfettura urbana fra la Tellure e le tei'ine di Tito e di Traiano 
(in Bull, com., 1892, p. 19). Compare Bull, cum., 1882, p. 101; and Mittheil., 
189.3, p. 299. 

XIII. Thehm-k Traiaxi (Baths of Trajan). — No account of 
their construction is to be found in classics, except in a brief pas- 
sage of Pausanias (v. 12), where the baths " which bear Trajan's 
name," indpvfxa aiiTov, are placed at the head, of the list of his 
works. When the statues of the gods were removed from the 
temples, in which divine honors had been paid to them, and dis- 
tributed among the state buildings of Rome as simple works of 
art, the Baths of Trajan received their full share at the hands 
of Julius Felix Campanianus, prefect of the city at the beginning 
of the fifth century. Officers from the staff of the establishment 
are mentioned in Nos. 8677, 8678 of the " Corpus Inscr. : " a Phi- 
letus, " exactor," and an Ireneus, " adjutor thermarum traiana- 
rum." The extensive ruins did not lose their identity until a 
comparatively recent date. 

The " Itinerary of Einsiedlen " calls them by their proper name, 
thermas Traiani ad Vincula, and all the artists of the Renaissance 
adhere likewise to the right denomination. The fault of adopting 
the wrong one lias been attributed to Pope Julius II., who wrote 
on the pedestal of the granite basin, removed from S. Pietro in 
Vinculis to the Vatican Belvedere, the words " labrum . . . ab Titi 
Yespasiani thermis in Carinis ... in vaticanos hortos advexit ; " 
but the legend is correct, the basin having been seen in 1450 by 
Ruccellai on the true site of the Thermae Titi, " in una vigna ap- 
presso al coliseo." The change of name took place towards the 
end of the sixteenth century. 

The history of the destruction of this noble edifice, as I have 
been able to reconstruct it from documents preserved in Roman 
archives, would fill a volume. The monks of S. Pietro in Vinculis 
are responsible for it : they sold the marbles to lime-burners, the 
bricks to master masons, and allowed excavators to tear up the 
foundations of the frigidarium, tepidarium, and caldarium. While 
the architects of the sixteenth century were still able to draw their 
plan and design their shape without difficulty, very little is now 
left standing above ground, either in the garden of the scuola 
degli Ingegneri or in the Villa Field. These few remains, a per- 


feet specimen of Roman brickwork of the golden age of Apollo- 
dorus, are well taken care of, and appear to great advantage in 
their frame of evergreens. Students are allowed to visit the beau- 
tiful grounds. If they wash to single out the various remains 
which they contain, they must remember that the Domus Aurea 
(and the Baths of Titus) were " oriented " on the meridian line, 
while the axis of the Baths of Trajan diverges towards the east 
by 30°. 

Many works of art have been found in this classic district, but 
it is not possible to say exactly where. The first is the granite 
tazza just mentioned, which was seen by Ruccellai, during the 
jubilee of 1450, " in una vigna appresso al coliseo," removed by 
Julius II. " in vaticanos hortos " a. d. 1504, and buried at the 
time of Pius IV. in the " teatro di Belvedere." Its place of con- 
cealment was pointed out to Paul V. by a master mason named 
Battista. Paul V. caused it to be restored in 1616 and used it as 
a basin to his fountain in the same teatro di Belvedere. Another 
oval granite tazza, twenty palms long, ornamented with rings and 
lions' heads, was seen by the Gobbo da Sangallo at S. Pietro in 
Vinciilis in the first quarter of the sixteenth century. Its fate is 
not known. Cherubino Alberti speaks of columns of portasanta, 
africano, etc., found and broken (spezzate) on one of the peristyles 
of Trajan's baths ; Ligorio of a statue which he calls " imagine 
simbolica del mondo ; " Vacca of several statues and " infiniti 
ornamenti ; " Aldovi-andi of a statue of Hercules discovered by 
Niccolo Stagni near the Sette Sale ; Bartoli of twenty-five statues 
" di meravigliosa conservazione e bellezza " discovered by Cardinal 
Trivulzio in 1547 in the same place ; Brunelleschi of an altar 
dedicated to Jupiter by Vespasian, discovered also at the Sette 
Sale, or Capoccie, on January 8, 1509 ; Ficoroni of a bronze lamp 
in the shape of a human head, with its wick of threads of amianth, 
found in 1696. The Laocoon was found, on June 1, 1506, in the 
vineyard of Felice de Fredis at the Sette Sale, in a hall which, ac- 
cording to Pliny 1(H. N., xxxvi. 4, 11), must have formed part of 
the house of Titus (Laocoon, qui est in Titi imperatoris domo, 
opus omnibus et picturse et statuarise artis prajponendum). The 
group must have been removed by Trajan to his own thermfe, 
when the site of the Domus Titi was occupied by the new struc- 
ture ; but it is also possible that the Domus should have been 
allowed to stand as a historical monument in the space between 
the baths and the Sette Sale. Here, in fact, some exquisitely 
adorned apartments were brought to light in 1683, the designs 


and description of which I have discovered in the Cabinet des 
Estampes, Paris, in a vohune marked G, d, 2. A statuette of 
Pluto, of indifferent workmanship, discovered in 1814, before 
the Chapel of S. Felicita, is now kept in tlie Capitoline Museum, 
Room III., on the ground floor. 

Literature on the Baths of Titus and Trajan, and on the Domus 
AuuEA, UPON WHICH THEY ARE BUILT.— Giuseppe Carletti, Le antiche camere 
delle terme di Tito, e le loro pitture delineate . . . da Lodovico Mirri (Sniu- 
gliesviecz and Brenna). Rome, about 1780, folio atlas. — Carlo Fea, Delia casa 
aurea di Nerone e della Torre cartularia. Rome, Boulzaler, 1832. — Antonio 
(le Romaiiis, Le antiche camere esquiline dette comunemente delle terme di 
Tito. Rome, 1822. — Luigi Canina, Lttorno un frammento della pianta mar- 
morea capitolina (in Memorie romaue di Antichita, vol. ii. 1825, p. 119); and 
Edijizi, pis. 202-204. — Stefano Piale, Belle terme traiane, della domus 
Aurea e della Titi domus. Rome, Piiccinelli, 1832. — Vue du palais dore de 
Neron (tir^ du Spectacle de I'histoire romaine par M. Philippe, grav(§ par 
Ransonette), 1776. — Cesare Trivulzio, in Lettere pittoriche, vol. iii. n. 196, p. 
231; and Francesco SaTigallo , in Fea's Miscellanea, vol. i. p. cccxxix. — 
Rodolfo Lanciaui, Picturce antiqum cryptarum romanar. (in Bull, com., 1895, 
p. 174); and Gli scavi del Colosseo e le terme di Tito (ibid. p. 110}.— Corpus 
Inscr., vol. vi. n. 369, 1670, 9797, 12,995. — Heinrich Jordan, Forma Urhis 
Roma, p. 42, n. 109. 

XIV. Amphitheatrum Flavium (the Flavian Amphitheatre 
— Coliseum). — The name " amphitheatre," although of Greek 
origin, dates from the last century of the Roman Republic, 
and was formed and adopted to indicate a new type of public 
building, strictly national, and used for gladiatorial fights (ludi 
gladiatorii) and fights with wild beasts {venationes). Such exhibi- 
tions had taken place in former times either in the Forum or in 
the Circus, or wherever a free space could be found inclosed by 
higher grounds or buildings from which the spectators could com- 
mand the view. The idea of a special structure was suggested, as 
the name itself implies, by the already existing theatre for scenic 
plays ; in fact, the first amphitheatre, erected by C. Scribonius 
Curio, the partisan of Cfesar, for the celebration of his father's 
funeral games in 46 b. c, was essentially a double theatre, viz., 
composed of two theatres, " placed on pivots, so that they could be 
turned round, spectators and all, and placed either back to back, 
forming two separate stages for di-amatic exhibitions, or face to 
face, forming an amphitheatre for the shows of gladiators and 
wild beasts." ^ It was not, however, till the fourth consulship of 

1 William Wayte in Smith's Diet, of Antiq., i. 107. Other passages of this 
section are quoted from the same excellent article. 



Augustus, 30 B. c, that a permanent edifice was erected by Stati- 
lius Taurus, in that part of the Camx^us Martius which is now 
called Monte Giordano (Orsini). The mound, about 450 metres 
in circumference, and about 20 metres high, formed by the ac- 


cumulation of ruins, was crowned in the Middle Ages by a 
shrine or chapel of Michael the archangel, to whom other con- 
spicuous ruins (the mausoleums of Augustus and Hadrian, etc.) 
were dedicated ; and this chapel was called De Rota, a special 
mediaeval denomination for an amphitheatre. That of Statilius 
Taurus was destroyed in the biirning of Rome, a. d. 64, and we 
argue from this fact that its shell alone was built of stone and 
marble, while the seats and staircases were of wood. 

The second permanent amphitheatre was built by Tiberius (?) 
at the extreme end of the Esquiline, for the training of the vena- 
tores and of " performing " beasts. The design of Augustus, how- 
ever, that an amphitheatre, proportioned to the magnitude of the 
capital of the Empire, should be erected in the very heart of the 
city, was carried into effect only by the Flavians. Nothing can 
furnish a better example of the prodigal contempt of labor and 
expense which the Emperors displayed in their architectural works 
than the selection of its site. 

Hie ubi conspiciii veaerabilis amphitheatri 
Erigitur moles, stagna Neronis erant. 

Martial, De Sped., ii. 3, 

The hollow between the Cfelian, the Oppian, the Velian, and the 
Palatine was marshy, damp, unsteady even before Nero's artificial 
lake, the abundance of the local springs being so great that any 
accidental stopping of the drains produces an inundation. I have 
already mentioned the event of 1875-78, when, after the late Com- 
mendatore Rosa undertook to excavate the arena without providing 
in advance an outlet to the flood, the substructures were covered 
by twelve feet of water, which four powerful engines could lower 
only by a few inches. We have no account of the means adopted 
by Vespasian's architect to overcome the difficulty found in getting 
firm foundations, and to give the soil steadiness. I have seen them 
explored but once, in 1864-6.5, by a Signor Testa, while searching 
for the " Frangipani treasure," which, to the best of our knowledge, 
had already been found in 1805 by Signor Lezzani, while laying 
the foundations of the buttress (sperone) of Pius VI. Signor Testa 
discovered the upper belt of the substructures, arched like those 
of the ambulacra, above ground ; and underneath them a bed of 
concrete which must descend to a considerable depth. 

" This wonderful building, which for magnitude can only be 
compared to the pyramids of Egyi^t, and which is perhaps the 
most strikino; monument at once of the material and the moral 


degradation of Rome under the Empire," was commenced by Ves- 
pasian, and inaugm-ated by Titus in the year 80, the event being 
recorded by the medals Cohen (Imper., vol. i. p. 359, n. 163 ; and 
p. 362, n. 184 i). An entry in the Chronographer of a. d. 354 
attributes to Domitian the completion of the edifice ; and the 
phrase " amphitheatrum usque ad clypea (f abricatum est) " has 
been interpreted as if Domitian had added the whole fourth story, 
besides the ornamental work. The statement is contradicted by 
other documents, such as the coins of Titus, naentioned above, and 
the celebrated passage in the " Acta Arvalium," which describes 
the loca adsignata in amphitlieatro (the places assigned) to that 
brotherhood in the first distribution of places, a. d. 80.^ The 
" Acta " speak of the mctnianum primiim, secundum, and of the 
iiuenianum summum in Ugneis ; the amphitheatre, therefore, had 
reached its extreme height the very year of its inauguration. The 
event must have been celebrated by one or more inscriptions, 
which are now lost. Hiibner thought he had found fragments of 
them on two or three blocks of travertine used by Severus Alex- 
ander in the restorations of the upper belt, A. d. 223, but Professor 
Spinazzola, who climbed to the height of the cornice at the risk of 
his life (March, 1896), has found the name of Nerva engraved 
upon the stones ; the inscription, tlierefore, refers to the restorations 
of Nerva Trajanus mentioned by Pausanias in § xii. 4 of the 'RKmkSiv. 
Trajan's work is not recorded otherwise ; and the " Vita Pii " is 
the only authority concerning the repairs made at the time of 
Antoninus Pius. 

On August 23, a. d. 217, Macrinus being Emperor, the amphi- 
theatre was repeatedly struck by lightning. The tahulationes of 
the fourth story caught fire and the falling embers set the floor of 
the arena ablaze. In fact, there must have been more wood and 
timber in the structure than we generally believe. The seven 
battalions of firemen, helped by the detachments of marines from 
the ports of Ravenna and Misenum, and by a waterspout (^ rov 
ohpav'iov eirippoia, -rrAeiffrt] re Kol (rcpoBpOTdrr) jfuo/xepr) — Dlon CasS., 
Ixxviii. 25), did not get the fire under until the stone and marble 

1 Compare Donaldson, Archit. numism., n. 79; and Parker, Colosseum, pi. 
24, n. 1. There is another coin forged by the Padovano. 

2 LiTERATUKE.— Gaetano Marini, Arvaii, p. 224. — Luigi Canina, Edifizi di 
R. A., vol. iii. p. 26. — Hiibner, Ann. Inst., 1856, p. 52. — Theodor Mommsen, 
Ann. Inst., 1859, p. 125. — Wilhelm Henzen, Acta Armlium, p. cvi.— Corpus 
Inscr., vol. vi. n. 2059, p. 506. — Christian Huelsen, II jwsfo degli Armli nel 
Colosseo (in Bnll. com., 1894, p. 388, pi. 15). 


work had suffered great damage ; so great, indeed, that the amphi- 
theatre was abandoned for many years and the games were cele- 
brated in the circus. 

The catastrophe had taken place on August 23, the ver^- day of 
the " Volkanalia," the celebration of which had been forbidden 
by Macrinus a few days before. The population was so terror- 
stricken by the occurrence that the '• games of A^ulcan " were re- 
established at once. 

Heliogabalus began and Severus Alexander finished in 223 the 
work of reconstruction, the funds being taken from what the 
Italians used to call " fondi segreti del ministero dell' interne." 
The repairs of Severus and Heliogabalus can be examined to the 
best advantage from the iipj^er platform ; they consist of a patch- 
work of stones of every description, trunks of columns, pieces of 
entablatures, lintels, and architraves recovered from the portions 
damaged by fire or taken away from other buildings. The con- 
struction of this upper story is altogether hasty and negligent: 
the joints of the stones are irregular and the composite pilasters 
are not all straight nor placed on the same perpendicular as the 
columns below. 

In 210 the Emperor Pliilippus celebrated the millennium of the 
city with the secular games, in the course of which all the wild 
beasts collected by Goi'dianus the younger in view of his Persian 
triumph were slain. The biographer mentions among them 30 
elephants, 10 elks, 10 tigers, 10 wild lions and 60 tame ones, 30 
tame leopards, 10 hyenas, 19 giraffes, 20 wild asses, 40 wild horses, 
1 hippopotamus, 1 rhinoceros ; there were also 1000 pairs of gladi- 
ators. Another great display of venationes took place in a. d. 281, 
on the occasion of the triumph of Probus. One hundred of the 
finest breed of lions (iubati) were let loose in the arena at the same 
time. Their thundering roars shook the great amphitheatre to its 
foundations. They were followed by 100 lionesses, 100 leopards 
from Nubia, 100 leopards from Syria, and 300 bears. The slaughter 
of these noble animals without offering them fair play and letting 
them fight for their lives revolted the assembh' ; the biographer 
calls the sight " magnum magis spectaculum quam gratum." 

From the time of Decius (a. d. 2.'50), who rejiaired the damages 
of another fire, to the earthquake of 422 the history of the building 
is not known. We are well informed, on the other hand, about 
the campaign undertaken by slowly spreading Christian influence 
against the gladiatorial shows. In 325, the year of the council of 
Nicsea, Constantine addressed to Maximus, prefect of the pr^etorium. 


the constitution " Cod. tlieod.," xv. 12, 1, forbidding those human 
butcheries ; but it had no eftect. Constantius and Julianus on 
October 16, 857, and Arcadius and Honorius in 397, renewed the 
injunction with about the same results. They also tried to show 
a great partiality towards the athletes, whose performances were, 
to be sure, less cruel. In 365-375 Valentinian and his colleagues 
raised a statue to a champion fighter named Philumenos ; Theodo- 
sius did the same in 384-392 to celebrate the deeds of another 
athlete named Johannes (a Christian or a Jew) ; ^ yet the old passion 
could not be uprooted from among the populace. The celebrated 
mosaic representing the edltiones (jladiatorkc of the Symmachi 
(^Nlarini, Arval., 165) belongs to the middle of the fourth century, 
and so does the great fighting-scene discovered near Torre Nuova 
in 1834, illustrated by Henzen in 1845 in vol. xii. of the " Attidell' 
accademia romana di archeologia," p. 73. 

The only provision of the Imperial constitution which seems to 
have been enforced was that forbidding the magistrates to condemn 
Christians to fight in the arena. In one of his strongest poems 
Prudentius urges Honorius to put an end to the " detestable " prac- 
tice, but the feeble son of Theodosius still hesitated to comply with 
the request. At last, in 404, seventy-five years after the first decree 
of Constantine, the self-sacrifice of Telemachus, who threw himself 
into the arena and was stoned to death by the mob while he at- 
tempted to w'rench the deadly weapons from the fighting pairs, 
induced Honorius to suppress forever the gladiatorial shows.^ 
After this memorable year the amphitheatre was used occasionally 
for venationes or, perhaps, for boxing-matches, but no further 
mention occurs of gladiators. 

The earthquake of 422, described by Paul the Deacon, must have 
done the building serious injury. An inscription discovered by 
Fea in 1813, and now placed in the north vestibule (Corpus, vol. 
vi. n. 1763), speaks of restorations made by Theodosius II. and 
Valentinian III. between 425 and 450. There are also copious 
fragments of three inscriptions, each 70 or 80 metres long, com- 
memorating other work done under the latter Emperor, by Flavins 
Paulus, prefect of the city in 438. A second ahominandus terrce 
motus is mentioned in three inscriptions bearing the name of 
Decius Marius Venantius Basilius, who repaired its damages 

1 Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. n. 10,153, 10,154. 

2 LiTERATUKE. — Tlieodovetos, v. 26. — Tillemont, Histoire des empei-eurs, 
vol. v. 533. — Gio. Battista de Rossi, Bidl. crist., 1868, p. 84. — P. T. Meier, 
De rjladiatura romana. Bonn, 1881. 


about 508 a. d. These iu:^criptiolls are to be seen in the same 
north vestibule. 

Eutaricus Cillica, son-in-law of Theodoric, gave the last show- 
but one in the arena, on the occasion of his election to the con- 
sulate in 519. Cassiodorus, the king's secretary, says that wild 
beasts were imported from Africa, the sight of which was a 
novelty for the living generation. The venationes of Anicius 
Maximus in b'2'i are the last i-ecorded in the history of the place. 
Here I must observe that, while repairing the drains and under- 
ground passages of the arena in 1878, we discovered a consider- 
able (quantity of* bones, which were identified by Professor de 
Sanctis as pertaining to domestic animals, like bulls, horses, and 
stags. The discovery shows how insignificant the last shows must 
have been in comparison with those of the golden age. 

The amphitheatre, its shell at least, was intact in the eighth 
century, when Bede wrote his famous proverb, " (^uamdiu staint 
Coliseus stabit et Roma : quando cadet Coliseus cadet et lloma." 
When was it reduced to its present ruinous state? By whom, and 
under what circumstances, was this done ? The possibility of a 
spontaneous collapse must be rejected. If we look at the Coliseum 
from the east side, where it appears intact, and consider the 
prodigious solidity of its structure and the clever way its stones 
are wedged and fastened into each other, we are led to discard 
the idea that it could be damaged to any serious extent by age, 
atmospheric agents, fire, or even earthquakes. Yet it is possi- 
ble that the shaking of tlie earth might have produced a crack 
like that which cuts the back of the Pantheon in the Via della 
Palombella ; and this contingency is even more probable if we 
recollect that while the drum of the Pantlieon is solid, and fifteen 
feet thick at least, the shell of the Coliseum is pierced by four 
tiers of arclies and windows. The equilibrium once broken, the 
process of disintegration could not be stopi^ed by luiman power, 
especially when shrubs and plants began to take root in the joints 
of the stones and in the opening of the crack, and to act like 
powerful levers. At the same time we cannot deny the fact that 
at a given moment, the date of which has yet to be fixed, the 
whole of the western half of the shell fell towards the Caelian and 
gave rise to a hill, or rather to a chain of hills, of loose blocks of 
travertine and tufa, which supplied Rome of the Renaissance with 
building-materials for the lapse of five centuries. The following 
view (Fig. 141) shows the precarious state in which the inner 
walls of the maeniana were left after the collapse of the outside 



arcades towards the Cfeliau. The date of this event must be 
restricted to the period between 1332 and 1362. On September 3 
of the former year the Roman nobility were still able to meet in 
the arena free from ruins and take part in a bullfight which cost 
the lives of eighteen young patricians, while nine more were 
badly mangled.^ In 1362 the Romans, the legate of Pope Urban 

Fig. 141. — The Shell of the Coliseum after the Collapse of the Western Arcades. 

v., and the Frangipani were already quarreling over the spoils 
of the fallen giant, " de f aciendo tiburtinam " with the stones of 
the Coliseum. The collapse, therefore, must be attributed to the 
earthquake of Petrarch, which ruined so many monuments of 
ancient and mediaeval Rome, September, 1349. A few years later, 
in 1386, the S. P. Q. R. made a present of one third of the Coliseum 
to the " Compagnia del Salvatore ad sancta Sanctorum." The 
event is chronicled to the present day on the walls of the amphi- 
theatre — above the sixty-third arch, towards the Meta Sudans — 

1 Literature. — Ludovico Muratori, Rerum Italic. Scriptores, vol. xii. p. 
332. —Antonio Nibby, Roma ant'ica, vol. i. p. 413. — Pietro Ercole Visconti, 
Spltndore di Roma nel secolo xiv, Rome, 1867, p. 23. 



by a marble bas-relief with the bust of the Saviour between two 
burning tapers (Fig. 142) ; and above arch No. LXV. by the coats 
of arms of the Company and of the S. P. Q. R. painted on white 

The mountain of stone caused by the fall of the western belt — 
known in contemporary documents as the Cosa, Coxa, or Coscia 
Colisei — ranks first among the petrale or stone quarries within 
the walls. It has taken four centuries and fifteen generations of 

Fig. 142. — The Insignia of the Compagnia del Salvatore on the Coliseum. 

stone-cutters and lime-burners to exhaust it. Its history has yet 
to be ■Written. A document published by ISIiintz in the " Reviie 
arch.," September, 1876, certifies that one contractor alone, in the 
space of only nine months, in 1452, could carry off two thousand 
five hundred and twenty-two cartloads of travertine. I have dis- 
covei'ed a brief of Eugenius IV. (1431-143.9) in which he expresses 
his regret to hear that the rapacious hand of Roman masons had 
been laid even on the standing remains of the amphitheatre ; and 
while leaving them free " ut de locis subterraneis a Colised distan- 
tibus lapides evellere possint," he threatens them with his wrath 
if they dare to touch " vel minimum dicti Colisei lapidem." There 
is a tradition, registered by Vacca (Mem., 74), that the same pope 


inclosed the remains within a boundary wall, placing them under 
the protection of the monks of S. Maria Nuova ; yet Poggio Brac- 
ciolini describes the same as " maiori ex parte ad calcem deleta." 

The travertines for the palace of Paul II. (Palazzo di Venezia) 
and for the Pons yEmilius (Poiite Rotto), restored on the occasion 
of the jubilee of 1575, were taken from the same quarry. The 
arena was transformed at the beginning of the sixteenth century 
into a kind of Ober-Ammergau stage, and Passion plays were per- 
formed among the ivy-clad ruins for a number of years. The 
perspective plan of Jerusalem, painted above the main entrance 
on the side of the Sacra Via, is a recollection of these Passion 
plays of the time of Paul III. (?). At the same time the Coliseum 
served as headquarters to those who believed in witchcraft, one 
of the nocturnal meetings (1532) being described by Benvenuto 
Cellini in the second book of his memoirs. Under Sixtus V. the 
monument ran the risk of being converted into a manufactory of 
woolen goods (1585). The plans prepared by Domenico Fontana, 
the pope's architect, are described by Bellori, and by Fontana 
himself (Delia Transportatione dell' obel. vatic, ii. p. 18). The 
Compagnia del Salvatore rented its part, March, 1594, for a 
glue-factory; the contractor, however, was put in prison by the 
S. P. Q. R. and his lease canceled. On June 28, 1604, the same 
S. P. Q. R. made a barter with the Compagnia on these terms : 
that the Compagnia would let the municipal administration draw 
from the Coscia Colisei as much travertine as was necessary to 
finish the building of the Museo Capitolino, while the Compagnia, 
in its turn, was allowed to pull down the famous Arco di Basile 
(over which the Aqua Claudia crossed the Via Cselimontana) to 
use its stones in the building of the Hospital del Salvatore. 

In 1639 the S. P. Q. R. transferred to a certain Bramante Bassi 
the right of excavating " within the circuit of the Coliseum," one 
third of the produce being set apart for the Capitoline Chamber. 
On JNIarch 2, 1697, the quarry was placed at the disposal of Dome- 
nico Ponziani, a contractor for muiiicipal works, on the condition 
that the great blocks of travertine should be ti'iturated on the spot, 
and the chips used in macadamizing certain streets. Towards the 
end of the seventeenth century the supply seemed to be exhausted, 
when another accident, the earthquake of February 3, 1703, filled 
the quarry with new material. The stones were mainly used in 
the construction of the Porto di Ripetta, one of the most graceful 
and useful works of Clement XI., destroyed six or seven years ago 
to make room for the new embankment. The same pope closed 


the lower arches with wooden railings and transformed the glorious 
monument into a deposit of manm-e for the production of saltpetre. 
Benedict XIV. consecrated the arena to the memory of those who 
had suffered martyrdom in it ; the cross which he erected in the 
centre, and the " stations " or shrines around it, were pulled down 
by Rosa in February, 1874. Pius VII. in 1805, Leo XII. in 1825, 
Gregory XVI. in 1845, and Pius IX. in 1852 contributed liberally 
to save the amphitheatre from further degradation, by supporting 
the falling portions with great buttresses. The lower floor and a 
portion of the arena were excavated under the French administra- 
tion between 1810 and 1811. Other excavations were undertaken 
by Rosa in 1874, which led to the discovery of many epigraphic 
and architectural fi-agments, and made students more closely ac- 
quainted with the arrangement of the arena and with the manage- 
ment of the venationes. 

The flora of the Coliseum was once famous. Sebastian! enu- 
merates 260 species in his " Flora Colisea," and their number was 
subsequently increased to 420 by Deakin. These materials for a 
hortus siccus, so dear to the visitors of our ruins, were destroyed 
by Rosa in 1871, and the ruins scraped and shaven clean, it being 
feared by him that the action of roots would accelerate the disin- 
tegration of the great structure. 

The amphitheatre does not stand in a commanding position : 
the heights of the Oppian on the east, of the Caelian on the south, 
of the Palatine on the west, of the Velia on the north, surround it 
so as to leave but one narrow outlet for the spring and rain water, 
that of the Via di S. Gregorio. The state of things must have 
been even worse in classic times, when those heights were respec- 
tively crowmed by the baths of Titus and Trajan, by the Temple 
of Claudius, by the Palace of the Cassars, and by the Temple of 
Venus and Rome. To mend matters as well as the local condi- 
tions would allow, the amphitheatre was surrounded first by a 
pavement, 17.50 metres wide, and then by a street which expanded 
into squares at either end of the longest diameter (Fig. 140). The 
pavement, made with slabs of travertine, was lined by a set of 
stone cippi, each fm-nished with two pairs of bronze rings, through 
which wooden bars were made to slide (Fig. 143). The explana- 
tion of this arrangement, and the reason why the amphitheatre 
was provided with this outer temporary fence, must be found in 
the necessity of regulating the movement of the crowd on days 
when there were spectacles. A double control was established on 
such occasions : one at the gates of this outer fence, at which the 



holders of tickets were admitted in a general way; another at 
each of the 80 (76) arches of the ground floor, where the number 
of the ma^nianum, of the cuneus, of the vomitorium, and of the 
step and the seat marked in the ticket were verified. 

Fig. 143, 

Cipiii .siinciundiiig the Coliseum. 

The numbering of the arches begins from the side of the Cfelian, 
and precisely from the first to the right of the west state entrance. 
Nineteen arches are numbered on each of the four sectors of the 
ellipse, making a total of 76, the foiir state entrances not being 


numbered. Two of these last were reserved for the Imperial fam- 
ily and grand dignitaries, namely, those between Nos. LXXVI. 
and I. on the side of the Caelian, and between Nos. XXXVIII. 
and XXXIX. on the side of the Oppian. They ai'e more spacious 
and better adorned than the other two ; in fact, the (once) painted 
and gilded stucco reliefs on the walls and on the vault of the east 
passage rank among the finest specimens of Roman decorative 
art, and have been studied with delight by the artists of the 
Renaissance. I have found copies of them in the Queen's library 
at Windsor Castle (Cod. Vincenzo Vittoria, f. 24) ; in vol. xi. f. 
29 of the Laing collection in the Royal Scottish Academy, PMin- 
biirgh ; in box of drawings No. IV. at Chatsworth, the Duke of 
Devonshire's seat in Derbyshire ; and in plates 40 and 61 of 
Destailleur's album in the Kunstgewerbe Museum, Berlin. Very 
few visitors of the Coliseum are aware of their existence. 

In entering the great building we must direct om- investiga- 
tions, first, to the way in which the vast crowds of spectators were 
handled, directed, and distributed over the seats on exhibition 
days; secondly, to the arrangement of the arena and of its sub- 

The official Almanac of 354 says that the amphitheatre could 
accommodate 87,000 spectators. Professor Iluelsen, considering 
that there is certainly no room for more than 45,000 jjeople, per- 
haps for 50,000 if we take into consideration the pulloti who stood 
looking at the performance from the top of the attic, attributes to 
the term " locus " (amphitheatrum capit loca Ixxxvii) the significa- 
tion not of "place" or "seat" but of "length in feet." In other 
words, the Coliseum contained, according to Professor Huelsen, 
87,000 feet of seats, each spectator occupying a space of 18 or 20 
inches.^ There was accommodation, therefore, for only 50,000 
people. Such a crowd is, at all events, very large and difficult to 
deal with, and the most minute precautions were taken to direct 
its movements towards the place of destination, and again towards 
the exits when the show was over. The entrances, staircases, 
passages, and vomitories were contrived with such exquisite skill 
that each person, whether of tlie senatorial, of the equestrian, or 
of the plebeian order, could gain his seat without trouble or con- 
fusion. An ivory ticket for the amphitheatre of Frusino is said 

1 The word "locvs," in its genuine signification oi place or sent, is still in 
use in Rome. The crv of men offering places and seats for hire on the occasion 
of a public pageant or exhibition of any kind is, "ecco sedie, ecco lochi," 
"here are chairs, here are places." 


to be labeled " the sixth cuneus, lowest row, seat No. 18 ; " in 
those for the Coliseum the number of the entrance arch must 
also have been specified, and, indirectly, that of the stairs leading 
to the proper mainianum. 

The seats of honor were on tlie ledge above the podium, as the 
nearest to the arena and the most accessible from the four state 
entrances. The ledge could contain only three rows of (marble ?) 
thrones, some of which, transformed into episcopal chairs in our 
mediaeval churches, are still in existence (IS. Stefano Rotondo, S. 
Gregorio, the biga of the Vatican Museum, etc.). Cushions or 
pulvini had come into fashion since the time of Caligula, before 
the amphitheatre was built. 

No trace is left of the Imperial suggestum nor of the cubicula 
connected with it. The balcony or pulpit (editoris tribunal) re- 
served for the magistrate who exhibited the games has also dis- 
appeared. We have, on the other hand, many epigraphic i-ecords 
of the places pertaining to senators, knights, high priests, ambas- 
sadors, guests of the S. P. Q. R., etc., according to the distribution 
made in a. d. 80 by the Imperial commissioner, Manius Laberius 
Maximus, assisted by an officer named Thyrsus. The places were 
not assigned to individuals, but collectively to the body or college 
or corporation to wliich they belonged ; for instance, " to the ex- 
consuls, one hundred and ten feet," or, "to the school-teachers, 
. . . feet." Towards the middle of the fourth century this divi- 
sion by classes was given up, and spaces for one or more seats 
were permanently occupied by the same individual, or by the same 
family, whose name was accordingly engraved on the marble 
pavement or on the parapet of the podium ; and as families were 
extinguished in the course of years, and individuals died away, 
the names were erased, and those of the newcomers engraved. 
Some of the marble slabs appear to be reduced to half their ori- 
ginal size by this process of erasing and substituting names. The 
following cut (Fig. 144) represents one of the steps from the sena- 
torial ranks (?), with the name of an Insteius most negligently 
cut upon it. I have published in the " Bull, com." of 1880 one 
hundred and ninety-three inscriptions of seats, and a few more 
have been discovered since. The " Corpus inscriptionum " of the 
Flavian amphitheatre numbers over two hundred and sixty speci- 
mens, which, if properly arranged and exhibited on the spot, 
would revive its history and make us conversant with details 
which it is difficult to make out from books and manuals. The 
amphitlieatre, in fact, is not so poor in architectural or ornamental 



marbles as we make it appear to be. It would be an easy and 
also a most useful and noble undertaking to put back these mar- 
bles into theii- proper places, and fully restore one of the " cunei " 
of this wonderful structure. There are about forty shafts of 
columns belonging to the upper loggia, and as many capitals of 
the Corinthian order, some of the time of the Flavians, others 
of the fourth century ; there are hundreds of marble steps and 
seats, and many exquisite screens or parapets once placed on the 
side or above the vomitoria; there are inscriptions making the 
round of the edifice ; and yet all these valuable materials are 


Fig. 144. — Step-seat of the Coliseum, with the Name of a Fabius lusteius. 

allowed to lie useless and scattered in great confusion, and some 
pieces have actually been taken away and removed I know not 

The arena or central open space, where the shows took place, 
derived its name from the sand with which it was covered for the 
purpose of absorbing the blood. Such Emperors as Caligula, 
Nero, and Carinus showed their prodigality by using cinnabar and 
borax instead of the common arena. It was composed of a boarded 
floor supported by beams which rested on a series of walls, some 
parallel with the main axis, some following the curve of the ellipse 



(see Fig. 145). A great piece of wooden floor was discovered in 
the excavations of 1874 at the bottom of the middle corridor, as 
shown in the following illustration, but we are not sure whether 
it did really belong to the arena or to the floor below it. I am in 
favor of the second surmise, and I believe that when the substruc- 
tures of the amphitheatre became damp and wet on account of the 

Fig. 145. 

- Wooden Floor discovered in 1874 in the Substructures of the Arena of 
the Coliseum. 


neglect in keeping the drains in repair, the old floor of opus spica- 
tum must have been covered with a floor of wood resting on those 
supports of stone, which appear so distinctly in the illustration 
above. Every trace of the woodwork has been allowed to disappear 
since 1874. In the same excavations of 1874-75 the sockets were 
discovered to which windlasses, capstans, or lifts (peymata) were 
fixed, by which the cages of wild animals were i-aised to the level 
of the trapdoors of the arena. Lifts, cages, and trapdoors are 
represented bj- Parker in plate xvi. of his work on the Coliseum. 
AVe must not suppose that the animals could be kept for any 
length of time in the dark and stuffy dens below the arena or the 
podium. They were kept in readiness in the west porticoes of the 
C'laudium and brought up in rolling cages as they were wanted. 
From this point of view, that is, from the point of view of exhibi- 
tion of gladiatorial or hunting shows, the Coliseum appears to us 
as the capital of a kingdom of its own, as the centre of a vast 
administration, with branch offices in Syi'ia, in Africa, on the Red 
Sea, and head offices in Rome itself, occupying large tracts of the 
second, thii'd, fifth, and sixth regions. 

Literature. — .Justus Lipsius, De amphitheatro (in Graevii Thesaur., vol. 
ix. p. 1292, chs. xi.-xv.). — Giuseppe Suarez, Diatriba de foraminibiis lap'ulum 
in priscis iecUJicih. Rome, 1651. — Carlo Foiitaiia, Z' anfiteatni Jlavio descritto 
e delineatu. Aia, 172.5. — Scipioue Maffei, Dtyli (infiteatri. Verona, 1727. — 
Giovanni Marangoni, Delle memorie sacre e profane dell' unfit. Jiav. Rome, 
1745. — Carlo Fea, Osservazioni suW arena e sul podio deW unfit, flar., Rome, 
181.3; Ntiove osservazioni, Rome, 1814; and Xotizie degli scavi dell' anfit.fiur., 
Rome, 1813. — Antonio Nibby, Roma antica, vol. i. p. 529. — Luigi Canina, 
Edifizii di Roma antica, vol. iii. p. 2-3; and vol. iv. pis. 164-177. — Hiibner, 
Iscrizioni esistenti sui sedili dei teutri ed anfiteatni (in Annal. Inst., 1856, p. 52, 
pi. 12). — Eflisio Tocco, Dell' anfit.fiur. e dei gladiatori (in Buonarroti, 1869 
and 1870). — Fabio Gori, Le memorie storiche dell' anfit.fiur. Rome, 1874. — 
J. H. Parker, The Flavian Amphith. Oxford, London, 1870. — .Joachim Mar- 
quardt, Staatsvericaltunff, vol. in. p. 462. — Rodolfo Lanciani, fscrizioni dell' 
an/.fiav. (in Bull, com., 1880, p. 211, pis. xxi.-xxiii.). —Christian Huelsen, 
Bull', com., 1894, p. 312. 

XV. Connected with the venationes were the Vivarium, the 
Amphitheatrum Castrense, and the Claudium ; with the gladiato- 
rial shows, the Samiarium, Siioliarium. Armamentarium, Ludus 
^lagnus, Ludus Dacicus, Ludus Matutinus ; with athletic sports, 
the Curia Athletaruni ; and lastly, with shows in general, the 
Castra Misenatium (and Ravennatium?). 

The Vivarium was a large rectangle built on the type of a Ro- 
man camp, on the south side of the Castra Prsetoria. (See Forma 



Urbis, pi. xi.) It was composed of an inclosui-e wall built of great 
blocks of stone like that of the barracks of the second legion, 
Parthica, at Albano ; and of a row of cells against it, where the 
menagerie was kept. A euripus or channel, with plenty of flush- 
ing water, ran in front of the inclosures. The barracks of the 
venatores and of the custodies vivarii, a special detachment of the 
Prpetorians to which the care of the establishment w^as intrusted, 
occupied probably the centre of the rectangle. 

The Vivariixm, separated from the Pr?etorian camp by a street 
starting from the Porta Chiusa of the walls of Aurelian, is men- 
tioned very often in medifeval documents, under the name of 
" Vivariolum," and its remains appear in plans and perspective 
views of Rome of the sixteenth century, as of an edifice of great 
importance. Its last traces disappeared in 1876. See Procopius, 
Goth., i. 22. — Corpus Inscr., vi. 130. — Bull. arch. com. 1876, p. 188. 
— Forma Urbis Romce, pi. xi. 

Fig. 14G. — Palladio's Diagrams of the Amphitheatrum Castrense. 


The Amphitheatrum Castrexse, a small amphitheatre built 
at the extreme end of the Esquiline for the training of the vena- 
tores, and also for the taming and training of animals destined to 
perform special games in the arena. Its construction has been 
attributed to Tiberius, like that of the Praetorian camp, but con- 
sidering that at the time of that Emperor there was no state 
amphitheatre in Rome — that of Statilius Taurus being private 
property — I am inclined to refer it to a much later period, pos- 
sibly to the times of Severus and Caracalla. Aurelian and Hono- 
rius included part of the edifice in their line of walls. In the 
sixteenth century Palladio was able to measure it in its entirety, 
as shown by the drawing in the possession of the Duke of Devon- 
shire, which is here reproduced for the first time. (Fig. 146.) 

Since Palladio's time the amphitheatre has suffered great dam- 
age. The upper floor has disappeared, and so have the mseniana 
and the steps which surrounded the arena. The arena has been 
excavated at least six times. Ficoroni (Roma antica, p. 121) 
speaks of discoveries made towards 1740 by the prior of Santa 
Croce, concerning the crj-pts, which were full of " ossa di grossi 
animali." Other excavations made in 1828 led to no results. 

The present remains of the amphitheatre are seen to the best 
advantage from the Sti-ada delle Mura, between the Porta S. Gio- 
vamii and the Porta Maggiore. 

Literature. — Antonio Nibby, Roma antica, vol. i. j). 399. — Adolf Becker, 
7)e Mtiri.t, ])p. r2(), 121. — Kodnlfo Lanciani, / amientarti di Frontino, p. 217, 
n. 34, 35. 

The Clai'dium. — The Vivarium being one mile and a quarter 
distant from the Coliseum, the beasts destined to a special venatio 
were removed (I suppose by night) to a place much nearer to the 
show, viz., to the substructures of the Temple of Claudius by SS. 
Giovanni e Paolo, which communicated with those of the arena 
by means of an underground passage. This passage can still be 
seen ; it enters the amphitheatre by the fifth arch on the right of 
the west state entrance, and leads to the lifts and to the trapdoors 
described above. (See Fig. 140.) 

The Samiarium — a name otherwise unknown — is described 
by some as a temporary hosj^ital where the wounded gladiators 
were given first aid, and by others as the factory in which the 
weapons for gladiatorial fights were made or repaired. 

The Spoliarium corresponds to the " Morgue," to which the 
bodies of those who had fallen in the arena were removed. 



The Armamentarium must be understood as the arsenal or 
armory where the bucklers (pannce) and the short crooked cut- 
lasses (siccb) of the Threces ; the shields (^scuta), crested helmets 
(galece cmta^cc), wadded breastplates (spongice), and greaves (oc?'e«;) 
of the Samnites ; the coats of mail of the Hoplomachi ; the nets 
(iaculd) and three-pointed spears {fuscince) of the Retiarii, were 
kept. The pedestal mentioned in " Corpus," n. 999, must have 
been found among the ruins of the Armamentarium. The site of 
these three buildings is only appi'oximately known. 

Regular academies, called Ludi Gladiatorii, or simply Ludi, 
were instituted for the training of prize-fighters, under the care 
of a kumta. The tiroiu's, or uudrilled novices, were instructed 

in the principles of tlieir art, and 
made to practice with heavy wooden 
swords called " rudes," while their 
bodies were brought into condition 
by regular exercise and special food 
{sagina). Many of these ludi were 
kept by private speculators, who 
sold or let out for hire the " paria 
gladiatorum " exhibited in country 
towns ; but the Roman ludi were a 
regular Imperial institution, man- 
aged by Imperial officers. There 
were four of them, the INIagiuis, the 
Gallicus, the Dacicus, and the JVIa- 
tutinus. The first is represented in 
fragment i. 3 of the marble plan ; 
its remains were excavated by Reinach in 1875, in the level stretch 
of ground at the corner of the Via Labicana and the Via delle 
Sette Sale. (See Forma Urbis, pi. xxx.) It contained an oval ring 
surrounded by porticoes and by rows of cells. The Ludi Gallicus 
and Dacicus were named after the nationality of the gladiators 
trained in them. The Matutinus is not considered by Preller as a 
school of gladiators, but as a place where the venationes w^ere pre- 
pared, because these were exhibited in the morning, whilst the 
gladiatorial shows took place at a later hour of the day. The 
Chronicle of Cassiodorus attributes to Domitian the institution 
of the Ludus Matutinus, whilst the Catalogue of Ekkardt makes 
him responsible for the institution of all four, as a necessary com- 
plement to the great amphitheatre which his father had begun and 
his brother had continued. 

Fig. 147. — Plan of the Ludus Magnus. 


These establishments were under the management of a large 
staff of officers, like the M. Ulpius Callistus, pnvpositiis armamen- 
taria liidi magni (Corpus, n. 10,164); Tigris, cursor (n. 10,165); 
Nymphodotus, dispcnsator (n. 10,166) ; M. Calpurnius, medicus, etc., 
dii'ected by a governor or procuratur familim (jladiatorke Ccesaris 
iiidi magni, selected from the equestrian ranks. We hear also of a 
curator Spoliarii, of a medicus ludi Matutini chirurgus, of a medicus 
ludi (rallici, etc. 

The Summum Choragium, placed between the Castra Mise- 
natiuin and the Ludus INlagnus, was also an annex to the amphi- 
theatre, but nothing is known about its name, origin, and special 
appointment. Its staff of officers was even larger aiad of a higher 
standard than that of the ludi. (See Coi-pus Inscr., vol. vi. n. 297, 
776, 8950, 10,083-10,087.) Canina thinks that it was a repository 
for the pegmata or machinery and scenery required for the vena- 

The Castka Misenath'm were the barracks of the marines 
fi-om the fleet of INIisenum, called to Rome for the manoeuvring of 
the velarium or awning of the amphitheatre. The site of these 
buildings, between the Baths of Trajan and the Summum Chora- 
gium, was discovered on March 9, 1812. In 1888, however, the 
whole line of cells forming the south side of the quadrangle was 
brought to light when the drain of the Via Labicana was opened. 
(See Forma Urbis, pi. xxx. ; Corpus, n. 1091 ; Kaibel, Inscr. gr. 
Ital., 9.56.) 

LiTKRATL'RE.— Corpus Imcr., vol. vi. 6, 6-31, 6-32, 1063, 10H4, 1091. — AVilhclni 
Henzen, Ann. Inst., 1862, p. 64 ; and Atti Accad. pontif. arch., vol. xii. p. 
73-157. — Theodor Mommsen, Hermes, v. 303. — Heinrich .Jordan, Tipoijr., 
ii. 116 ; and Forma, pi. i. n. 5. — .Joachim Marquardt, Staatsoerwaltung, vol. 
i. p. 538. — Gaetano Marini, Inscr. albane, c. 12. — Ridolfino Venuti, Alar- 
morn nJhana. Rome, 1756. — Domenico Scutillo, De. collcf/io r/ladiator. Rome, 
1756. — Luigi Caniua, Indie. Topogr., p. 112. 

The Curia Athletarum or HT2TIKH 2TNOA02 was discovered 
in February, 1.569, and again in 1660-1661 and 171:3-1716, in the 
garden of S. Pietro in Yincoli, on the northeast side of the Baths 
of Trajan, where remains of their meeting-hall can still be seen 
(Villa Ilickson Field). These remains, as well as the athletic 
brotherhood who had here their headquarters, have been illus- 
trated by — 

Pirro Ligorio, Cod. torin., xv. 95. — Ottavio Falconieri, Inscr. athl. Romm 
reperta. Rome, 1668. — Kaihel, Inscr. gr. Sicil. et Ital., n. 1102-1110.— 
Corpus Inscr. Lnt., 10,1-53, 10,154, 10,161. — SL'rafino Ricci, La curia Athle- 
tarum (in Bull. arch, com., 1891, p. 185, pi. vii.). 




Regio IV. 

XVI. The fourth region of Augustus, named Sacra Via from the 
historical street wliich formed its southwestern boundary, extended 
over the Viminal and the Cespian as far as the present railway 
station. The " Notitia " and the " Curiosum " give the fourth 
region a circumference of 13,000 feet (3861 metres), and say it con- 
tained 8 parishes, 2757 tenement-houses, 88 palaces, 65 baths, 81 
fountains, and 15 bakeries. Its principal edifices, the temples of 
Venus and Rome, of the Sacra Urbs, of Romulus, of Antoninus 
and Faustina, the basilicse Emilia and Constantiniana, the Colos- 
sus of Nero, and the Forum Transitorium have been described al- 
ready. There are no important remains visible in the other parts 
of the region, nor excavations of any kind ; but a walk through 
the Argiletum (Via della Madonna de' Monti), the Subura (Via 
Leonina), the Clivus Suburanus (Via di S. Lucia in Silice), and the 
Vicus Patricii (Via Urbana) cannot fail to attract the student on 
account of its classic associations, and also of the great discoveries 
which have taken place in the adjoining districts. 

XVII. The Subura. — The Argiletum was the great book- 
market, the Paternoster Row of ancient Rome. Here the librarii 
and the andquarii (booksellers and copyists) kept their well-fur- 
nished shops, so often mentioned by Martial and Horace. Adver- 
tisements giving the title and price of literary novelties wei-e hung 
on either side of the entrance door. Each of the leading book- 
sellers secured the privilege of the works of a leading author ; the 
Sosii brothers were the agents for Horace, Atrectus and Secundus 
the publishers of Martial, Tryphon of Quintilian, and Dorus of 
Seneca. (See Ancient Rome, p. 183.) 

The Subura is generally considered to have been the noisiest, 
the most vvdgar and licentious street of the city. Martial calls it 
" clamosa," and Juvenal says he preferred living in the island of 
Procida rather than in such a rowdy neighborhood, and yet his- 
torical personages did not disdain to live in it, Julius Csesar 
(Sueton., 46) and L. Arruntius Stella (Martial, xii. 3) being among 

The long street was divided into sections. First came the 
Fauces Suburse, called also the Prima Subura. Then we hear of 



a Subui-a Maior • (the rendezvous of pickpockets, who would 
assemble at the close of the day in its dark alleys to dispose of the 
produce of their thefts), which seems to call for a Subura Minor. 
There was also a tract called ad turrbn Mamiliam. We hear of 
this place iu connection with the contest between the Suburanenses 
and the Sacravienses for the possession of the head of the horse 
which was slain in honor of Mars on October 15, at a place called 
" ad Ciconias nixas " near the Trigarium. If the bloody trophy 
remained in the hands of the Sacravienses it was to be affixed to 
the walls of the Regia; if the Suburanenses gained the contest, it 
was to be affixed to the Turris Mam ilia. The steep gradient at the 
top of the valley, now called Salita di S. Lucia in Silice, is described 
by Martial as a bad bit of road, with the pavement always wet 
and slippery, and crowds of beasts of burden dragging heavy loads 
towards the uplands of the Esquiline. 

alta Suburani vincenda est semita clivi 

et numquam sicco sordida saxa gradu : 

vixque datur longas mulorum rumpere mandras, 

quisque trahi muho marmora fune vides. (V. 22. See x. 19.) 

Ancient epitaphs speak of a Q. Gavius, crepidarius de Subura 
(shoemaker) ; of a Crescentio, ferrarius de Subura (ironmonger) ; 
of a L. Marius, lanarius de Subura (merchant of woolen goods) ; 
and of a M. Livius, prajco (public crier). The name has survived 
in the present " piazzetta della Suburra," and in the churches of 
S. Agata, S. Barbara, S. Bartolomeo, and S. Salvatore. 

LiTEKATUKE. — Heinrich Jordan, Forma Urhia, pi. ii. 8. — Corpus Tnscr., 
vol. vi. n. 1953(1956), 9284, 9399,9491, d52G. — Bull. arch, com., 1883, p. 398. 
— Fioravante Martinelli, Dlacon. S. Af/aihce. Kome, Wn.— Corpus Inscr., 
voluminis i. editio altera, 1893, p. 332. — Emiliano Sarti, Archivio Societa 
storia patria, vol. ix. p. 20. 

Near the top of the ascent, the Clivus Suburanus was crossed by 
the Vicus Sobrius. The compital shrine which stood at the junc- 
tion of the two streets was discovered in April, 1888 (corner of Via 
di S. Martino and Via dei Quattro Cantoni), and I have described 
and illustrated it in " Pagan and Christian Rome," p. 34. The 
inscription on the face of the altar, still left standing, says " the 
Emperor Augustus dedicated this shrine (and statue) to Mercury, 
in the year of the city 744, from money received as a new year's gift, 
while absent from Rome." The statue was nicknamed Mercurius 
Sobrius, " Mercury the teetotaler." 

1 " Donatus qui manet in Sebura (m)aiore ad nimfa(s)." Corpus Inscr., 
vol. vi. n. 9526. See also the Schol. Crucq. ad Horace, Sat., i. 6, 116. 


XVIII. The Vicis Patricii. — The Subura bifurcated at the foot 
of the ascent. The branch on the left ran up the valley between 
the Viminal and the Cespian, taking the name of Vicus Patricii in 
the lower tract, and of Ciivus Patricius in the upper, between our 
piazza dell' Esquilino and the railway station. The street, already 
famous in the classic age, continued to enjoy the same privilege 
in Christian times, on account of the house of Pudens, in which 
the first Roman converts had met for prayers. Pudentiana, 
Praxedes, and Timotheus, daughters and son of Pudens, obtained 
from Pius I. the privilege of transforming their house into a regu- 
lar parish assembly (Titulus Pudentis, afterwards Ecclesia Puden- 
tiana). Some pieces of household furniture which had been used 

Pig. 148. — Remains of Public Baths near S. Pudeuziana. 

by the " prince of the apostles " were preserved in it. The " Liber 
Pontificalis " says that the church occupied part of the batlis of 
Novatus, but the remains of ancient walls which can still be 
seen under the present church can hardly be attributed to Roman 
thermae : they pertain to a building of a more modest nature and 
dimensions. (See Parker's " plan of the subterranean chambers 
of the palace of the Pudens family Csic)," and Sheet xvii. of my 
Forma Urbis.) At the same time there are two documents prov- 
ing the existence of thermaj in this very district of the Vicus 
Patricii : the inscription quoted by De Rossi (Bull, crist., 1867, p. 


CVM . . . and a fragmentary plan by Sallustio Peruzzi (Uffizi, n. 
654), of which the above is a reproduction. 

Sallustio calls these remains " balneum apud S. Pudentianam," 


a bath near S. Pudentiaua, and says that the street or [)atli leading 
in the sixteenth century to tlie baths of Diocletian passed through 
them. This noble hall or caldarium, with its semicii'cular recesses, 
and niches for statues, and strong walls, may well have formed 
part of the baths of Timotheus or Novatus mentioned in church 
documents. The connection of this group of buildings with the 
apostolate of SS. Peter and Paul made it very popular from the 
beginning. Pope Siricius (384-397), his acolytes Leopardus, 
Maximus, and Ilicius, and Valerius Messalla, prefect of the city 
(396-403), contributed to transform the old meeting-place into a 
handsome church, and to make the Vicus Patricii one of the best 
streets of the city of the decadence. An inscription discovered in 
1.S.50 in tlie Villa Caserta, Via Mervdana, says, " Ilicius, priest, has 
built at his expense the arcade [represented in the mosaic of the 
apse of the chiu'ch, and still existing half buried under the houses 
to the left of the Via del Bambiu Gesu] which you see connecting 
the Memoria Sancti Martyris Hippolyti with the Ecclesia Puden- 
tiaua." The memoria of S. Ilippolytus is now represented by the 
church of S. Lorenzo in Fonte ; ' the arcade of Ilicius was therefore 
4()() metres long, such being the distance between the two edifices 
at each end. The work of the worthy priest was not remarkable 
for its solidity ; because a few years later another devout man, a 
patrician, an ex primicerius notariorum Sacri Palatii, was compelled 
to rebuild it from the foundations : detersis sqvaloribvs porticvm 
A fvndament/s renovavit. (See Corpus Inscr., y. 1790.) It had 
prol)ably been damaged by the Goths of Alaric in Angust, 410. 
Another inscription (ibid., 1775) speaks of other work of embellish- 
ment done by Valerius Messalla, prefect of the city, ad splendorem 


LiTKRATUEE. — Heiiirich Jordan, Forma Urhls, iil. ii. ii. !J. — Gio. Battista 
(le Rossi, Bull, crist., 1867, p. 43, s(j. ; and Momlri (telle chieKC dl Roma, fasc. 
xiii. xiv. — Rodolfo Laiiciani, Pagan' and Christian Rome, p. 112. — Gaspare 
Celio, Memoria dei nomi der/U arlefici, p. 81. — Hartmann Grisar, Un affresco 
sotto la chiesa di S. Pudenziana (in Civiltii cattolica, 1896, vol. i. p. 7-3.'J). — 
Bull. arch, com., 1891, p. 305, pis. xii. xiii. flg. 1; and p. 311, pis. xii. xiii. tig. 2. 

XIX. The characteristic of the fourth region was the predomi- 
nance of private dwellings over public buildings. It was an essen- 
tially popular quarter, the reverse of the eighth and ninth regions, 
in which we can hardly find room for insula? and domus. The 
excavations which have taken place on the Viminal and Cespian 

1 The well which gives the name to the church is still accessible. The place 
deserves a visit. 



and in the intermediate valley since the revival of classical studies 
have always yielded a rich harvest in objects and works of art 
pertaining to private nninsions, the remains of which appear to 


be in wonderful preservation. The history of these excavations 
has not yet been written, and many of the finds are yet unknown 
to students. 

Here is one instance. In 1684 a new street was opened along 
the north slope of the Caspian, halfway between the Via Urbana, 
which runs at the bottom of the valley, and the Via Sforza- 
Paolina, which runs on the edge of the plateau. The street, 
called Via Graziosa, from the name of Pietro Graziosi, a rich local 
landowner, was cut right across a group of old Roman houses, 
beautifully preserved and full of objects of interest. The pre- 
ceding unpublished sketch, made by Pietro Sante Bartoli at the 
time of the discovery, shows the state of the remains as they 
appeared when the street was cut. I have found the original on 
p. (J5 of Bartoli's volume " donne an Cabinet des Estampes du Koi 
par M. le Comte de Caylus en 1764," which now bears the mark 
G, d, 2, n. 3871 ^ of the Bibliotheque nationale. The drawing is 
explained by the following notes : — 

(I) Crypt in which S. Lawrence was imprisoned. (II) Spring 
with the waters of which S. Ilippolytus was baptized. Tlie crypt 
could be reached in two ways, by a spiral staircase (III) and by 
an inclined corridor (IV) entered by a heavy travertine gate 
(XV). (The crypt, the well, and the corridor are still to be seen 
under the church of S. Lorenzo in Fonte.) (VII) Hall with 
walls and vaulted ceiling covered with mosaic, shells, and enamel. 
(VIII) Aqueduct. (IX) A colonnade of the Doric order with 
shafts of travertine coated with stucco. (X) Room with walls of 
reticulated work. All these remains built on virgin soil (marked 
V) were covered by a bed of rubbish (marked XI) which had 
rolled down the slope of the Cespian. No. XIII marks the cut- 
ting of the Via Graziosa, and No. XII the new houses in course 
of construction when Bartoli made his sketch. He speaks of the 
same excavations in his " Memorie," edited by Carlo Fea. •' When 
a new street was opened (on the slope of the Cespian) opposite S. 
Lorenzo in Panisperna, remains of ancient edifices were found, 
and an exquisite fragment of a Venus, which was restored by 
Ercole Ferrata for Queen Christine of Sweden. Duke Livio 
Odescalchi bought it with the rest of the queen's marbles, which 
were ultimately removed to the museum of S. Ildefonso, Spain. 
There was also a Baccliic flute of Corinthian brass, three palms long, 
and several other objects, which, for reasons known to me, I must 

1 I have described the contents of this volume, one of the most precious in 
the Cabinet des Estampes, Paris, in the Bull, com., 1895, p. 166. 


abstain from mentioning (Mem. 17). ... A mosaic pavement has 
been laid bare in the foundations of the house of Signor Focavena, 
with birds and arabesques in bright colors " (Mem. 26). On Jan- 
uary 8, 1613, the lararium or chapel of the house of L. Crepereius 
Rogatus was discovered at the foot of the Salita di S. Maria Mag- 
giore ; ^ but the most important find by far is that of November, 
1848, when the set of frescoes with landscapes and scenes from 
the Odyssey were discovered in repairing the foundations of the 
Monastery delle Turchine at the corner of the Via Sforza. Re- 
productions of the frescoes, which are now pi-eserved in the room 
of the Nozze Aldobrandine in the Vatican library, have been 
given by — 

Noel des Vergers, Bull. Inst., 1849, p. 17. — Heinrich Brunn, Ibid., p. 129. 

— Matranga, La citta di Lamo stabilita in Terracina. Rome, 1852. — Woer- 
mann, Die antiken Odysseelandschaften vom esquilinschcn Hiigd. Munich, 1876. 

— Wolfgang Helbig, Guide, vol. ii. p. 175. 

The Via Graziosa exists no more. The great Via Cavour runs 
in its place at a higher level. The building of the Via Cavour, 
therefore, gave no opportunity of fresh discoveries ; and in fact, if 
anything lies still at the level of the ancient city it may be truly 
said to be beyond the reach of man. 


Regions V, VI, and VII. 

XX. No modern capital of Europe can be compared with 
ancient Rome for the number and extent of public parks and 
gardens. While the nine larger parks of London, with their 
aggregate surface of 2,000 acres, represent a thirty-ninth part of 
the city area, those of ancient Rome, extending over the chain of 
hills for two miles at least, on either side of the Tiber, represent 
an eighth part. If such open spaces act as lungs to a city, no city 
ever breathed more freely than Rome. The accompanying sketch- 
map (Fig. 150) may help the student to locate the various horli 
mention of which occur in classics or in inscriptions. The city 
was not only surrounded and inclosed by them, but intersected 
in every direction. Those on the eastern chain of hills followed 
each other (from south to north, as ancient maps are oriented) in 
this order : — 

1 Bull. arch, com., 1891, pp. 305, 341. 








Regio V. Esquiline. Horti Vcariani. 

,, ,, )i Liciniani. 

J, ,, ,, Torquatiani, Pallautiani, Epaphrodotiaui. 

,^ ,, ,, Tauriani, Calyclauii, Vettiaiii. 

J, ,, ,, Laiuiani, Maiaui. 

J, ,, „ M;\;ceuatiani. 

,, ,) )) Lolliani. 

Regio VI. Alta Semita. ,, Sallustiani. 

Regio VII. Via Lata. ,, Luculliani. 

,, )) II Aciliani. 

These gardens did not make one continuous stretch of verdure : 
they were intersected by streets like the SaUiria Vetus, the Alta 
Semita, the Vicus Portpe Collinaj, the Vicus Porta? Viminalis, the 
vise Tiburtina, PrsBnestina, Labicana, etc., by groups of houses 
and palaces, and by a few public buildings of large area. 

I shall describe first the parks, then a few of tliese prominent 
buildings set as they were in a frame of green. ^ 

XXI. HouTi Variaxi. — The extreme southeast corner of the 
city, between the line of the Claudian aqueduct and the Aniphi- 
theatrum Castrense, seems to have been the property of the Varian 
family from an early period, and to have been transformed into 
a park by Sextus Varius Marcelliis, father of the Emperor Helio- 
gabalus (Sextus Varius Avitus Bassianus). Heliogabalus enlarged 
and improved the gardens, which became part of the Imperial 
domain. Here he retired to conspire against the life of his cousin, 
Severus Alexander, and here he was found, starting a chariot 
race, by the praetorians eager to take a revenge for the attemjited 
assassination of tlie cherished young prince. 

The gardens, officially named liorti Spei veterix, from the old 
Temple of Hope whicli stood close by the Porta Maggiore, were 
cut in two by Aurelian's walls. AVe do not know whether the 
part extra muros was abandoned; probably it was not, and the 
communication across the line of tlie walls may have been kept 
open by means of posterns. The section intra muros continued to 
be an Imperial garden and residence, and attained great notoriety 
at the time of Helena and Constantine. Three of the Varian 
edifices deserve notice : the Circus, the Palace, and the Thermae. 

The approximate situation of the Circus in respect to the neigh- 

1 On Roman gardens in general consult Wiistermann, Ueber die Kunst- 
gdrtnerel bei die alten Riimern. Gotha, 1846. — Woermann, Ueber landsckaft- 
lichen Natursinn der Griechen u. Romer. Municli, 1871. — Ancient Rome, 
p. 271. 



boring monuments is shown in this fragment of a perspective 
plan of the sixteenth century, and also in Bufalini's map of 1551. 
When Antonio da Sangallo the younger examined the ruins in 
the second quarter of the sixteenth century, the obelisk was still 
lying broken in three pieces (along the spina ?) in the vineyard 
of a Messer Jeronimo Milanese, which was then being excavated 
by a stone-cutter named Rugieri. Sangallo also saw and designed 
(UfRzi, n. 900) a graceful nympha^um not unlike that still exist- 

Fig. 151. — Ligorio's Perspective View of the Horti Variani. 
(From sheet iv. of the Andqiiiv Urbis Imago. Rome, 1551.) 

ing in the gardens of Sallust. The remains of the Circus were 
very conspicuous in those days, and bore the name of " Ciercho, 
Cerchio, Circo Vetere," and also of " lo Girolo." The obelisk was 
dug out in 1570, and the brothers Curzio and IMarcello Saccoccia, 
who owned the ground, put up a tablet commemorating its dis- 
covery, which is still to be seen in one of the arches of the Acqua 
Felice. The obelisk was removed in the following century to 
the Barberini garden, Via delle quattro Fontane, where Bernini 
wanted to raise it in front of the palace. President de Brosses 
and five other gentlemen from Burgundy asked leave from Pope 


Clement XII. to erect it at their expense in front of S. Luigi de' 
Francesi. The project hickily failed, bat the odyssey of the pillar 
did not end then. Princess Cornelia Barberini presented it to 
Clement XIV., who caused it to be removed to the Giardino della 
Pigna in the Vatican. Pius VI. planned to place it, first, on the 
pedestal of the column of Antoninus Pius in the same gardens, 
and again on the top of the tower of the Porta Pia. Valadier and 
Pius VII. erected it at last in the central avenue of the passeggiata 
del Pincio. It is a work of Hadrian's time, cut in memory of his 
favorite Antinous. 

Literature. — Andrea Fulvio, Antiqq., iv. — Andrea Palladio, Antichita, 
ed. 1554, p. 9. — Pirro Ligorio, Circhi, p. 9. — Gio. Battista Cipriani, Ohelischl^ 
p. 21. — Fea Biancoui, Circhi, ch. ii. p. ix. — Winckelmaun, Storia delle arti, 
vol. i. p. 96, n. C. — Antonio Nibby, Roma anticn, vol. i. p. 607. — Christian 
Huelsen, Mittheil., 1896, p. 122. 

The Palace, inside the walls, is known in documents of a later 
age as the Palatium Sessorianum. The origin of the name is 
obscure,^ but the fact that it was an Imperial residence of the 
third and part of the fourth century is vmdoubted. Helena, 
mother of Constantine, preferred it to the Palace of the Caesars, 
and the place is full of associations of her. Here were found the 
pedestals of statues raised to her by Julius Maximianus, a digni- 
tary of the Constantinian court ; and by Flavius Pistus, keeper of 
the \>ri\y purse (Corpus, n. 1134:, 1185) ; and here also, in the vine- 
yard of Girolamo INIuziano the painter (f 1550), was found a bust 
considered to represent her likeness. I confine myself strictly to 
archaeological evidence : but Church documents give fuller details 
about lier woi'ks, and about the transformation of the great hall 
of the palace into a Christian place of worship under the title 
of Hierusalem. This hall resembled very closely in shape and 
dimensions the Templum Sacra- Urbis turned into a church by 
Felix IV., having the same line and number of arched windows 
under the roof, and the same wall decorations in "florentine" 
mosaic, composed of crusts of porphyry, serpentine, and other 
"pietre dure."^ Constantine left the hall as it was; he only 
closed the lower arches opening on the garden, and added an apse 
at the east end. The columns by which the hall was divided into 
nave and aisles are an addition of Gregory II. (715-731). The 
church remained in its old form until the beginning of the last 
century. I have found in the state archives a plan of the church 

1 Adolf Becker, De miiris, p. 120; and Topofjrapkie, p. 556. 

■•! Sano-allo tlie yonnger, Uffizi, n. 899. 


and cloisters taken on May 15, 1716, by the architect Melchior 
Passalacqua, full of interesting details. Benedict XIV. in 1744, 
with the assistance of Passalacqvia and Gregorini, reduced the 
glorious monument to its present grotesque form, a work which 
Milizia justly condemns as "nefando." This was done at the 
expense of another hall of the palace, known in ordinary guide- 
books by the name of Tempio di Venere e Cupido. This beauti- 
ful hall, of which only the apse, standing in the garden north of 
the church, is left, was almost intact in the sixteenth century, with 
its columns of red granite, its portico and vestibule, etc. Benedict 
XIV. and his acolytes destroyed it for the sake of a few cartloads 
of bricks. 

No student should omit to visit the Vigna di S. Croce in 
Gerusalemme.^ The remains of the Claudian aqueduct which 
inclosed the Imperial gardens on the north, of the walls of Aiire- 
lian which run across them on the south side, of the " hall named 
Hieriisalem," and of the so-called Temple of Venus and Cupid, 
nuxke it one of the loveliest spots of Rome. 

The statue of Sallustia Barbia Orbiana, wife of Severus Alex- 
ander, who was himself cousin of Heliogabalus (now in the Cor- 
tile di Belvedere, Vatican Museum, No. 42), is said to have been 
found in these gardens as early as the time of Julius II. Ligorio 
mentions another statuette of Venus cut in rock crystal (?) ; and 
Ficoroni describes the works of art foun.d in 1741, when Benedict 
XrV. cut away a knoll called INlonte Cipollaro, which rose in front 
of the church. They include the Boy struggling with a (ioose, 
prol)ably after Boethos, now in the Capitoline Museum, room of 
the Faun, No. 16 ; a head of Caracalla ; a second resembling the 
Carneades of the same museum ; a third unknown ; and a column 
of bianco e nero. Marchese Campana tried the ground again in 
18.55, but he found only a wine-cellar with rows of amphora? of 
white clay. 

The Therma? Helenianae and the reservoir which supplied them 
with water can be seen in what is now called the Vigna Conti 
(entered by the last gate on the left of the Via di S. Croce). I was 
able to give a careful plan of tliese therm;i? in sheets xxxi., xxxii. 
of the " Forma Urbis," from unpublished drawings by Palladio 
(Devonshire Collect.) and Antonio da Sangallo the younger (Ufhzi, 
1439). The inscription, now in the Vatican Museum, sala della 
Croce greca (Corpus, vol. vi. n. 1136), says that "Helena the 
venerable, mother of Constantine, etc., etc., rebuilt the baths 
1 Kin» at the first gate on the left of the church. 


after a fire " — (thermas incendio destrvctas restitvit). This 
inscription was probably discovered in tlie excavations of Lelio 
Orsini, Duke of Bracciano, described by Bartoli (Mem. 12), in the 
course of wliich five " bellissime " statues v^^ere found in an under- 
ground room, with fragments and marbles of every description. 
It seems that after the fall of the Empire one or more rooms of 
these baths were adapted to Christian worship. Flaminio Vacca 
saw images of saints painted on their walls, and Cherubino Alberti 
adds that S. Helena was said to have been buried in one of them ; 
he also gives a sketch of the place. I have myself seen traces 
of painting in some extensive apartments which run deep under- 
ground in front of the present church. 

Literature. — Albert! Giovanni, Cod. san Sepolcro, f. 7. — Alberti Cheru- 
bino, ibid., vol. i. f. 37'. — Pirro Ligorio, Cod. vatic, 3439, f. 32. — Liber pon- 
lific, Duchesne, i. p. cxxvi. note C, and p. 196. — Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. n. 781, 
782, 2251, 2252. — Flaminio Vacca, ifem. 114 (in Fea's Miscell., vol. i. p. ci.). 
— Francesco Ficoroni, 3fem. 71; ibid., p. clii. — Ridolfino Venuti,i?o?»a antica, 
vol. i. p. 130. — Carlo Fea, ad Winckelmann, Storia delV arte, vol. iii. p. 44. — 
Henry Stevenson, Annnl. Inst., 1877, p. 371. — Rodolfo Lanciani, Itin. di Ein- 
siedlen, p. 58. — Wolfgang Helbig, Guide, vol. i. p. 84, n. 142 ; and p. 382, n. 

XXII. HoRTi LiciNiANi, at the southern end of the Viale 
Principessa Margherita, between the church of S. Vibiana and 
the Porta JNIaggiore. 

The Licinian family must have possessed property on the Esqui- 
line from the time of the Republic. Cicero mentions certain atria 
Licinia outside the Esquiline gate, belonging to INI. Licinins Cras- 
sus. A columbarium of f reedmen of the same name was discovered 
at the time of Pope Barberini near the Church of S. Vibiana.^ 
The " Vita Gallieni " (c. 17) calls the gardens " horti nominis 
sui," that is to say, " Horti Liciniani," that Emperor being a 
Licinius himself. The " Vita " says that Gallienus was very fond 
of residing in such a delightful place, that he was followed there 
by the whole Court, and that every officer of state was admitted to 
the Imperial table and baths. "When one of these officers, named 
Aurelius Victor, determined to erect a standing testimonial of his 
devotion to Gallienus and to his Empress Salonina, he chose for 
its site the high street leading to the gardens, and changed the 
old Esquiline gate of Servius into a travertine arch inscribed 
with the name of his masters (see Corpus, n. 1106). Ecclesiastical 

1 Raffaele Fabretti, Inscr. domest., pp. 13, 373. — Antonio Nibby, Roma 
antica, vol. ii. p. 330. — Corpus Inscr., n. 9154. 


documents place the church of S. Yibiaua near the " Palatium 
Licinianum," \\z., near the decagonal nymph?euni of the gardens, 
the so-called Minerva Medica of the loresent day. The nymphajum, 
the first ruins to strike the eye of the stranger on his entering the 
walls of the Eternal City,i and the most conspicuous landmark of 
this district, were called Galluce, Galluccie, Caluce in the Middle 
Ages, and have been known as the Basilica Caii et Lucii since 
1527. The name of Minerva Medica given to the ruins towards 
the beginning of the seventeenth ceutui-y by Nardini and others is 
doubly wrong, because it belongs to a street and to a street-shrine 
half a mile distant (discovered in 1887 in the Via Curva, west of 
the Merulana), and because it is not true that the statue of the 
goddess (No. 114 Braccio Xuovo), with a serpent at her feet, was 
found among these ruins. The seicento archpeologists supposed 
the harmless creature — the protector of olive gardens so dear to 
Minerva — to be the serpent of ^•Esculapius, and therefore to allude 
to Minerva's medical science. At all events the beautiful statue 
was discovered not on the Esquiline but near the church of S. 
Maria sopra Minerva, among the ruins of the temple raised to her 
by Pompey the Great. 

Literature. — P. Sante Bartoli, Mem. 112 (in Fea's Miscellanea, vol. i. p. 
ccliv.). — Emil Braun, Ruins and Museums, p. 15.3, n. 14. — GaUeria Giusti- 
niana, vol. i. p. .3. — Wolfgang Helbig, Guide, vol. i. p. 31, n. 51. 

The nymphaeum was once covered with mosaics and slabs of 
porphjTy, and its dome incrusted with shells and enamel. The 
'• vignettes " of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries show it in 
a much better state of preservation. It has nine semicircular re- 
cesses and one door on the ground floor, and ten windows above. 
Tlae greater part of the dome fell in 1828, and the rest was much 
shattered by a thunderbolt in the following year. It was first ex- 
cavated, as far as we know, by ]Messer Cosmo Jacomelli " medico," 
at the time of Julius III. (1550-1555). The produce of the exca- 
vations is described by Ligorio, and his statements are substantially 
corroborated by Flaminio A'acca. Numbers of statues were dis- 
covered lying in pieces before their respective niches ; they were 
thought to represent Pomona (in black marble with heads and 
hands of bronze), ^sculapius, Adonis, Venus, Hercules, Antinous, 
and several Fauns. Ligorio adds to the list a " ^linerva with her 
dragon," and says that the Minerva, the Venus, the yEsculapius 

1 The nymphannn stands close to the Tre nrcki, by which all the railway 
lines enter the city. 


were given to Pope Julius III, who was then collecting marbles for 
his Villa Giulia outside the Porta del Popolo ; and as the Pope 
was in need of a naked statue to pair with another already in his 
possession, he caused the God of Medicine to be deprived of his 
mantle and condemned to a state of nudity. Cosmo Jacomelli 
also found four columns of verde antico and ten fluted spiral 

Fig. 153. — Statue of a Komaii M;i!,'i-ti,it.' d ihc I'uuitli i.'eutuii giving the Signal for 
a Cliariot Kace. 



columns of giallo. One of the Fauns, restored by Flaminio Vacca, 
was purchased by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. In another por- 
tion of the gardens, owned by Francesco d' Aspra, treasiu'sr to 
Julius III., many other statues were found, as well as bronze busts 
of Emperors ; medals, marbles, etc., removed likewise to the Villa 
Giulia. It is no w'onder that, after so many finds, our ow'u exca- 
vations in 1875-78 shoiUd have led to no results. The only objects 
recovered were the bust of Manlia Scantilla, wife of the Emperor 
Didius Julianus, now in the Palazzo dei Consei'vatori, Rotunda 
Xo. 44, some fanciful capitals and columns w-ith Bacchic reliefs, 
and two statues of Roman magistrates of the fourth century (the 
two Symmachi ?) in the act of giving the signal to start the races 
in the circus by throwing into the arena a piece of cloth (mappa). 
One of these is here represented (Fig. 153). There was also 
a bas-relief representing the " Foi'ge of Vulcan." (See Bull, 
com., 1874, p. 131; 1878, pp. 142, 199 ; 1879, p. 240; 1883, p. 17). 


Fig. 1 j4. — Columbaria discovered in li<l'I ou the Site of the Horti Liciniaui. 

The gardens of the Licinian family, like those of Maecenas, 
were laid out on ground occupied by a number of tombs and 
columbaria of the last century of the Republic and of the Augus- 


tan age. The cemetery was buried under a mass of earth from four 
to eight metres high, and as religious respect for tombs was still 
deeply rooted among workmen, when the change took place, the 
tombs have been found intact and full of funeral "supellex." 
Between February 7 and May 27, 1871, in a space only a few hun- 
dred feet square, five columbaria were discovered, containing 204 
inscriptions, 200 lamps, 2 marble and 40 terra-cotta cinerary urns, 
195 coins, 150 glass perfume-bottles, 200 balsamaria of terra cotta, 
and a few gold rings and earrings. A complete description of 
this necropolis is to be found in vol. vi. part ii. of the " Corpus 
Inscr.," p. 976, under the title Monumenta effossa in vinea Belardi- 
orum prope pnrtam Prcenestinam. The above illustration (Fig. 154) 
shows some of the columbaria ^ excavated in 1872 and the depth 
at which they lay buried under the level of the Licinian gardens. 

LiTEiiATUKE. — Baldassarre Peruzzi, Uffizi, n. 498. — Salhistio Peruzzi, 
ibid., n. 689. —Martin Heemskerk, Berlin, f. 49'. — Jean Jacques Lequeu, iu 
Cabinet des Estampes, Paris, Rome, vol. Monti, n. G. — Louis Duchesne, Liber 
pontif., i. p. 250, n. 1. — Antonio Nibbj', Roma antica, vol. ii. p. 328. — 
Edoardo Brizio, Pitture e sejiolcri scoperti suW Esquilino neW anno 1875. 
Rome, 1876. — Rodolfo Lanciani, Bull, com., 1880, p. 51, pi. ii. 

XXIII. HoRTi Tauriani. — The most important group of 
tombs described in the section of the " Corpus " just quoted are the 
columbaria of the servants and freedmen of the Statilian family, 
discovered partly in 1875, partly in 1880, in that part of the 
Licinian gardens now crossed by the Viale Principe Eugenio. They 
contained 427 inscriptions relating to 370 servants attached to 
the person of Statilius Taurus, consul in a. d. 11, and to his chil- 
dren. (See Ancient Rome, p. 132.) The presence of these family 
vaults in this special corner of the Esquiline indicates that the 
Statilii must have owned property of some kind in the neighbor- 
hood. The acts of SS. Faustus and Pigmenius discovered by the 
BoUandist fathers, in "Cod. lat." 5289 of the Bibliotheque natio- 
iiale, Paris, mention a, forum (Statilii) Tauri between the church of 
S. V^biana and the Porta S. Lorenzo. This gate was called Porta 
Taurlna in the Middle Ages, and the whole district Regio Tauri or 
Regio Caput Tauri. Lastly, there were two churches called S. 
Silvester de Tauro and S. Laurentius ad Taurellum. The origin 
of these names was explained by the discovery (made in 1874, in 
the Via Principe Amadeo behind the apse of S. Eusebio) of two 
terminal stones with the legend cippi • hi • finivnt • hortos • 

1 Marked J, K, L, M in the iilan of the Corpus, pp. 982 and 990. 


CALYCLAN(os) ' ET • TAVKiAA'os. " The8e cippi mark the boundary 
line bet^veen the gardens called Calyclanii and those of (Statilius) 
Taurus." A water-pipe discovered not far from the cippi, in- 
scribed with tlie name of Vettius Agorius Pr?etextatus and of his 
wife Fabia Aconia PauUina, proves that the classical gardens of 
the Statilii had passed into the hands of the Vettii in the fourth 
century after Christ, and were embodied in the old Horti Scatoniani, 

Fig. 155. — Statue of Shepherdess discovered iii the Horti Vettiaui. 


so-called from the Vettii Scatones. Both families had em'iched 
the grounds with works of art to such an extent that several 
thousand marble fragments were extracted, in March, 1874, from 
two walls alone, into which they had been built after the first 
barbaric inroads. A siimmary catalogue of these sculptures, now 
exhibited in the Palazzo dei Conservatori, is to be found in the 
" Bull, com.," 1873, p. 293, n. 58 ; 1874, p. ,50 ; and 1875, p. 151. One 
of them, an old shepherdess with her pet lamb under the left arm, 
is here reproduced (Fig. 155). It was found in the Piazza Man- 
fredo Fanti. 

Literature. — Louis Duchesne, Lib.pont., voL i., pp. 123, 127, 258, note 2. 
— Gio. Battista de Kossi, 11 forum Tauri nella regione Esquilina, in Bull, com., 
1890, p. 280. — Cataluyus codicum hagior/raphicorum, in Biblioth. nationale, 
Paris, Bruxelles, 1889, vol. i. pp. 520-523. — Pianta deW aula iemporanea 
del Palazzo del Conservatori. Rome, Salviucci, 1876, n. 17, 30, 31, 40, A. (j8, 
72, 76, 107. — Christian Hnelsen, Nuove osservnzioni, etc., in Bull, com., 1893, 
p. 119; 1894, p. 101, etc. — Ancient Rome, p. 169. — Corpus Inscr., yol. vi. n. 
6241, 6281, 6282. 

XXIV. HoRTi Lamiani et Maiani. — Valerius Maximus, 

praising the modesty and frugality of the ^Elian family, .says that 
a humble house near the "trophies of Marius" was sufficient to 
accommodate sixteen iElii. The trophies of Marius stood near the 
present church of S. Eusebio on the Esquiline. The iElii Lamia, 
the more illustrious branch of the family, which claimed descent 
from Lamus, king of the Lestrigonians, enlarged the property on 
the line of the Via Merulana, and laid out gardens, worthy rivals 
of those of Maecenas on the other side of the same street. It is 
sujjposed that Lucius ^lius Lamia, consul in a. d. 3, must have 
bequeathed the park to Tiberius, as Maecenas had done for 
Augustus, because we find it described as a part of the Imperial 
domain on the Esquiline, immediately after the death of Lamia, 
which took place in a. d. 33. Philon, who led the Jewish embassy 
to Caligula, and who was received in the Horti Lamiani, says they 
were next to those of Maecenas and to the Servian walls ; that 
they contained magnificent apartments, two stories high, with 
windows having panes of transparent marble instead of glass, 
besides avenues, woods, fountains, works of art, etc. The mixr- 
dered body of Caligula was removed here from the Palatine, on 
January 24, a. d. 41, cremated and buried in haste, but some time 
later his sisters carried the ashes to the mausoleum of Augustus. 
However, as long as the ashes were kept in the gardens, the keepers 
were constantly harassed by the phantom of the murdered prince. 


The halls of tlie palace were so large that a portrait of Nero one 
hundred and twenty feet high (35.64 metres) could be painted in 
one of them. The huge canvas, twice as large as the mainsail of 
a frigate, was set on fire by lightning, together with the palace : 
" pictura, accensa f ulmine, cum optima hortorum parte conflagra- 
vit." ^ The damages must .have been repaired at once. The staff 
of keepers is mentioned in several inscriptions (Corpus, n. 61.52, 
8668, 866.9). At the time of Severus Alexander the park received 
improvements, especially in the waterworks. 

A volume could be written on the exquisite works of art, paint- 
ings as well as sculptures, discovered in the Horti Lamiani since 
the beginning of the sixteenth century. The list comprises, be- 
sides objects of secondary interest, the Meleager of the Belvedere ; 
the pediment of a temple (?), with the slaughter of the Niobides, 
and the two Athletes, now in the Uffizi, Florence, found in the 
spring of 1582 ; the " Xozze aldobrandine," found at the time of 
Clement VIII. (1592-1605), now in the Vatican library ; the Dis- 
cobolos of Myron, found INIarch 1-1, 1781, now in the Lancellotti 
palace; the Hercules, removed to England by Colonel CamjibeU ; 
the relief of Dancing Women, now in the Museo Chiaramonti, sec- 
tion xxvii. n. CA\ ; and many other marbles lately in possession of 
the Massimi family. 

Literature. — Fabroni, Dissert, sulle statue appartenentt alia favola di 
Niobe. Florence, 1779. — Francesco Cancellieri, Dissertazioni epistolari sopra 
la staiua del Discobolo. Rome, 1806. — Antonio Nibby, Jioma antica, vol. ii. 
p. 324. — Wolfgang Helbig, Guide, vol. i. p. 6fi, n. 116, pp. 78, 1.3.3; and vol. 
ii. p. 184, n. 958. — Zuccato, AZea dei Pittori, book ii. p. 37. — Moreau de 
Mautours, Mem. Acad, des Inscriptions, Hist., vol. v. p. 297. — Visconti, 
Catal. Villa Miollis, p. 127. 

The discoveries made in our own time may well challenge com- 
parison with those described above. On Christmas eve, ISTi, in 
one room only (at the corner of the Via Foscolo and the Via 
Emmanuele Filiberto), we found lying on the marble floor the bust 
of Commodus under the attributes of Hercules, reproduced in the 
following cut (Fig. 156) ; it was flanked by two Tritons or marine 
Centaurs and by two statues representing either two maiden daugh- 
ters of Danaos (according to Helbig), or two Muses, Terpsichore and 
Polyhymnia (according to Visconti). There were also the " Venus 
Lamiana " (called by Helbig " A Girl binding a fillet round her 
head "), a portrait head of young Commodus, a head of Diana, a 
Bacchus of semi-colossal size, with drapery of gilt bronze (missing), 
1 Pliny, Hist. Nat., xxxv. 7, 33. 



and about twenty-five exquisite fragments, legs, arms, hands, feet, 
etc., belonging to statues whose drapery was likewise of bronze. 
These works of art are exhibited in the octagonal room of the 

Fig. 156. — Bust of CommoduB from the Horti Lamiani. 

Palazzo dei Conservatori, and the fragments in Hall II. of the 
Museo Municipale al Celio. The graceful girlish statuette re- 
produced in the following cut (Fig. 157) discovered near the Vicolo 
di S. Matteo, is evidently modeled in imitation of the terra-cotta 
figurines which have made the names of Tanagra and Myrina 
famous over the world. 


Literature. — Carlo Ludovico Yiscorxti, Bull, com., vol. ill. (1875), pp. 3, 
16, 57, 140, pb. i.-v., ix., x., xiv., xv.; vol. xviii. (1890) p. 68, pis. iii., iv.— 
Wolfgang Helbig, Guide, vol. i. p. 418, u. 558-560; p. 421, n. 564, 565; p. 422, 
n. 566. — Forma Urhis Romce, pis. xxiii., xxx., xxxi. 

Fig. 15". — Statuette of a Girl from the Horti Lamiani. 

XXV. IIoRTi M.ECENATis. — Tile old Esquiline cemetery was 
divided into two sections, one for the slaves, beggars, prisoners, 
and criminals who had undergone capital punishment, another 
for a better class of citizens who could afford to be buried apart in 
tombs or columbaria. This first section covered an area 1000 feet 


long and 300 deep (297 metres by 89.10), and contained many />«??- 
cull or pits, into which men and beasts, bodies and carcasses, and 
all kinds of city refuse were thrown in a horrid confusion. About 
seventy-five puticuli were discovered and explored in the cutting 
of the Via Napoleone III., some containing a uniform mass of 
black, viscid, pestilent, vmctuous matter, whilst in others the bones 
could in a measure be singled out and identified. The neighbor- 
hood of this field of death was set apart for the daily refuse of the 

The suppression of this hotbed of pestilence, with the sanitary 
reform of public cemeteries, took place under Augustus at the 
suggestion of his prime minister C. Cilnius Maecenas. The whole 
district, alongside the Agger of Servius Tullius, was buried under 
a mass of earth six to eight metres high, and gardens were laid out 
on the newly-made ground, which became the world-famous Horti 
Msecenatiani. The event was sung by Iloi'ace (Sat. i. 8, 14) : — 

"Nunc licet Esquiliis habitare saluhrihus, atque 
Aggere in aprico spatiari, quo modo tristes 
Albis informem spectabant ossibus agrum." 

The gardens contained a palace and a tower or " belvedere," which 
Horace describes as reaching the clouds: " molem propinquam 
nubilnis." Nero is accused by Suetonius of having watched from 
this lofty observatory the progress of the flames in the fire of 
July, 64, while singing the capture and burning of Troy in a 
theatrical robe ; but the fact is contradicted by Tacitus. No 
further mention occurs of the gardens in classics. In the Middle 
Ages they took the name of Massa luliana, which has survived to 
our own times in the church and convent of S. Giuliano.^ There 
are two groups of remains within the area of the horti : one in 
the Piazza Fanti, in the grounds of the Aquarium, consisting of a 
few rooms with mosaic pavements ; one at the corner of the vie 
Merulana and Leopardi, which deserves a visit. It is a noble hall 
built of reticulated work, half underground, with six niches on 
each of the side walls, and seven steps in the curve of the apse. 
The following cut (Fig. 158) shows the hall in the state in which 
it was found in March, 1874. The apse and the niches were 
covered with exquisite landscapes, in the style of those of Livia's 
villa at Prima Porta. These have since all faded away except a 
few bits under the shelter of the niches. Visconti gave the hall 

1 Louis Duchesne, Liber pontif., vol. ii. p. 44, n. 84. — De Rossi, Bull, 
crist., 1871, p. 28. 



the name of auditorium or " sala de recitazioni," assuming that it 
could accommodate 334 spectators ; others believe it to have been a 
conservatory for rare and delicate plants. The hall is on view 
every Thursday, and permits are delivered at the Ufficio della 
Commissione Archeologica Municipale, Aracoeli, Capitol. 

The catalogue of the works of art discovered at various times 
in the gardens of Maecenas is vei-y copious. Hermae or busts of 

Fig. 158. — The Conservatory of the Uardi-ns ol M;icenas 

eminent men come in the first place. Vacca calls them " portraits 
of philosophers . . . one of which is of Socrates." One of Homer 
was found in 1704 between S. Antonio and S. Vito, and a replica 
in the Via Merulana. A portrait statue of Euripides with the 
name of his tragedies engraved on a tablet came to light in the 
same district. Between 1872 and 1878 twelve mo^e heads were 
found, and removed to the Palazzo dei Conservatori, together with 
a superb figure of a mastiff in verde ranocchia, a semi-colossal 
group of Herciiles and (one of) the horses ]>\\t together out of 137 
pieces, a replica of the so-called " genius of the Vatican," a figure 
of Marsyas of pavonazzetto, a statue of Silenus, an exquisite head 
of an Amazon, several cai'yatides, and marble fountains of various 
shapes, one of which is here reproduced. This graceful object is 



signed by nONTlOS, an Athenian artist, and presents the form of 
a drinking-horn or rhytou placed on a group of lotus leaves. The 
mouth of the rhyton may have been used as a flower-pot, while 
the water fell from the mouth of the winged monster. All these 
objects are exhibited in the octagonal hall and gallery of the 
Palazzo dei Conservatori. The epigram of Kallimachos painted 


Fig. 159. 

- The Fountain of Pontics the Athenian, discovered in the Gardens of 

on the walls of the greenhouse, illustrated by Visconti and Dressel, 
is preserved in the Museo Municipale al Celio, Hall No. II. 

LiTEKATUKE. — Aiitoiiio Nibby, Roma antica, vol. ii. p. 339. — Carlo Liido- 
vico Visconti, in Bull, com., 1874, p. 137, pis. xi.-xviii. — August Mau, Bull. 
Inst., 1875, p. 89; and Ann. Inst.f. 1880, p. 137, note. — Heinrich Dressel, 
RirJista di filologia, anno 111, April-June. — Eidolfino Venuti, Cod. vatic, 
9024, f. 232. — Flaminio Vacca, Mem. 39 (in Fea's Miscellanea, vol. i. p. Ixxii). 
— Francesco Ficoroni, Vestir/ie di Roma antica, vol. i. p. 10. — Winckelmann, 
Storia delle arti, vol. ii. p. 63; and Mem,. 2 (in Fea's MiscelL, vol.i. p. clxxxiii). 

XXVI. HoiiTi LoLLiANi. — In building the foundations of the 
" Istituto ]\Iassimi," at the corner of the Via Princiise Umberto 
and the Piazza di Termini, some terminal stones were found in- 
scribed with the words, " These stones mark the boundaiy line of 
the gardens of Lollia [Horti Lolliani], which are now the property 
of the Emperor Claudius." Lollia Paulina was made an Empress 


by Caligula in a. d. 37, in spite of the protests of her legal hus- 
band, Menimius Regulus ; but Caligula soon grew tired of the al- 
liance and Lollia was banished from the Imperial house. Eleven 
years later Claudius, being in quest of a wife after the death of 
Messalina, hesitated for a while between the two professional 
beauties of the age, Lollia and Agri[>pina. Agrippina won the 
day, and her tirst act was to obtain the banishment of her rival 
and the confiscation of her property. The Horti Lolliani thus 
became part of tlie great Imperial park on the Esquiline. 

LiTEKATURE. — Raifaele Garnicci, in Civilta Cattclica, serie xii. vol. iv. 
fasc. 800, p. 205. — Ancient Home, p. lOi. — Xotizie Scavi, 1883, p. 339.— Cor- 
pus Inscr., vol. vi. n. 31,284. 

XXATI. HoRTi Sallustiani — originally laid out by the his- 
torian Sallust with the wealth acquired during his governorship 
of Numidia. After his death they passed into the hands of Q. 
Sallustius Crispus, to become crown property at the time of 
Tiberius. They were a favorite residence of many Emperors, who 
enlarged the domain with subsequent acquisitions, embellished it 
with the costliest works of art, and supplied it lilierally witli water. 
There were several reservoirs for the storage aiul distribution of 
the water over the grounds : one of them, two hundred metres 
long, runs parallel with the Via Venti Settembre under the Hotel 
Royal and the houses facing the Ministero delle Finanze ; another 
can still be seen in the riding-grounds of the king's corazzieri, 
Vicolo di S. Nicola da Tolentino ; a third was discovered in 1888 
right under the Casino dell' Aurora. The water-pipes bear the 
names of Claudius, Trajan, Severus Alexander, and of one of the 

Among the historical events connected with Sallust's gardens 
are the attack made on them by Antony, one of the generals of 
Vespasian, in the campaign against the Vitellians in a. d. 70 ; the 
long residence of Vespasian, who ordered the gates of the park 
and of the palace to be kept open to every one and removed the 
sentinels from them ; the death of Xerva in his seventy-second 
year, which took place a. d. 99 ; the long residence in them of 
Aurelian, who built a colonnade called port ic us Milliariensis, be- 
caiise it was 1000 feet (297 metres) long. Under the shelter of it 
he would fatigue himself and his horses by constant riding, al- 
though already advanced in years. A curiosity was shown in the 
crypts of the palace : the bodies of two giants named Possion and 
Secundilla. each 10 feet 3 inches long (3.04 metres). Palace and 



gardens were burnt down and devastated by Alaric on August 
10, 410. 

The principal ornament of the gardens was the Temple of 
Venus Erycina, afterwards named Sallustiana, or else " Venus 
hortorum Sallustianorum." Classics described it as standing at 
the head of the valley between the Pincian and the Quirinal, out- 
side the Porta Collina. Its construction had been promised by 
the consul L. Porcius while engaged in the Ligurian war of 184 
B. c, and its dedication had taken place two years later. 

Fig. ICO. 

- Part of the Marble Throne of the Veuus Sallustiana, now in the Ludovisi 

The temple was discovered in the middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury in the vineyard then belonging to Gabriel Vacca, father of 
Flaminio, who describes it as round peripteral, with the peristyle 
of fluted columns of giallo antico, and with four pairs of columns 
of alabaster at the four entrances. The discovery aroused the 
interest of antiquaries. Pirro Ligorio sketched and described it 
in "Cod. vatic," 3439, f. 28; "Cod. paris. (fonds St. Germain)," 
86, etc. ; and Panvinio wrote a brief comment on Ligorio's de- 
signs. The temple contained a statue of the goddess seated on a 
throne ; the upper pai't of the throne here reproduced (Fig. 160) 
was discovered in the summer of 1887, near the junction of the 
vie Boncompagni and Abruzzi ; the head of the statue — a won- 
derful specimen of Greek archaic art — has formed part of the 
Boncompagni-Ludovisi Museum since its first institution (n. 33, 
Pioom III.). 


Literature. — Carlo Ludovico Visconti, Bull, com., 1887, p. 267, pis. xv., 
xvi. — Eugt'iie Petersen, MittheiluiKjen, 18'J2, p. 32, pi. ii. — Wolfgang Helbig, 
Guide, vol. ii. p. 112, n. 882. — Kodolfo Lanciaui, Bull, com., 1888, p. .3. — 
Christian Huelsen, Mittheilungen, 1889, p. 270. 

The gardens contained also a group of buildings of Egyptian 
style, so much in fashion in Rome at the time of Hadrian. To 
these structures belong the four statues, formerly in the Capitoline 
Museum and now in the Vatican, two of which were discovered in 
1714, two in 1720. They are clever Roman copies of Egyptian 
originals, and are cut in red granite and gray basalt. The obelisk 
now in front of the Trinitk de Monti formed part of the same 
group. Ligorio saw it lying in the vineyard of Messer Paulo 
Patella about 1550, and made a sketch of it in " Cod. vat.," 3439, 
f. 3. Sixtus V. had planned to raise it in front of the church of 
S. Maria degli Angeli, but he had not time to carry the project 
into execution. In 1733 one of the Ludovisi princesses made a 
present of it to Clement XII., who caused it to be removed to the 
Lateran, then in course of reconstruction. I have found in volume 
(t, 1, of tlie Queen's Library at Windsor a sketch by Carlo Eontana, 
showing the exact place in which the two jiieces of the obelisk 
were lying in 170G, when that architect was urging Pope Albani, 
Clement XL, to erect it in the niche of the Fountain of Trevi. 
It was ultimately set up at the top of the steps of the Trinita by 
Pius VI. in 1808. Its socle, of red granite, measuriiig 323 cubic 
feet, was discovered accidentally in 1843, near the gate of the villa. 
It now lies abandoned in the Piazza del Maccao, near the reservoir 
of the Acqua Marcia. 

Literature. — Bottari, Museo Capitol., vol. iii. ii. 76, 77. — Braschi, De 
tribus statuis, i. 5. — Gio. Battista Cipriani, De[/li Obelisclri, p. 19. — Eniiliano 
Sarti, Archivio Societa storia jmtria, vol. ix. p. 436. 

The only remains now visible in the Piazza Sallustiana, at a 
great depth under its level, belong to a nymphseum built over the 
springs of the river Petronia, which were originally called Catifons. 
The nymphfeum is connected with a palace of very curious design, 
of whicli not less than four stories can still be traced. Excellent 
designs by Ligorio can be found in " Cod. jaarisin. (fonds St. Ger- 
main)," n. 1139, f. 311-314 ; and in " Cod. vatic," 3439, f. 27, 30, 48. 
These gardens of Sallust had practically survived the shocks of 
time and lasted to our own days. I think that, as regards natural 
beauty and taste in the arrangement of their shady walks, open 
vistas, floral decorations, artificial ponds, etc., the Villa Ludovisi 



and the Villa Massimo, which covered the same ground, were not 
inferior to the old Roman park. The Museo Liidovisi contained, 
perhaps, more masterpieces of Greco-Roman art than Sallust and 
his Imperial successors had been able to gather in the gardens. 
Both villas, the pride of modern Rome, were mercilessly sacrificed 
by their owners in 1886, and to no purpose whatever. It is true 

Fig. IGl. — A Group of Pines in the Villa Ludovisi, cut down in 1887. 

that the villas have disappeared, that their magnificent ilexes 
have been burnt into charcoal, their great pines used for timber, 
their hills and dales cut away or filled up to a dead level, and 
their deliciously shady avenues destroyed to make room for broad, 
straight, sun-beaten thoroughfares ; yet no one seems to have 
gained by it. Those who sold and those who bought the grounds 
have failed alike in their speculations, and the new quarter remains 
still unfinished. 

Besides the head and the throne of tlie Venus Sallustiana, many 
works of art have passed from these gardens into our museums. 
Ligorio mentions the discovery of life-size figures of Niobe and 
the Xiobides in full relief, belonging jM-obably to the pediment of 


a temple, of statues of Bacchus and of a Faun, together with 
several Nymphs of fountains. The celebrated Silenus with the 
infant Dionysos in his arms, formerly in the Villa Borghese and 
now in the Louvre (Frohner, Catalogue, 1889, p. 265, n. 250), 
and the Bacchic Vase in the same museum (ibid., p. 302, n. 311) 
were discovered about 1575 near the present Casino Massimo. 
The statue of Zeus, n. 326 Sala dei Busti, Vatican Museum, seems 
to have been discovered near the site of the obelisk, together with 
other works of art formerly in possession of the Verospi family. 
Winckehnann mentions a group of two young girls playing with the 
6.ffTpdya\oi, discovered in 1765 and bought by General Walmoden. 

There is no doubt that the Dying Gaul of the Capitoline Museum 
and the group of a Gaul and his wife of the Boncompagni Museum ^ 
belong to the same artistic composition, and to the same place, tlie 
Gardens of Sallust. Helbig contends that the composition, of 
which the group occupied the centre and the Dying Gaul the 
extreme right corner, cannot " have formed the sculptural decora- 
tion of a pediment, because the plinths are oval instead of rectan- 
gular. The life-like details of the works would also have been 
lost at so great a height. It is therefore probable that the group 
of the Villa Ludovisi, the Capitoline figure, and the other statues 
of the series were placed side by side on one or more pedestals of 
moderate elevation," like the Niobides of the Horti Lamiani. 
Helbig also thinks that the composition did not represent "Par- 
nasi eiectos de vertice Gallos," a companion subject to the slaughter 
of Niobe's children, but a victory gained by King Attalos I. of 
Pergamos over the Gauls. We must remember, however, that 
Ligorio's account of the existence of statues of Niobides in these 
gardens is confirmed by the discovery of a fragment of one of 
the female figures made in 1887. The fragment is preserved in 
the Museo Municipale al Celio. 

Another portion of the Gardens of Sallust, the beautiful valley 
in the shape of a circus, with the cliffs shaded by evergreens, dis- 
appeared in 1881-82, when Herr Spithoever, the librarian, who 
had bought the ground from the Barberini, filled up the valley 
with the materials of the Servian embankment which crowned 
the cliffs, and turned one of the most picturesque corners of the 
city into flat building lots. 

Xo traces of the temple of Venus Erycina (Venus Hortorum 
Sallustianorum) were found ; but tlie foundations of that of one 
of the three Fortunes ad Portam Collinam came to light near the 
1 The so-called Dying Gladiator, and group of Arria and Pietus. 


junction of tlie A"ia Venti Settenibre and Via Salaria. Many 
works of art were collected by Spithoever on this occasion. Twenty 
metres below the platform of the temple, at the bottom of the 
moat which protected the Servian embankment from the outside, a 
statue was found, life-size, and of good workmanship, representing 
P2ndymion asleep on the rocks of Mount Latmos. A few steps 
farther a statue of Leda and the Swan came to light, a good copy 
of a better original, and also the figure of a dog finely cut in rosso 

Literature. — Antonio Nibby, Roma antica, vol. ii. pp. 281 and 348. 
— Wolfgang Helbig, Gulih, vol. i. p. 164, n. 245 ; and p. 396, n. 533; vol. ii. 
p. 117, H. 884. — Kodolfo Lauciani, I comentarii di Frontino, p. 224, n. 87-94; 
and Itlnenirio di Einsiedlen, pp. 27, 28. — Corpus Inscr., vol. vi. 122, 4327, 
.5863, 8670, 8671, 'MOb. — BuU. com., 1880, p. 133; 1885, p. ICtb. — Forma Urbis 
Romie, pi. iii. — Theodor Mommsen, Corpus Inscr., vol. i. second edit. pp. 
31.5, 319, 335. 

XXVIII. HoRTi LucuLLiANi, ou the slope of the Pincian hill, 
now crossed by the vie Sistina, Gregoriana, due Macelli, and 
Capo le Case. These gardens, laid out by Lucullus and l)rought 
to perfection by Valerius Asiaticus, contained a palace, the favorite 
residence of ^lessalina ; porticoes and libraries in which Lucullus 
gathered the leading savants of his age ; and a banqueting-hall 
named from Apollo, where Cicero and Pompey the Great had been 
entertained at dinner. No traces remain of these buildings, except 
some mosaic pavements under the houses Via Sistina No. 57 and 
Via Gregoriana No. 46, and some walls under and near the Mi- 
gnanelli palace. Two well-known works of art have been found 
on the site of these gardens : the so-called Arrotino, or Scythian 
sharpening his knife for the execution of Marsyas, now in the 
Tribuna degli Uffizi, Floi'ence ; and the head of Ulysses, discovered 
in the foundations of the Colonna della Concezione, Piazza di 
Spagna, now in the Vatican ]\Iuseum. 

Literature. — Antonio Nibby, Roma antica, vol. ii. p. 336. — Rodolfo 
Lanciani, Bull, com., 1891, pp. 150-153. 

XXIX. HoRTi AciLiANi (Passeggiata del Pincio, Villa 
Medici). — The promenade of the Pincian is known to strangers 
and to most of the Romans as a simple pleasiu'e-ground, giving 
opportunities for a pleasant walk in shade or sunshine, and for 
meeting friends. Its terraces overhanging the valley of the Tiber, 
and the plains crossed by the Via Flaminia, seem to have been 
created by the genius of Valadier for the enjoyment of our golden 
sunsets, when the opposite ridge of the Monte Mario appears 


fringed with a glowing halo of fire. There is, moreover, another 
attraction unknown to the " valgus profanum," the historical and 
archaeological associations of the place. 

Many suppositions had been made by topographers as to the 
former state of the hill, until the controversy was settled by an 
accidental discovery made in 1868. Whilst new water-pipes were 
being laid in the avenue which leads from the Trinita de' Monti 
to the " rond point," where the Cairoli monument has lately been 
erected, a votive marble tablet was discovered at a depth of three 
feet, inscribed with the following dedication: Tychicus frecdman 
of (Manius Acilius) Glahrio, and intendant (or keeper) of his 
(jardens, has dedicated (this shrine) to Silvanus. The tablet is of 
delicate workmanship, with edges cut sharply in the shape of a 
swallow's tail; and as these pointed edges were in pei'fect con- 
dition, it is evident that the tablet was found not far from its 
original place. The family of the Acilii, of whose gardens Tychi- 
cus was intendant, may be called the noblest among the noble in 
ancient times. It was divided into several branches, such as the 
Acilii Aviolae and the Acilii Glabriones. The latter is especially 
known in Roman history, from the time of the battle of Ther- 
mopylae, in which Acilius Glabrio, consul 191 b. c, defeated King 
Antiochus. His great-grandson and namesake, the consul of 67, 
and commander-in-chief in the Mithridatic war, is better known 
to students as the Praetor Urbanus who presided over the im- 
peachment of Verres (70 b. c). In Imperial days the name of 
the family appears not less than eleven times in the fasti consulares, 
therefore it is not possible to determine who is the Glabrio 
mentioned in the tablet as owner of the Pincian villa. The 
palaeography of the inscription seems to pertain to the end of the 
second century, in which a Manius Acilius Glabrio twice obtained 
the consulship. 

The discoveries made by De Rossi in the catacombs of Priscilla 
have thrown an unexpected light on the history of these Acilii 
Glabriones. De Rossi had repeatedly expressed a doubt as to 
whether the Acilii had become Christians at a very early period. 
Thrice he has discussed the problem in his " Bullettino " (1863, 
p. 29; ISe.'), p. 20; 1869, p. 78), but the evidence he was able to 
collect was merely circumstantial. The discovery of a beautiful 
hypogaeum of the second century in the very heart of Priscilla's 
cemetery, containing the tombstone of IManius Acilius Verus and 
Acilia Priscilla, son and daughter of Manius Acilius Glabrio, consul 
A. D. 1.52, proves that the " noblest among the noble " had embraced 
our faith from the first announcement of the gospel in Rome. 


To come back, however, to the Pinciau Hill, we must remark 
that the gardens of the Aciliau family were not confined to the 
narrow limits of the Promenade, but comprised within their present 
boundary line the Villa Medici, a portion of the Villa Borghese, 
and the convent and garden of the Trinita de' Monti. Many 
discoveries have taken place in this vast sm-face of ground, from 
the time of cardinals Riccio di Montepulciano and Ferdinando de' 
]\Iedici to the present day. The accounts left by contemporary 
writers, compared with the existing ruins, enable us to reconstruct 
the general outline of the villa, as well as the detailed plans of 
some of its leading structures. These structures may be classified 
as follows. In the first place, there are the supporting walls of 
the terraces facing the north and the east, afterwards inclosed by 
Aurelian in his line of city walls ; then come the buildings 
connected with the supply, storage, and distribution of water, such 
as nymphaja, reservoirs, aqueducts, fountains, etc. ; thirdly, the 
palace of the Acilian family, and the residences of their servants, 
gardeners, gamekeepers, etc. ; lastly, the wine-cellars, which form 
one of the most interesting features of the estate. 

The substructures facing the east and the north side of the 
rectangle, towards the Villa Borghese, have been mostly concealed 
l)y modern buttresses, raised between 1850 and 1865 by Vescovali. 
They are built of reticulated work, with edges of small tufa 
blocks, a style of construction which is considered especially 
characteristic of the time of Sulla. Their surface is corrugated 
by a luimber of niches, with buttresses projecting between them, 
so as to give to the whole construction the look of an aqueduct. 
This is probably the reason why, in a document of 10"26, edited by 
Tommasetti, the substructures are called (jli arcioni (the arcades). 

In the second decade of this century. Count Tournon, prefect 
of the Napoleonic department of the Tiber, aided by Valadier and 
other eminent artists, laid out the plans for turning the vineyards, 
then belonging to the Augustinian monks of S. Maria del Popolo,^ 
into a public promenade. The works began in 1812, on the 
slope facing the Campus Martins, and were watched by Giuseppe 
Guattani, to whom the archaeological interests of the enterprise 
had been intrusted. 

1 Tlicro aru two relics left of this ri//n<i dei Frati del Popolo : two old 
umbrella pines which mark the site of one of the gates opening on a side lane. 
They are to be seen not far from the fountain of Moses in the inner garden, 
and are conspicuous in the spring from the rich mass of climbing roses which 
covers their trunks. 



He asserts that he saw remains of the same substructure walls 
all along this western slope, from S. Maria del Popolo to the 
Vicolo del Borghetto : there were two lines of them, one above the 
other ; the lower terrace contained no trace of buildings, the upper 


one was covered by a network of reticulated walls. The best and 
most elaborate part, however, of these substructures has been seen 
and described, and can still be faintly traced, in the garden of the 
Sacro Cuore by the Trinita de' Monti, under the gardener's house. 
Lucio Fauno describes this part as a " gran f abbrica antica, a guisa 
d' un mezzo cerchio che e gia per andare in rovina." Pirro Ligorio 
adds tliat the hemicycle opened toward the west, that it measured 
llOU feet (326.70 metres) in diameter, and that it was profusely 
ornamented with colonnades, staircases, fountains, niches, and 
statuary. The nymphaeum or " Parnaso " of the Villa Aldobran- 
dini at Frascati, designed by Giacomo della Porta, although smaller 
in size, may give an idea of the magnificent hemicycle of the 
Acilian gardens (Fig. 163). Ligorio ends his description by saying, 
" questo luogo e rovinato e dal tempo e da li frati della Trinita." 

A plan of these ruins, now concealed from view, has been given 
in the " Bull, com." of 1891, pi. v., vi. The best way of examin- 
ing those left standing on the side of the Villa Borghese is to 
walk along the Via delle ]Mm'a from the Porta del Popolo to the 
Porta Pinciana. This lovely walk gives the student an opportun- 
ity of observing also that strange relic, called the " ]Muro Torto," 
which marks the northeast corner of the gardens. In the Middle 



Fig. 1C4. —The Substructures of the Gardens of the Acilii Glabriones on the Pincian. 
A Sketch by Valadier. 

Ages women of ill fame were buried at the foot of the Muro Torto, 
and in more recent times men and women who had refused reli- 
gious help on the scaffold. 

I have in my collection of drawings an original sketch by 
Valadier (here reproduced. Fig. 164) which shows how beautifully 
preserved the substructures were when he undertook to transform 


the Vigna dei Frati Agostiniani into the present Passeggiata. 
The walls were lined by masses of evergreens, an overhanging 
forest which was periodically leased or sold by the Camera Capi- 
tolina to dealers in charcoal or firewood. I have seen a lease 
dated September 11, 1716, by which the S. P. Q. R. allows a cer- 
tain Francesco Battaglia " di cioccare, ripulire, e liberare tutte le 
mura da porta del Popolo sino a p. Piuciana, da radiche spine, 
licini, ellere, ed altro," on condition that the three largest ilex 
trees shonld be left to the Camera. 

Waterworks. — The highest point of the Pincian hill is 
marked by a conical monnd called II Parnaso or Belvedere di 
Villa Medici, from which Karl Sprosse designed in 1817 his beau- 
tiful panorama of the city. The mound is an artificial one : it is 
the work of Cardinal Riccio da Montei^ulciano, who took advan- 
tage of some existing ruins to form a foundation for his belvedere. 
The ruins are marked in early maps of Rome under the name 
of "the Temple of the Sun." A drawing of Sallustio Peruzzi 
(Uffizi, n. 665) shows that the would-be Temple of the Sun was 
simply a nymphaeum, like the one of the Sallustian gardens, and 
the so-called ]\Iinerva INledica of the Licinian park. It was orna- 
mented with fourteen niches or fountains, and towei-ed high above 
an extensive and elaborate system of waterworks. It stood on a 
line with the hemicycle the remains of which have been described 
above, and it is possible that, as in the case of the Villa Aldo- 
brandini at Frascati, masses of water rushed down in graceful 
cascades from the nymphseum to the terraces below. 

Other masses of water, for the irrigation of the estate, were 
carried by means of underground channels and leaden pipes to a 
reservoir, which is still partially in use. The reservoir is exca- 
vated in the rock, and consists of galleries six feet wide, and seven 
and a half high, intersecting each other at right angles. When I 
descended for the first time into these ci-ypts, on June 12, 1876, 
only twenty-one galleries were accessible, of which ten ran from 
southwest to northeast, eleven in the opposite direction. Far 
more numerous are those made inaccessible by the crumbling 
down of the roof or by the hands of the monks. " On the Pin- 
cian hill," relates Pietro Sante Bartoli, " there was a large reser- 
voir of water, half destroyed by certain monks (the Augustinians 
of S. Maria del Popolo) to turn it into a wine-cellar. The de- 
struction proved to be useless, because the crypts are too warm 
for the preservation of wine." Two galleries, 80 metres long, 
connect this labyrinth with a piscina on which the modern Casino 


is built. The piscina — now used as a storeroom for the tools of 
the gardeners — is composed of two parts : one, 30 metres by 10, 
which was capable of holding 1200 cubic metres of water; the 
other held only 200.i 

The palace of the owners occupied that portion of the modern 
promenade which stretches between the "Viale deU' Obelisco" 
and the northern boundary wall of the Villa Medici. Its centi-e 
is marked by the piscina just described, viz., by Valadier's Casino, 
where the gardeners are stationed, and which, of late years, has 
partially been turned into a restaurant. The buildings faced the 
southwest with a frontage line of 230 metres. The style of 
masonry was the reticulated, with but little mixture of brickwork. 
The plastering of the walls was of the finest quality, composed of 
marble dust and lime. The pavements were inlaid with mosaic 
either monochrome or in colors, and the apartments were painted 
in the so-called Pompeian style, with polychrome figures on ver- 
milion or black grounds. There were bathrooms, with hot-air 
pipes radiating from the furnace or hypocaustum below ; coi*ridors 
and galleries, the floors of which were not laid horizontally, but 
inclined like the one which leads down to Mfecenas' hall in the 
Via Merulana ; rooms with cornices and panels elegantly carved 
in gilt stucco ; others with a dado inlaid in alabast*?r, porphyry, 
serpentine, and other precious marbles ; remains of porticoes, per- 
istyles, and colonnades with pieces of columns of alabaster and 
pavonazzetto ; capitals of the composite order ; a colossal head of 
Niobe ; and a torso of Cupid. All these things were found in 
1812. In the spring of the following year the excavations were 
continued near and behind the apse of S. Maria del Popolo ; and 
here also many apartments were excavated with i:»ainted walls, 
mosaic pavements, marble incrustations, and so forth. One of 
the leading features of this excavation was the large quantity 
of seashells found among the rubbish which leveled up the 
ground over the ruins. They were examined by Brocchi, who 
decided that they had nothing to do with the geology of the 
Pincian hill, but that they had simply been used as a decoration 
for fountains and artificial grottoes. 

Wine-cellars. — The Via delle Mura (between the Porta del 
Popolo and the Muro Torto) is separated from the foot of the 

1 The entrance to these crypts (not accessible to the public) is on the east 
side of the Casino, on the right of the little fountain. In February, 1881, 
other galleries were discovered and destroyed right under the wall of the 
Villa Medici. 


substructures by a strip of land, which, I think, is now occupied 
by a nursery for trees and shrubs belonging to high latitudes, as 
the place is naturally cold and shaded from the sun even in the 
height of summer. This northern aspect of the slope made it 
especially suitable for the establishment of wine-cellars and caves, 
which, as every one knows, constituted one of the most important 
sections of a Roman villa. And here they have been found. The 
discovery took place more than a century ago, and was fortunately 
witnessed by a careful archteologist, Seroux d'Agincourt, who 
describes it in p. 45 of his " Recueil des fragments de sculpture 
antique en terre cuite." 

Here is a free translation of his graphic account. " At the 
foot of the walls of Rome, between the Porta del Popolo and the 
gate of the Villa Borghese under the Muro Torto, a small stair- 
case composed of eight or nine steps was discovered in 1789, in an 
excavation seven feet deep. This staircase led to a room eighteen 
feet long, five and a half feet wide, paved with a tessellated floor 
in black and white of a strange design. The walls and the ceil- 
ing were decorated with fresco paintings in arabesque style, rep- 
resenting festoons and birds of various kinds, with a tasteful coi*- 
nice carved in stucco. Next to this chamber there was another 
of nearly the same size, but without ornaments. Opening on this 
second apartment was a crypt of the same height extending to- 
wards the Muro Torto for a length of eighty or ninety feet. The 
second room was not paved : its floor was covered with loose sand 
into which amphorae of the largest size were fixed upright. I be- 
lieve these terra-cotta jars to have been used for holding wine or 
even precious liqueurs. They stood round the walls in a single 
row. The long gallery, on the contrary, contained an infinite 
quantity of earthen jars, ranged in parallel lines, all in a stand- 
ing position, as their peculiar shape required. Although they 
belonged to the class of wine amphorse or diotce, still tlie variety 
of their forms, and even more the variety of the objects found in 
them at the time of the discovery, leaves us rather perplexed as 
to their primitive use. One of the vases contained water in a 
sufficiently pure state. In another were found some little heads 
of terra-cotta, a hand cai'ved in ivory, glass and terra-cotta per- 
fume bottles shaped like (the so-called) lachrymatories. In a third, 
bones of oxen expressly cut and sawn to go through the narrow 
neck of these receptacles. In a fourth skeletons, heads, jaws, ver- 
tebrae, bones of different animals, such as lizards, serpents, small 
quadrupeds, and even scales of fish. Others contained needles 


of ivory and metal, hairpins, medals, and coins. The initials 
M. D. S. were impressed on the handle of several jars, and on the 
neck of one the maker's name, matvri. I could not find on any 
vase the names of consids marking the date of the year in which 
the liquid had been sealed into them. Nothing could throw any 
light on their history, or tell me why and how these miscellaneous 
objects should be found mixed together in such a manner as to 
give an idea of those superstitious incantations and evocations of 
infernal spirits which — under one form or another — have been 
practiced by credulous people from remote times iip to the present 
day. On the floor of the crypt, and buried deep in the sand, an 
object was found which looked like the top or handle of a walk- 
ing-stick; it was made of glass or enamel, with that iridescent 
patina which gives to such things the look of mother-of-pearl. I 
would mention, lastly, fragments of terra-cotta lamps, dishes, and 
cups, and some bricks bearing the mark ex off